Market Grade Effects on Fatty Acid Composition of Five Peanut Cultivars
- R. W. Mozingo ,
- T. A. Coffelt and
- J. C. Wynne
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds are sized into market grades before processing into manufactured products. Therefore, manufacturers need to consider the effect of market grade and cultivar on fatty acid composition and storage quality. Previous studies have not considered the effect of market grade on oil quality. Sized seed of five Virginia-type peanut cultivars grown in field plots at the Peanut Belt Research Station in Lewiston, NC, on a Norfolk sandy loam soil (Typic Paleudults), and at the Tidewater Agricultural Experiment Station in Suffolk, VA, on an Eunola loamy fine sand soil (Aquic Hapludults) for 3 yr (1982–1984) were evaluated for fatty acid composition. Seed of ‘NC 7’, ‘VA 81B’, ‘NC 6’, ‘Florigiant’, and ‘GK 3’ were sized into three shelled market grades (extra large, medium, and No. 1) for analysis. Significant differences were observed among cultivars for all fatty acids, oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio, and computed iodine value. A change in market grades from No. 1 to medium to extra large resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of stearic, oleic, and arachidic acids and a significant decrease in the percentage of palmitic, Hnoleic, eicosenoic, behenic, and lignoceric acids. Significantly lower computed iodine values and significantly higher O/L ratios were recorded for the larger size seed. Significant environment × cultivar interactions were recorded for iodine value, O/L ratio, and all fatty acids except palmitic and oleic. Environment × market grade interactions were significant for all fatty acids, O/L ratio, and iodine value. Significant cultivar × market grade interactions were obtained for palmitic, oleic, and Hnoleic acids, iodine value, and O/L ratio. These results show market grade, cultivar, and environment affect fatty acid composition, computed iodine value, and O/L ratio. Larger size seed produced fatty acid distribution, iodine values, and O/L ratios that indicated better stability and longer shelf-life of the peanut.
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