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This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 99 No. 5, p. 1219-1225
     
    Received: Oct 30, 2006


    * Corresponding author(s): singh@kimberly.uidaho.edu
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doi:10.2134/agronj2006.0301

Drought Resistance in the Race Durango Dry Bean Landraces and Cultivars

  1. Shree P. Singh *
  1. Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences Dep., Univ. of Idaho, 3793 North 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341-5076

Abstract

Increasing water deficit or drought is a problem for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the western USA. Identification of drought-resistant cultivars is crucial for sustainable production in the region. The objectives of this study were to (i) measure the effects of drought on seed yield, seed weight, and days to maturity; (ii) determine correlation among the three traits in drought-stressed (DS) and nonstressed (NS) environments; and (iii) identify drought-resistant dry bean landraces and cultivars. Three landraces and 17 cultivars of race Durango were evaluated in DS and NS environments. Drought intensity index ranged from 0.32 to 0.88. There was a mean reduction in yield of 60% due to drought stress. Also, seed weight was reduced by 14% and maturity was reduced by 4 d in DS. Yield, seed weight, and maturity in NS and DS were positively correlated, and so were seed weight and maturity in NS and DS. But, the DS yield was negatively correlated with seed weight in both DS and NS. The ability to detect yield differences among 20 genotypes decreased with increasing drought stress. Cultivars Viva, NW 63, UI 239, and Common Red Mexican landrace had high yield in both DS and NS and below average reduction in yield due to DS, thus, exhibiting drought resistance. Buster, UI 126, and UI 465 were most susceptible. The frequency and timing of irrigation for the four drought-resistant genotypes should be determined and breeding, genetics, and physiology research intensified to maximize yield and water use efficiency in the western USA, which is facing increasing water shortage.

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