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Agronomy Journal Abstract -

Soil Heating Studies with Cool Season Turfgrasses. III. Methods for the Establishment of Turf with Seed and Sod during the Winter1


This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 63 No. 5, p. 686-689
    Received: Apr 29, 1970

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  1. F. B. Ledeboer,
  2. C. R. Skogley and
  3. C. G. McKiel2



Turf establishment methods using seed and sod transplants were investigated on electrically heated soil during two winters. Five turfgrass species were seeded on March 3, 1968, in plots maintained at 4.4, 10.0 and 15.5 C soil temperatures. Plots were half covered with a black polypropylene screen giving 55% shade. Treatments produced similar responses in all grasses. Germination time was reduced by increasing soil temperature and adding cover. Response differences between 10 and 15 C were smaller than between 4 and l0 C. ‘Manhattan’ perennial ryegrass germinated first under all treatments and established most rapidly. Following germination, cover influenced grass development more than did soil temperature. Regardless of soil temperature, grasses in open plots developed slowly until mid April. During early grass establishment, cover effect was magnified by increased soil temperatures.

‘Merion’ Ky. bluegrass sod rooted better at 8 C than at 6 C. Rooting was inhibited by shade, but foliar growth increased. Medium shade (55%) did not cause serious rooting inhibition. Shade effects were increased by increasing temperatures. N treatments produced better rooting in open plots, but under shade, N decreased rooting. Practically no rooting occurred under 73% shade.

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