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Agronomy Journal Abstract - AGROCLIMATOLOGY

Temperature Regime and Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Alter Cotton Boll Development and Fiber Properties


This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 91 No. 5, p. 851-858
    Received: Aug 20, 1998

    * Corresponding author(s): krreddy@ra.msstate.edu
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  1. K. Raja Reddy *a,
  2. Gayle H. Davidonisb,
  3. Ann S. Johnsonb and
  4. Bryan T. Vinyardb
  1. a Dep. of Plant and Soil Sciences, Box 9555, Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS 39762 USA
    b USDA-ARS Southern Regional Res. Ctr., 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., P.O. Box 19687, New Orleans, LA 70179 USA


Temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] affect cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development, but the interaction of these two factors on boll and fiber properties has not been studied. An experiment was conducted in naturally lit plant growth chambers to determine the influence of temperature and atmospheric [CO2] on cotton (cv. DPL-51) boll and fiber growth parameters. Five temperature regimes were evaluated: the 1995 temperature at Mississippi State, MS; the 1995 temperature minus 2°C; and the 1995 temperature plus 2, 5, and 7°C. Daily and seasonal variation and amplitudes were maintained. Atmospheric [CO2] treatments were 360 (ambient) and 720 μL L−1 Boll number, boll growth, and fiber properties were measured. Boll size and maturation periods decreased as temperature increased. Boll growth increased with temperature to 25°C and then declined at the highest temperature. Boll maturation period, size, and growth rates were not affected by atmospheric [CO2]. The most temperature-sensitive aspect of cotton development is boll retention. Almost no bolls were retained to maturity at 1995 plus 5 or 7°C, but squares and bolls were continuously produced even at those high temperatures. Therefore, the upper limit for cotton boll survival is 32°C, or 5°C warmer than the 1995 U.S. Mid-South ambient temperatures. The 720 μL L−1 atmospheric [CO2] had about 40% more squares and bolls across temperatures than the 360 μL L−1 [CO2]. Fibers were longer when bolls grew at less than optimal temperatures (25°C) for boll growth. As temperature increased, fiber length distributions were more uniform. Fiber fineness and maturity increased linearly with the increase in temperature up to 26°C, but decreased at 32°C. Short-fiber content declined linearly from 17 to 26°C, but was higher at higher temperature. As for boll growth and developmental parameters, elevated atmospheric [CO2] did not affect any of the fiber parameters. Changes in temperature, however, had a dramatic effect on boll set and fiber properties. The relationships between temperature and boll growth and developmental rate functions and fiber properties provide the necessary functional parameters to build fiber models under optimum water and nutrient conditions.

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