About Us | Help Videos | Contact Us | Subscriptions

Agronomy Journal Abstract -

Core Cultivation of a Putting Green with Hollow and Solid Tines


This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 85 No. 1, p. 1-9
    Received: Dec 31, 1990

    * Corresponding author(s):
Request Permissions

  1. J.A. Murphy ,
  2. P.E. Rieke and
  3. A.E. Erickson
  1. Dep. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824



Most turfgrass soil cultivation research has emphasized water infiltration and thatch responses, but has provided limited information regarding detailed soil and rooting responses to different cultivation methods. This study evaluated cultivation effects on soil physical properties and turf growth of a ‘Penneagle’ creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) putting green. Cultivation, utilizing vertically operating hollow (HTC) or solid (STC) tines, was applied over a 3-yr period on a loamy sand soil (modified fine-loamy, mixed, mesic, Typic Hapludalfs). Cultivation treatments were applied on noncompacted and compacted plots, and at soil moisture potential ranges of −40 to −60 kPa (moist) or −2 to −4 kPa (wet). Saturated water conductivity and air porosity was 49 and 21% greater, respectively, with HTC than STC. After three seasons, wet soil cultivation reduced saturated hydraulic conductivity 31% compared to moist soil cultivation. Cultivation reduced penetration resistance 45% at the 5-cm depth compared to noncultivated plots in compacted soil, but the benefit was transient particularly on STC plots. Hollow tine cultivation under wet soil conditions yielded the best turf quality. Surface root weight density was lowered 20% with cultivation on compacted soil by the end of the study. Hollow tine cultivation lowered the organic matter fraction of the thatch/mat layer 0.24 kg kg−1, but increased total organic matter content 150 g m−2 compared to solid tine cultivation. Solid tine cultivation provided short term benefits, required repeated application to be effective in management of soil compaction, and exhibited the potential for development of a cultivation pan.

Acknowledgment is made to the U.S. Golf Association, the Michigan Turfgrass Foundation, and the Michigan Agric. Exp. Stn. for support of this research. Part of a thesis submitted by the senior author in partial fulfillment of the M.S. degree.

  Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.

Copyright © .