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Particle-size distribution of the root zone materials used in the study.

 
Weight of sand retained on sieves with nominal openings 0.053–4 mm
Material Clay Silt 0.053 0.106 0.15 0.25 0.5 1 2 4
%
Hallet mason sand 0 0.1 0.3 1.1 7.3 32.8 45.9 10.6 1.9 0
Hallet concrete sand 0 0.1 0.2 0.8 6.6 22.3 35.8 16.8 11.9 5.6
Sidley Pro/Angle 0 0.5 1.5 4.0 13.9 28.4 35.1 15.5 1.1 0
Bunker white 0 0 0.1 0.4 5.0 73.7 20.8 0 0 0
Hallet mason sand/15% soil v/v 1 5.5 1.4 4.1 32.2 46.0 8.5 1.1 0.3 0



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Physical properties of the sand-based materials used in this study.

 
Material Origin Visual evaluation PD† AR‡ CU§ GI¶ RI# BD††
g cm−3 degree g cm−3
Hallet mason sand mined sand subround, medium sphericity 2.72 36.4 2.56 3.89 1.61 1.56 1.61
Hallet concrete sand mined sand subround, medium sphericity 2.72 38.9 3.14 43.75 1.58 1.73 1.82
Sidley Pro/Angle crushed stone angular, low sphericity 2.70 37.0 3.33 17.14 2.38 1.55 1.57
Bunker white crushed stone round, medium sphericity 2.77 34.0 1.54 2.56 1.53 1.74 1.75
Hallet mason sand/15% soil v/v 2.67 36.4 2.18 6.43 1.55 1.62
LSD (0.05) 0.01 1.3 0.08 0.16 1.1 0.04 0.05
PD, particle density.
AR, angle at repose.
§ CU, coefficient of uniformity.
GI, gradation index.
# RI, roughness index.
†† BD, bulk density was measured at the beginning and end of the consolidation stage before planting.



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Soil properties and turf quality measured in July 2005 on established turf of ‘Unique’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) established from seed and sod.

 
Water content† Bulk density Cone resistance MD‡ Traction Turf quality§
Root zone materials Seed Sod Seed Sod Seed Sod Seed Sod Seed Sod Seed Sod
% (v/v) g cm−3 k Pa ms−2 Nm
Hallet mason sand 12.32 12.05 1.58 1.60 758.4 804.4 250.3 234.6 45.7 47.0 7.0 6.7
Hallet concrete sand 11.64 9.48 1.75 1.80 735.4 804.4 289.1 235.9 41.0 49.0 7.3 7.0
Sidley Pro/Angle 9.68 9.29 1.56 1.58 873.3 976.8 357.1 314.4 57.3 59.7 7.7 7.3
Bunker white 7.42 7.41 1.72 1.76 723.9 701.0 249.0 221.9 39.7 42.3 5.0 6.0
Hallet mason sand/15% soil (v/v) 17.30 18.44 1.54 1.58 758.4 873.3 335.7 279.9 53.7 61.0 7.7 7.0
LSD (0.05) 4.87 2.73 0.05 0.06 61.6 52.3 55.0 50.6 6.9 11.8 1.4 0.6
Water content data were combined from 2002 to 2005 on established turf within 24 h after water saturation.
MD, maximum deceleration in m s−2 is 9.81 times a nonSystem International (SI) unit, Gmax
§ Turf quality was based on a 9 to 1 scale, with 9 as the best, 1 as the worst, and 6 as the minimum acceptable level.



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Analysis of variance of surface stability parameters of different soil root zone materials before turf establishment.

 
Mean square
df Water content Bulk density Maximum deceleration† Cone resistance‡
Blocks 2 20.92** 0.00 207.58 3,610.69
Root zone materials 4 130.08** 0.03** 7,301.10** 99,238.48**
Error 8 2.21 0.00 107.87 787.51
CV, % 12.54 1.75 6.39 2.73
Measured with a B&K 2500 vibration equipment (Brüel & Kjær North America Inc., Norcross, GA) using a 2.25 kg impact hammer with one drop from 0.3-m height.
Measured with an American Corps Engineering cone penetrometer (Standard angle 30 degree, surface area 6.5 cm2).



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Analysis of variance of turf surface stability parameters and influencing factors

 
Mean square
df Water content Cone resistance† MD‡ Traction Biomass§ OM¶ Quality# BK††
Blocks (B) 2 0.01** 6932.58** 2284.17** 6.53 0.31** 0.42 0.63 0
Root zone materials (M) 4 0.01** 22639.82** 11297.63** 367.20** 0.27** 0.14 3.87** 0.06**
B × M 8 0.01** 1137 1455.55** 45.45** 0.03* 0.14 0.34 0.00
Establishment (E) 1 0.00 28879.14** 11343.94** 140.83** 0.47** 0.02 0.13 0.00**
M × E 4 0.00 19074.49** 444.03 14.33 0.01 0.09 0.63 0.00
Error 10 0.00 713.07 143.43 8.93 0.01 0.13 0.33 0.00
CV (%) 9.61 3.33 4.33 6.02 6.21 18.48 8.41 0.88
** Significant at the 0.01 probability level.
Measured with an American Corps Engineering cone penetrometer (Standard angle 30 degree, surface area 6.5 cm2).
Maximum deceleration measured with a B&K 2500 vibration equipment (Brüel & Kjær North America Inc. Norcross, GA) using a 2.25 kg impact hammer with one drop from 0.3-m height.
§ Aboveground dry weight.
Organic matter in the mat layer.
# Turf quality assessed based on a 9 to 1 scale, with 9 as the best, 1 as dead grass, and 6 as the minimum acceptable level.
†† Soil bulk density.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Relationship between surface stability parameters and soil water content, root biomass, and organic matter in mat layer of established turf of ‘Unique’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) grown from seed and sod.

 
Seed Sod
Equation† R 2 Equation R 2
Cone penetration resistance
 Hallet mason sand Y = 1186.3 + 13.7X 1 – 578.6X 2 + 118.3X 3 0.93 Y = 1221.9 – 228.0X 2 0.68
 Hallet concrete sand Y = 1265.8 – 21.4X 1 – 94.8X 2 0.88 ns‡
 Sidley Pro/Angle Y = 1717.0 – 411.8X 2 – 164.9X 3 0.81 Y = 1794.5 – 9.0X 1 – 410.4X 2 – 43.5X 3 0.77
 Bunker white ns ns
 Hallet mason sand/15% soil v/v Y = 942.4 – 131.9X 2 0.68 Y = 919.7 – 168.0X 2 + 77.9X 3 0.86
Maximum deceleration
 Hallet mason sand Y = 112.5 + 61.2X 2 + 26.4X 3 0.91 ns
 Hallet concrete sand Y = 83.0 + 11.9X 1 – 57.1X 2 + 23.8X 3 0.98 Y = 105.7 + 6.5X 1 – 25.1X 2 + 10.7X 3 0.73
  Sidley Pro/Angle Y = 49.6 + 170.6X 2 + 46.6X 3 0.89 Y = 102.9 + 94.6X 2 + 23.1X 3 0.47
 Bunker white Y = 93.8 + 3.8X 1 – 86.8X 2 + 92.9X 3 0.94 Y = 141.3 + 45.6X 2 0.59
 Hallet mason sand/15% soil v/v Y = 34.6 + 4.7X 1 + 119.3X 3 0.94 Y = 7.4 + 3.4X 1 + 62.7X 2 + 36.7X 3 0.47
Traction
 Hallet mason sand ns ns
 Hallet concrete sand ns Y = 37.0 + 0.3X 1 + 5.3X 2 0.55
 Sidley Pro/Angle Y = 36.9 + 10.4X 2 + 3.7X 3 0.72 Y = 35.5 + 13.8X 2 + 1.4X 3 0.62
 Bunker white ns NS
 Hallet mason sand/15% soil v/v Y = 37.9 + 5.9X 2 + 3.8X 3 0.69 Y = 20.2 + 0.75X 1 + 12.3X 2 + 2.2X 3 0.66
Y represents cone penetration resistance, maximum deceleration, and traction, respectively. X 1 = soil water content, X 2 = root biomass, and X 3 = organic matter in the mat layer.
ns = not significant.