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This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 86 No. 6, p. 1113-1118
     
    Received: July 12, 1993


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doi:10.2134/agronj1994.00021962008600060035x

Simulated Hail Damage to Rice: II. Effects during Four Reproductive Growth Stages

  1. Paul A. Counce ,
  2. Bobby R. Wells,
  3. Richard J. Norman and
  4. Jeff Leong
  1. N ortheast Res. & Ext. Ctr., Univ. of Arkansas, Arkansas, Keiser, AR 72351
    D ep. of Agronomy, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701
    R ice Res. & Ext. Ctr, Univ. of Arkansas, Stuttgart, AR 72160

Abstract

Abstract

Knowledge of grain yield responses to simulated hail damage is useful in assessing hail damage, assessing similar types of damage, and better understanding crop biology. In previous experiments, we determined that reproductive stages of rice (Oryza saliva L.) development were most sensitive to damage. Objectives of this study were to delineate grain yield effects of simulated hail damage during critical reproductive growth stages at which various components of yield are set. Field experiments were conducted on a Crowley silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Typic Albaqualfs) in 1985 and 1986 using the cultivar Lebonnet. At four reproductive growth stages, yield loss was determined from these three treatments: (i) removal of the top 1, 2, and 3 fully expanded leaves, (ii) bending of 10, 20, or 40% of culms, and (iii) severing of 10, 20, or 40% of culms. All three types of damage were significant at some level of intensity at all four growth stages. The largest yield reductions resulted from leaf removal. Leaf removal resulted in the greatest amount of yield reduction at booting and heading, with less damage from leaf removal 14 d after heading and least damage from leaf removal at panicle initiation (PI). Yields were reduced as more leaves were removed. Culm severing caused less yield reduction than leaf removal and the least yield reductions resulted from culm bending. Culm severing was progressively more damaging to yield as the rice developed through the season and reductions were similar to those found for leaf removal at 14 d after heading. Culm bending was found to be significantly damaging to yield except at the 10% treatment levels at heading and 14 d after heading. Despite apparently extreme damage treatments, rice yields were reduced by <15% in response to most of the treatments imposed. Consequently, the rice crop has considerable ability to compensate for physical damage due in part to the unique biology of the rice plant.

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