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This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 104 No. 2, p. 466-472
    Received: Oct 10, 2011

    * Corresponding author(s): twalker@drec.msstate.edu
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Nitrogen Sources and Timing Effects on Nitrogen Loss and Uptake in Delayed Flood Rice

  1. K. A. Dillona,
  2. T. W. Walker *b,
  3. D. L. Harrellc,
  4. L. J. Krutzc,
  5. J. J. Varcod,
  6. C. H. Kogere and
  7. M. S. Coxd
  1. a Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech, 330 Smyth Hall (0404), Blacksburg, VA 24061
    b Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center, P.O. Box 197, Stoneville, MS 38776
    c Louisiana State University Agricultural Center Rice Research Station, 1373 Caffey Road, Rayne, LA 70578
    d Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Box 9555 117 Dorman Hall, Mississippi State, MS 39762
    e Syngenta, 112 Meadowlark Lane, Indianola, MS 38751. Published with the approval of the Director of the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station as publication number J-12096. This research was funded in part by the Mississippi Rice Promotion Board and the Louisiana Rice Research Board


Field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 in Louisiana and Mississippi to evaluate ammonia volatilization loss and subsequent effects on apparent nitrogen recovery efficiency (ANRE) and grain yield for rice (Oryza sativa L.). A semi-open static chamber approach was used to measure ammonia volatilization loss from multiple N sources applied 10 days before flood (dbf) at the rate of 168 kg N ha−1. Cumulative ammonia volatilization losses for urea for Louisiana environments were 19 and 33% compared to 7% for both Mississippi environments. Urea + [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide] (NBPT), urea + NBPT + dicyandiamide (DCD), and ammonium sulfate (AS) all minimized volatilization losses over all environments (range of 1.9–4.9%). Additionally, ammonia volatilization data fitted to the Gompertz model demonstrated that urea + NBPT and urea + NBPT + DCD had longer lag phases (7.2–7.7 d) relative to urea, AS, and urea + ammonium sulfate (UAS) blend (3.6 d). The same N sources and rate of N was applied 10, 7, 4, and 1 dbf to determine the effects on ANRE and yield. Apparent N recovery efficiency ranged from 43 to 71%. Grain yield was influenced by application time for two environments. Nitrogen application 10 dbf resulted in the least grain yield and yields tended to increase with fewer days between application and permanent flood. In Louisiana, urea + NBPT and urea + NBPT + DCD resulted in yields greater than urea alone. Where volatilization potential is substantial, NBPT should be included with the urea application to protect yield potential.

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