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  1. Vol. 70 No. 2, p. 282-286
     

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doi:10.2134/agronj1978.00021962007000020016x

Residual Effects of N Fertilization on Dryland Spring Wheat in the Northern Plains. II. Fate of Fertilizer N1

  1. J. Alessi and
  2. J. F. Power2

Abstract

Abstract

Residual effects of fertilizer application on the fate of fertilizer N applied to crops in semiarid regions are largely unknown. Objectives of this study were to provide information on the recovery of fertilizer N during the fertilization and residual periods and to develop an N balance sheet for a continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system.

Ammonium nitrate was applied to spring wheat at 0 to 540 kg N/ha rate either (i) all in 1 year, (ii) one-third in each of 3 years, or (iii) one-sixth in each of 6 years to evaluate the availability and fate of fertilizer N in a dryland cropping system. Only grain was removed during harvest, and straw was plowed under each spring. Grain N uptake accounted for 31 to 46% of the total fertilizer N applied at 270 and 540 kg N/ha rate for various timing frequency. Fertilizer N uptake in straw and root biomass at the end of the experiment averaged 5 and 26 kg/ha, respectively. Movement of NO3-N below the 90- cm depth (leaching) was detected for the 270 kg N/ha treatment, whether this total amount was applied all in 1 year, or 90 kg N/ha was applied in each for 3 years. However, with an annual application of 45 kg N/ha for 6 continuous years very little leaching of NO3-N occurred. The amount of fertilizer N that moved beyond the root zone was greater at 540 than at 270 kg N/ha. Leaching of fertilizer N below 90 cm accounted for 4 to 37% of the total fertilizer applied, with greatest leaching occurring For the 1-year treatment and least for the 6-year treatment. Loss of N by runoff was negligible. The percent fertilizer N accounted for [(total fertilizer accountable ÷ total fertilizer applied) × 100] averaged 62, 64, and 66 for 1, 3, and 6-year treatments, respectively. Unaccounted for fertilizer N possibly consisted of that portion of fertilizer N immobilized in soil organic fractions resistant to decomposition and that lost by volatilization. Results showed that if the N rate is adequate for maximum crop production, fertilizer efficiency is greatest when N is applied annually rather than at higher rates less frequently.

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