View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Specifications and timings of cultural practice treatments used on a mature ultradwarf bermudagrass golf green, 2007–2008.

 
Treatment Timing Spacing Depth Width Surface area impacted Sand applied
cm % m3 ha−1
Control†
Hollow tine aerification 1 time yr−1: May 5.1 7.6 1.6 7.7 47.3
Hollow tine aerification 2 times yr−1: May, July 5.1 7.6 1.6 15.4 94.6
Hollow tine aerification 3 times yr−1: March, May, July 5.1 7.6 1.6 23.1 141.9
Verticutting 3 times yr−1: March, May, July 1.3 2.5 0.2 46.8 48.8§
Solid tine aerification 5 times yr−1: March–July 5.1 7.6‡ 1.0 15.7 39.6¶
All treatments received grooming 32 times yearly, and an additional 42.7 m3 (4.3 mm) USGA-specified sand ha−1 yr−1
Tine depth was 10.2 cm in 2007.
§ Topdressing was increased to 91.5 m3 ha−1 in 2008.
Topdressing was decreased to 30.5 m3 ha−1 in 2008.



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Effect of cultural practice treatments on turfgrass quality of a mature ultradwarf bermudagrass golf green in 2007: postrecovery data shown.

 
Turfgrass quality (1–10)‡
Treatment† 5 July 12 July 5 Oct. 12 Oct. 16 Nov.
Control 7.2 b§ 7.2 b 7.5 b 7.5 b 7.2 b
HTA (1 time yr−1) 7.3 b 7.2 b 7.5 b 7.5 b 6.9 c
HTA (2 times yr−1) 7.4 b 7.2 b 7.5 b 7.5 b 7.2 b
HTA (3 times yr−1) 7.4 b 7.4 b 7.5 b 7.5 b 7.0 bc
VC (3 times yr−1) 7.8 a 7.9 a 7.7 a 7.9 a 7.5 a
STA (5 times yr−1) 6.4 c 6.4 c 7.5 b 7.5 b 7.2 bc
LSD 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.24
HTA = hollow tine aerification; STA = solid tine aerification; VC = verticutting.
Turfgrass quality ratings: 1 = dead, 6 = minimum acceptable, and 10 = best color and density.
§ Mean estimates, averaged over cultivars, with same letter within column are not statistically different at the 0.05 significance level based on the Tukey-Kramer method.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Effect of cultural practice treatments on turfgrass quality of a mature ultradwarf bermudagrass golf green in 2008: postrecovery data shown.

 
Turfgrass quality (1–10 scale)‡
Treatment† 4 July 11 July 18 July 25 July
Control 6.1 b§ 5.5 b 6.0 bc 6.2 c
HTA (1 time yr−1) 6.1 b 5.7 b 6.0 c 6.2 c
HTA (2 times yr−1) 6.5 ab 5.8 b 6.1 bc 6.5 bc
HTA (3 times yr−1) 6.7 a 6.5 a 6.5 ab 6.8 ab
VC (3 times yr−1) 6.9 a 6.7 a 6.7 a 7.0 a
STA (5 times yr−1) 6.5 ab 6.1 ab 6.5 abc 6.2 c
LSD 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5
HTA = hollow tine aerification; STA = solid tine aerification; VC = verticutting.
Turfgrass quality ratings: 1–10 (1 = dead, 6 = minimum acceptable, and 10 = best color and density).
§ Mean estimates, averaged over cultivars, with same letter within column are not statistically different at the 0.05 significance level based on the Tukey-Kramer method.



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Surface compressibility (Volkmeter) and turfgrass scalping on a mature ultradwarf bermudagrass golf green from 2007–2008.

 
Volkmeter‡ Scalping (1–10)§
Treatment† 2007 2008 2007 2008
cm
Control 1.68 a¶ 1.44 a 2.2 a 4.5 a
HTA (1 time yr−1) 1.63 a 1.44 a 2.3 a 4.2 a
HTA (2 times yr−1) 1.56 b 1.42 a 2.1 a 3.7 a
HTA (3 times yr−1) 1.50 c 1.35 b 2.0 a 3.6 a
VC (3 times yr−1) 1.42 d 1.27 c 1.2 b 2.0 b
STA (5 times yr−1) 1.52 bc 1.37 b 2.2 a 3.8 a
LSD 0.05 0.04 0.59 1.39
Cultivar
 Champion 1.56 a 1.37 a 2.4 a 3.5 a
 TifEagle 1.54 a 1.39 a 1.6 b 3.8 a
 LSD 0.03 0.04 0.25 0.66
HTA = hollow tine aerification; STA = solid tine aerification; VC = verticutting.
Grand means from measurements taken weekly from initiation of yearly treatments until recovery from all treatments was complete.
§ Measurements were taken when mowing caused scalping damage. Scalping: 1–10 (1 = none, and 10 = complete loss of turfgrass cover).
Mean estimates with same letter within column are not statistically different at the 0.05 significance level based on the Kenward-Roger method.



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Saturated hydraulic conductivity (K sat) for cultural practice treatments and cultivars on a mature ultradwarf bermudagrass golf green from 2007–2008.

 
K sat
2007 2008
Treatment Initial Final Initial Final
cm h−1
Control 19.5 a‡ 18.9 b 3.0 b 5.1 ab
HTA§ (1 time yr−1) 21.5 a 28.7 ab 6.5 ab 9.7 ab
HTA (2 times yr−1) 18.9 a 34.5 ab 4.5 b 16.9 a
HTA (3 times yr−1) 25.3 a 40.2 a 10.5 a 16.2 ab
VC§ (3 times yr−1) 16.4 a 20.9 ab 2.7 b 3.1 b
STA§ (5 times yr−1) 21.8 a 40.2 a 4.9 b 5.9 ab
LSD 19.5 20.9 5.2 13.5
Cultivar
 Champion 25.1 a 26.7 a 5.9 a 10.6 a
 TifEagle 16.1 b 34.5 a 4.9 a 8.3 a
 LSD 7.1 12.2 2.5 2.9
Initial measurements were taken before application of treatments. Final measurements were taken after all yearly treatments were applied and the green allowed to recover.
Mean estimates with same letter within column are not statistically different at the 0.05 significance level based on the Tukey-Kramer method.
§ HTA = hollow tine aerification; STA = solid tine aerification; VC = verticutting.



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Macropore space for cultural practice treatments and cultivars on a mature ultradwarf bermudagrass golf green from 2007–2008.

 
Macropore space†
2007 2008
Treatment Initial Final Initial Final
%
Control 14.1 a‡ 16.9 ab 9.3 ab 4.1 ab
HTA§ (1 time yr−1) 12.9 a 17.3 ab 10.0 ab 3.5 ab
HTA (2 times yr−1) 12.8 a 19.2 a 10.8 a 5.2 a
HTA (3 times yr−1) 13.3 a 19.3 a 11.2 a 4.7 a
VC§ (3 times yr−1) 12.4 a 15.8 b 8.1 b 2.5 b
STA§ (5 times yr−1) 14.1 a 18.7 ab 10.0 ab 3.4 ab
LSD 2.7 3.1 2.4 2.1
Cultivar
 Champion 13.8 a 18.2 a 10.5 a 3.7 a
 TifEagle 12.7 a 17.5 a 9.3 a 4.1 a
 LSD 3.4 1.1 1.3 1.1
Initial levels were determined before initiation of yearly treatments. Final levels were determined after all yearly treatments were applied and the green allowed to recover.
Mean estimates with same letter within column are not statistically different at 0.05 significance level based on the Tukey-Kramer method.
§ HTA = hollow tine aerification; STA = solid tine aerification; VC = verticutting.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Root weights for cultural practice treatments and cultivars on a mature ultradwarf bermudagrass golf green from 2007–2008.

 
Root weight†
Treatment 2007 2008
g
Control 7.5 ab‡ 15.0 a
HTA (1 time yr−1) 7.1 ab 15.3 a
HTA (2 times yr−1) 6.8 ab 15.8 a
HTA (3 times yr−1) 7.2 ab 14.4 a
VC (3 times yr−1) 8.7 a 17.1 a
STA (5 times yr−1) 6.3 b 13.0 a
LSD 2.1 4.6
Cultivar
 Champion 8.0 a 15.0 a
 TifEagle 6.6 a 15.2 a
 LSD 2.0 2.7
Measurements were taken after all yearly treatments were applied and the green allowed to recover. Root weights were determined from 15-cm deep soil cores.
Mean estimates with same letter within column are not statistically different at the 0.05 significance level based on the Tukey-Kramer method.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

Volumetric water content (θ) and localized dry spot (LDS) for cultural practice treatments and cultivars on a mature ultradwarf bermudagrass golf green from 2007–2008.†

 
θ§ LDS (1–10 scale)¶
Treatment‡ 2007 2008 2007 2008
%
Control 35.8 a# 24.3 a 3.9 b 3.4 bc
HTA (1 time yr−1) 32.1 ab 21.1 ab 5.6 ab 3.4 bc
HTA (2 times yr−1) 32.9 ab 18.1 b 5.2 ab 4.1 b
HTA (3 times yr−1) 28.9 b 17.7 b 6.3 a 5.9 a
VC (3 times yr−1) 35.7 a 23.5 a 1.5 c 2.1 c
STA (5 times yr−1) 31.6 ab 21.0 ab 4.8 ab 3.5 bc
LSD 4.5 4.1 2.3 1.6
Cultivar
 Champion 32.1 a 20.7 a 5.0 a 3.9 a
 TifEagle 33.5 a 21.2 a 4.0 a 3.5 a
 LSD 2.2 2.4 1.2 1.3
Measurements were taken at the end of each year after LDS symptoms developed following withholding of irrigation.
HTA = hollow tine aerification; STA = solid tine aerification; VC = verticutting.
§ Measurements were taken at a 6-cm depth.
LDS ratings: 1 = least, 10 = most symptoms.
# Mean estimates with same letter within column are not statistically different at the 0.05 significance level based on the Tukey-Kramer method.



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Total pore space for cultural practice treatments and cultivars on a mature ultradwarf bermudagrass golf green from 2007–2008.

 
Total pore space†
2007 2008
Treatment Initial Final Initial Final
%
Control 51.7 a‡ 53.1 b 52.8 a 51.6 a
HTA (1 time yr−1) 50.7 a 54.1 ab 54.4 a 50.6 a
HTA (2 times yr−1) 51.8 a 54.9 ab 54.2 a 51.7 a
HTA (3 times yr−1) 52.2 a 56.1 a 54.9 a 50.4 a
Verticutting (3 times yr−1) 52.0 a 54.0 ab 54.5 a 49.4 a
STA (5 times yr−1) 52.0 a 54.6 ab 54.6 a 50.1 a
LSD 1.6 2.8 2.7 3.2
Cultivar
 Champion 53.3 a 55.6 a 54.9 a 50.7 a
 TifEagle 50.2 b 53.3 a 53.5 a 50.5 a
 LSD 1.4 2.5 1.6 1.7
Initial levels were determined before initiation of yearly treatments. Final levels were determined after all yearly treatments were applied and the green allowed to recover.
Mean estimates with same letter within column are not statistically different, at 0.05 significance level based on the Tukey-Kramer method.



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Mat organic matter depth, and concentration for cultural practice treatments and cultivars on a mature ultradwarf bermudagrass golf green from 2007–2008.

 
Mat depth‡
2007 2008 2008
Treatment† Initial Final Initial Final Final
cm % LOI§
Control 1.67 a¶ 1.65 a 1.02 a 0.80 a 10.07 a
HTA (1 time yr−1) 1.73 a 1.60 a 1.02 a 0.85 a 9.68 a
HTA (2 times yr−1) 1.67 a 1.65 a 1.04 a 0.85 a 8.14 b
HTA (3 times yr−1) 1.77 a 1.71 a 0.94 a 0.88 a 6.74 c
VC (3 times yr−1) 1.75 a 1.56 a 0.98 a 0.75 a 7.46 bc
STA (5 times yr−1) 1.69 a 1.67 a 0.88 a 0.79 a 9.33 a
LSD 0.27 0.19 0.17 0.22 0.92
Cultivar
 Champion 1.67 a 1.63 a 1.00 a 0.82 a 9.21 a
 TifEagle 1.76 a 1.65 a 0.96 a 0.82 a 7.93 b
 LSD 0.18 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.34
HTA = hollow tine aerification; STA = solid tine aerification; VC = verticutting.
Initial levels were determined before initiation of yearly treatments. Final measurements were taken after all treatments were applied and the green allowed to recover.
§ LOI = loss on ignition.
Mean estimates with same letter within column are not statistically different at 0.05 significance level based on the Tukey-Kramer method.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 11.

Soil organic matter for cultural practice treatments and cultivars for a mature ultradwarf bermudagrass golf green from 2007–2008.

 
Soil organic matter‡
2007 2008
Treatment† Initial Final Initial Final
% LOI§
Control 4.6 a¶ 4.2 a 3.8 a 4.3 a
HTA (1 time yr−1) 4.8 a 3.6 a 3.6 a 4.0 ab
HTA (2 times yr−1) 4.8 a 3.8 a 3.4 a 3.8 b
HTA (3 times yr−1) 4.6 a 3.4 a 3.4 a 3.6 b
VC (3 times yr−1) 4.5 a 4.0 a 3.7 a 4.1 ab
STA (5 times yr−1) 5.2 a 4.1 a 3.7 a 3.8 b
LSD 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.5
Cultivar
 Champion 4.6 a 3.8 a 3.7 a 4.0 a
 TifEagle 4.9 a 3.9 a 3.5 a 3.9 a
 LSD 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4
HTA = hollow tine aerification; STA = solid tine aerification; VC = verticutting.
Initial concentrations were determined before initiation of yearly treatments. Final concentrations were determined after all yearly treatments were applied and the green allowed to recover.
§ LOI = loss on ignition.
Mean estimates with same letter within column are not statistically different at 0.05 significance level based on the Tukey-Kramer method.