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This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 86 No. 6, p. 1107-1113
     
    Received: July 12, 1993


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doi:10.2134/agronj1994.00021962008600060034x

Simulated Hail Damage to Rice: I. Susceptible Growth Stages

  1. Paul A. Counce ,
  2. Bobby R. Wells and
  3. Richard J. Norman
  1. N ortheast Res. and Ext. Ctr., Univ. of Arkansas, P.O. Box 48, Keiser, AR 72351
    D ept. of Agronomy, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701
    R ice Res. & Ext. Ctr., Univ. of Arkansas, Stuttgart, AR 72160

Abstract

Abstract

Hail damage often occurs to rice (Oryza sativa L.) and crop insurance adjusters need guidelines to assess likely yield reductions. Moreover, defoliation and other types of crop damage can also occur from insects and wind and potential yield effects need to be determined for crop management decisions. Field experiments designed to evaluate effects of simulated hail damage were conducted on a Crowley silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Typic Albaqualfs) near Stuttgart, AR, from 1980 through 1984. Treatments began with attempts to simulate hail damage and were refined over time based on data from earlier studies. Preflood N fertilization treatments were tested to determine whether vegetative defoliation yield reductions could be remedial. Simulated hail damage at vegetative growth stages resulted in highly variable yield responses. In one treatment, however, leaf removal prior to reproductive growth was remedied by additional preflood N. Significant yield reductions were consistently found for simulated hail damage treatments during reproductive stages of growth. The most severe damage resulted from defoliation followed by culm severing; the least damage was caused by culm bending. These experiments established that yield losses from simulated hail damage could be documented for four stages of growth (panicle initiation, booting, heading, and some time during grain-filling) for three different kinds of damage (leaf removal, culm severing, and culm bending).

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