Sunflower Genotype Response to Photoperiod and Temperature in Field Environments
- P. J. Goyne,
- A. A. Schneiter ,
- K. C. Cleary,
- R. A. Creelman,
- W. D. Stegmeier and
- F. J. Wooding
- Q ueensland Dep. of Primary Ind., Hermitage Res. Stn., via Warwick, Queensland 4370 Australia
C rop and Weed Sci. Dep., North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND 58105
O akland, CA
T exas A&M, Weslaco, TX
F ort Hays Branch, Kansas State Univ., Hays, KS 67601
D iv. Plant and Animal Sci., Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99701
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is cultivated over a wide range of photoperiod and temperature conditions. The objective of this research was to determine the response of 16 diverse sunflower genotypes to varying photoperiod and temperature. Field research sites were at five locations including Argentina, Alaska, and Hawaii. The photoperiod (daylength + twilight hours) at vegetative emergence (VE) for most sites, except Hawaii and Alaska, ranged from 14.5 to 16.2 h. Within this range there was no evidence that photoperiod affected the time from VE to bud visible stage (Rl). Instead, differences in temperature at various sites were responsible for differing rates of development. However, the short photoperiods at VE at Hawaii (1 1.2 h) decreased development rate and long photoperiods at Alaska (24 h) increased development rate dramatically. A nonparametric method was applied to rank the genotypes into temperature response groups. Four distinct groups resulted for the VE to R1 growth stage intervals, which were classed as very quick, quick, medium, and slow with respect to the time taken to reach R1 from VE. Four groups also resulted for the R1 to anthesis (R5.1) time period. The groups for R1 to R5.1 differed from those for VE to Rl. Genotypes within these groups were dissimilar to those for VE to R1. It was concluded that models used to predict phenological development in sunflower could be based on temperature alone provided photoperiod was within the 14.5 to 16.2 h range, To predict development outside this photoperiod range would require photoperiod be included in the model.
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