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This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 75 No. 6, p. 1041-1046
    Received: Feb 18, 1983

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Fall Sod-Seeding of Ladino Clover into Tall Fescue as Influenced by Time of Seeding, and Grass and Insect Suppression1

  1. D. D. Rogers,
  2. D. S. Chamblee,
  3. J. P. Mueller and
  4. W. V. Campbell2



Grass competition and insect damage may detrimentally influence establishment of forage legumes sod-seeded into perennial grass swards. The objective of this study was to quantify and evaluate the effects of seeding date, grass suppression, and insects on fall establishment of ‘Tillman’ ladino clover (Trifolium repens L.) into tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) sods. Four field experiments were conducted during 3 years on a Typic Hapludult or an Ultic Hapludalf soil in the North Carolina Piedmont. Paraquat (1, 1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium ion) for sod suppression and granular carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) for insect control were not applied or were applied at 0.28 and 3.7 kg ha−1, respectively, at two seeding dates (early-September or mid-October) in a 23 factorial combination. Measurements were made of clover stand, insect damage, and dry matter production. Prevalent insects were identified. Much more insect damage was observed from September than from October seedings. During a 9-day period shortly after the September seeding in Exp. 4 an 82% reduction in clover density was measured in plots not treated with insecticide. Clover establishment and 1st-year dry matter production were often greatly increased by combining sod suppression with insect control at seeding compared with use of either practice alone. In Exp. 1 for example, seasonal yields of September-seeded clover were 2564 and 1079 kg ha−1 for paraquat and carbofuran used alone, respectively, and 5568 kg ha−1 when used in combination. Check plots yielded 183 kg ha−1. Good winter survival was obtained from October sod seedings although the majority of clover seedlings (75 to 83%) had developed only one trifoliolate leaf by early December in three of the four trials. We conclude that the use of both an insecticide and a grass suppressant may be necessary for successful establishment of ladino clover into a tall fescue sward under some conditions and that mid-October is a good alternative to early-September as a seeding date during years of low moisture and high insect populations in September.

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