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Treatment description.

 
Treatment Description
Simulated abrasion (Exp. 1)
Unabraded Not subjected to any abrasion.
10% Release Abrasion calibrated to 10% N release in water after 7d at 23°C
20% Release Abrasion calibrated to 20% N release in water after 7d at 23°C
30% Release Abrasion calibrated to 30% N release in water after 7d at 23°C
40% Release Abrasion calibrated to 40% N release in water after 7d at 23°C
50% Release Abrasion calibrated to 50% N release in water after 7d at 23°C
60% Release Abrasion calibrated to 60% N release in water after 7d at 23°C
70% Release Abrasion calibrated to 70% N release in water after 7d at 23°C
80% Release Abrasion calibrated to 80% N release in water after 7d at 23°C
Retail and farm handling (Exp. 2)
Retail handling
Blender ESN loaded from blending unit not previously cleaned, or blender “polished” with 10 t of potash before loading
Farm handling
Drill-fill ESN loaded into implement using auger-style drill-fill or pulled directly from mini-bulk tote bag without using drill-fill
Delivery methods
ConservaPak air drill ESN retrieved from fertilizer shank exit of each boot at high and medium fan speeds
Flexi-Coil Easy Flow delivery system ESN retrieved from shank exit of each boot, or header-manifold by-passed and product retrieved from calibration tube
Drop spreader “Barber” drop-spreader set at high rate or medium rate openings
Valmar air boom Granular applicator ESN retrieved from each exit point on boom at high and low fan speed settings.
Control No delivery method employed.



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Influence of retailer and on-farm handling on environmentally smart nitrogen (ESN) release rates.

 
% N released
Treatment (23°C H2O after 7d)
Retailer blender × On-farm drill-fill × Farm implement
ESN Thru Dirty Blender (no. 1) × Drill-fill (ADF) × Control 33
ESN no. 1 × ADF × Barber drop spreader low rate 35
ESN no. 1 × ADF × Barber drop spreader high rate 33
ESN no. 1 × ADF × Flexi-Coil bypass–No manifold 42
ESN no. 1 × ADF × Flexi-Coil Easy Flow header–Manifold 61
ESN no. 1 × ADF × ConservaPak low fan speed 31
ESN no. 1 × ADF × ConservaPak high fan speed 40
ESN no. 1 × ADF × Valmar low fan speed 43
ESN no. 1 × ADF × Valmar high fan speed 44
ESN Thru Clean Blender (no. 2) × Drill-fill (ADF) × Control 22
ESN no. 2 × ADF × Barber drop spreader low rate 27
ESN no. 2 × ADF × Barber drop spreader high rate 24
ESN no. 2 × ADF × Flexi-Coil bypass–No manifold 31
ESN no. 2 × ADF × Flexi-Coil Easy Flow header–Manifold 53
ESN no. 2 × ADF × ConservaPak low fan speed 30
ESN no. 2 × ADF × ConservaPak high fan speed 39
ESN no. 2 × ADF × Valmar low fan speed 34
ESN no. 2 × ADF × Valmar high fan speed 34
Clean ESN thru cone-Style plot seeder 7



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Influence of increased rates of seed-placed N release on canola caused by coating abrasions to environmentally smart nitrogen (ESN), Lethbridge, AB, Canada; 2008 to 2011.

 
Treatment Factor Grain yield Early season vigor Late season vigor NDVI (Zadoks 31) NDVI (Zadoks 37) Leaf area index Stand establishment
kg ha−1 plants m−2
Lab abrasion unabraded 2031 3.2 3.5 0.35 0.61 1.59 97
10% release 1852 3.0 3.2 0.36 0.63 1.53 103
20% release 1731 3.1 3.2 0.35 0.62 1.50 99
30% release 1863 2.8 2.8 0.34 0.62 1.60 88
40% release 1739 2.9 3.0 0.34 0.63 1.34 89
50% release 1694 2.6 2.9 0.34 0.61 1.56 85
60% release 1995 2.4 2.5 0.32 0.62 1.62 75
70% release 1644 2.0 2.1 0.30 0.59 1.30 60
80% release 1634 2.0 2.2 0.31 0.61 1.21 68
SED 465 0.3 0.3 0.05 0.06 0.40 16
P > F 0.1745 0.0071 0.0041 0.0044 0.5421 0.2342 <0.0001
LSD 0.05 1.2 1.2 0.05 26
Contrasts linear 0.0477 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.1107 0.0441 <0.0001
(P > F) quadratic 0.7499 0.3320 0.6452 0.1732 0.3013 0.2691 0.2642
cubic 0.1106 0.8509 0.8970 0.5580 0.4829 0.2329 0.1994



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Influence of increased rates of seed-placed N release on winter cereals caused by coating abrasions to environmentally smart nitrogen (ESN), Lethbridge, AB, Canada; 2008 to 2011.

 
Winter cereals
Winter wheat
Winter triticale
Treatment Factor Grain yield Grain protein Stand establishment Spike density Spikes per plant Grain yield Grain protein Stand establishment Spike density Spikes per plant
kg ha−1 % plants m−2 spikes m−2 kg ha−1 % plants m−2 spikes m−2
Lab Abrasion unabraded 9843 10.8 223 597 3.6 8081 11.7 197 428 3.1
10% release 9670 10.7 223 564 3.3 7531 11.5 186 419 3.0
20% release 9014 11.0 192 559 3.8 9104 11.2 169 413 3.1
30% release 9621 10.7 213 540 3.5 7699 11.4 179 399 2.9
40% release 9312 10.5 205 600 3.8 7713 11.5 184 402 3.0
50% release 9621 11.1 183 530 3.9 6443 12.2 181 392 3.2
60% release 9247 10.8 172 567 5.2 7507 11.9 164 416 3.3
70% release 9786 10.9 152 481 4.1 7076 12.5 142 370 3.8
80% release 10154 11.1 160 546 4.9 7275 11.8 124 359 3.4
SED 1866 1.0 37 48 0.5 1280 1.6 46 82 0.7
P > F 0.2630 0.6382 0.0007 0.0501 0.0006 0.1778 0.4574 0.0225 0.7378 0.3658
LSD 0.05 52 105 1.3 66
Contrasts linear 0.3690 0.2893 <0.0001 0.0147 <0.0001 0.0451 0.0767 0.0006 0.0767 0.0534
(P > F) quadratic 0.0282 0.4834 0.5021 0.9053 0.2342 0.8708 0.7571 0.0986 0.7088 0.2258
cubic 0.9565 0.8721 0.6390 0.8291 0.2422 0.1793 0.1098 0.1234 0.5173 0.4161



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Influence of increased rates of seed-placed N release on winter cereals caused by coating abrasions to environmentally smart nitrogen (ESN), Lethbridge, AB, Canada; 2008 to 2011.

 
Winter cereals
Winter wheat
Winter triticale
Treatment Factor Early season vigor Late season vigor NDVI (Zadoks 31) NDVI (Zadoks 37) Leaf area index Early season vigor Late season vigor NDVI (Zadoks 31) NDVI (Zadoks 37) Leaf Area Index
Lab Abrasion unabraded 4.5 4.7 0.52 0.79 3.29 4.3 4.3 0.53 0.78 2.83
10% release 4.4 4.3 0.51 0.82 3.01 4.1 4.3 0.52 0.76 2.63
20% release 4.0 4.0 0.48 0.76 3.27 3.9 4.0 0.51 0.77 2.82
30% release 3.3 3.3 0.46 0.75 2.96 3.3 3.8 0.49 0.75 2.52
40% release 3.2 3.2 0.46 0.75 2.24 3.3 3.3 0.50 0.75 2.52
50% release 2.7 2.8 0.44 0.71 2.22 2.9 3.2 0.46 0.74 2.55
60% release 2.2 2.1 0.39 0.67 2.14 2.6 2.7 0.43 0.72 2.15
70% release 1.4 1.3 0.35 0.61 1.86 1.9 1.9 0.40 0.69 1.92
80% release 1.5 1.7 0.36 0.62 2.39 1.8 2.2 0.38 0.67 1.86
SED 0.3 0.3 0.08 0.02 0.95 0.4 0.4 0.12 0.07 0.39
P > F <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0305 0.0004 <0.0001 0.0013 0.0003 0.0044
LSD 0.05 1.1 1.2 0.08 0.08 1.58 1.7 1.4 0.11 0.07 0.85
Contrasts linear <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0008 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
(P > F) quadratic 0.6875 0.9870 0.3615 0.0435 0.3141 0.6152 0.3542 0.2048 0.0860 0.1550
cubic 0.2391 0.2818 0.3880 0.1157 0.1038 0.9835 0.3112 0.8879 0.6356 0.9631



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Influence of increased rates of seed-placed N release on spring cereals caused by coating abrasions to environmentally smart nitrogen (ESN), Lethbridge, AB, Canada; 2008 to 2011.

 
Spring cereals
Spring wheat
Spring triticale
Treatment Factor Grain yield Grain protein Stand establishment Spike density Spikes per plant Grain yield Grain protein Stand establishment Spike density Spikes per plant
kg ha−1 % plants m−2 spikes m−2 kg ha−1 % plants m−2 spikes m−2
Lab Abrasion unabraded 4407 15.1 159 323 2.9 6280 11.3 168 287 2.1
10% release 4427 15.1 159 364 2.8 6332 11.2 175 295 2.1
20% release 4415 15.1 166 344 2.8 5981 11.1 164 277 2.0
30% release 4423 15.1 145 326 2.9 5994 11.1 158 279 2.1
40% release 4226 15.1 144 307 2.4 6113 11.3 176 304 2.1
50% release 4144 15.1 143 301 2.2 5957 11.1 150 257 2.1
60% release 4143 15.1 130 297 3.9 5706 11.1 152 269 2.2
70% release 3867 15.1 120 286 2.5 5697 11.1 140 269 2.6
80% release 3934 15.1 127 304 3.6 5794 11.1 143 263 2.1
SED 633 0.3 33 52 0.9 889 0.8 30 16 0.5
P > F 0.1628 0.9994 0.0157 0.1797 0.3213 0.0114 0.8680 0.1156 0.1043 0.2147
LSD 0.05 44 618
Contrasts linear 0.0023 0.786 0.0001 0.0093 0.4152 0.0001 0.4229 0.0039 0.0208 0.1020
(P > F) quadratic 0.4430 0.8013 0.6759 0.8420 0.2930 0.6307 0.4240 0.5048 0.7343 0.5559
cubic 0.5379 0.6866 0.2967 0.0869 0.7305 0.7116 0.8930 0.7215 0.6565 0.2683



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Influence of increased rates of seed-placed N release on spring cereals caused by coating abrasions to environmentally smart nitrogen (ESN), Lethbridge, AB, Canada; 2008 to 2011.

 
Spring cereals
Spring wheat
Spring triticale
Treatment Factor Early seasonvigor Late season vigor NDVI (Zadoks 31) NDVI (Zadoks 37) Leaf area index Early season vigor Late season vigor NDVI (Zadoks 31) NDVI (Zadoks 37) Leaf area index
Lab Abrasion unabraded 3.5 3.8 0.37 0.71 1.94 3.4 4.0 0.35 0.69 2.00
10% release 3.6 3.9 0.38 0.70 1.84 3.7 4.2 0.35 0.69 1.89
20% release 3.3 4.0 0.38 0.71 1.93 3.3 4.2 0.34 0.67 1.72
30% release 3.4 4.0 0.38 0.71 1.80 3.1 3.8 0.35 0.70 1.94
40% release 3.3 3.7 0.37 0.70 1.95 3.4 4.2 0.35 0.70 2.12
50% release 2.8 3.5 0.36 0.70 1.90 3.1 3.8 0.34 0.68 2.08
60% release 2.7 3.5 0.34 0.70 1.76 3.1 3.8 0.34 0.70 1.96
70% release 2.4 2.9 0.33 0.67 1.66 2.6 3.4 0.32 0.69 1.89
80% release 2.7 3.1 0.35 0.67 1.88 2.8 3.7 0.32 0.68 1.92
SED 0.5 0.5 0.10 0.04 0.54 0.3 0.3 0.05 0.06 0.36
P > F 0.0066 0.0031 0.0146 0.5802 0.2907 0.0278 0.0488 0.0522 0.6788 0.3662
LSD 0.05 1.1 0.9 0.04 1.0 0.9 0.04
Contrasts linear <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0003 0.0466 0.1238 0.0007 0.0042 0.0014 0.7853 0.7325
(P > F) quadratic 0.7359 0.0961 0.1169 0.2795 0.9928 0.5011 0.3246 0.1783 0.4404 0.4745
cubic 0.1555 0.1956 0.1633 0.9075 0.5256 0.8561 0.2944 0.8714 0.6570 0.1220



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Influence of increased rates of seed-placed N release on Canola caused by coating abrasions to environmentally smart nitrogen (ESN), Lethbridge, AB, Canada; 2008 to 2011.

 
Main effect Implement Grain yield Early season vigor Late season vigor NDVI Zadoks 31) NDVI (Zadoks 37) Leaf areaindex Grain bulk density () Stand establishment
kg ha−1 kg hL−1 plants m−2
Implement (Imp) Control 2286 3.0 3.2 0.36 0.60 1.48 63.7 81
ConservaPak high 2203 2.7 2.9 0.36 0.60 1.43 63.7 74
ConservaPak medium 2417 2.9 3.1 0.37 0.61 1.50 63.5 81
Drop spreader High 2310 2.9 3.0 0.36 0.60 1.34 63.5 79
Drop spreader Medium 2244 3.0 3.1 0.37 0.61 1.41 63.5 82
Flexi-Coil–manifold 2302 2.4 2.6 0.34 0.58 1.39 63.7 65
Flexi-Coil–no Manifold 2461 3.0 3.1 0.37 0.60 1.57 63.6 73
Valmar high 2424 2.8 3.0 0.36 0.61 1.49 63.7 72
Valmar low 2483 2.8 3.0 0.36 0.60 1.53 63.6 73
P > F 0.5672 0.0002 0.0003 0.0158 0.0834 0.1222 0.9586 0.0007
SED 335 0.2 0.2 0.06 0.08 0.33 0.7 14
LSD 0.05 0.42 0.43 0.02 12
Blender (Blen) Clean 2363 2.9 3.1 0.37 0.60 1.52 63.6 77
Dirty 2333 2.7 2.9 0.36 0.60 1.40 63.7 74
P > F 0.6849 0.0238 0.0376 0.0772 0.1463 0.0270 0.5493 0.1402
SED 320 0.2 0.2 0.06 0.08 0.33 0.7 14
LSD 0.05 0.2 0.2 0.01 0.10
Drill-fill Through 2372 2.76 2.98 0.358 0.60 1.47 63.5 75
Not through 2324 2.86 3.02 0.361 0.60 1.45 63.7 76
P > F 0.5033 0.3130 0.6352 0.5013 0.1158 0.7289 0.2325 0.3818
SED 320 0.187 0.185 0.061 0.08 0.33 0.7 14
LSD 0.05
Interactions
(P > F) Imp × Blen 0.0459 0.7914 0.7107 0.0309 0.0526 0.2696 0.6447 0.4193
Imp × Drill-fill 0.4951 0.4841 0.8471 0.9020 0.6440 0.8801 0.5336 0.3927
Blen × Drill-fill 0.7292 0.6682 0.7250 0.1628 0.2590 0.4397 0.5056 0.9120
Imp × Blen × Drill-fill 0.0740 0.1098 0.0392 0.6990 0.2970 0.0813 0.0061 0.4589



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Influence of increased rates of seed-placed N release on winter wheat caused by coating abrasions to environmentally smart nitrogen (ESN), Lethbridge, AB, Canada; 2008 to 2011.

 
Main effect Implement Grain yield Early season vigor Late season vigor NDVI (Zadoks 31) NDVI (Zadoks 37) Leaf area index Grain bulk density Stand establishment
kg ha−1 kg hL−1 plants m−2
Implement (Imp) Control 8999 3.1 3.2 0.49 0.78 3.08 74.3 193
ConservaPak high 9088 2.6 2.8 0.46 0.77 2.61 74.6 185
ConservaPak medium 9005 2.9 2.9 0.47 0.77 2.76 74.6 177
Drop spreader high 8860 3.0 3.2 0.47 0.78 2.93 74.3 184
Drop spreader medium 9230 3.1 3.2 0.48 0.79 2.88 74.8 193
Flexi-Coil–manifold 9317 2.0 2.1 0.43 0.74 2.44 74.7 168
Flexi-Coil–no manifold 8998 2.8 3.0 0.47 0.77 2.70 74.7 193
Valmar high 9100 2.4 2.4 0.46 0.76 2.67 74.5 170
Valmar low 9023 2.7 2.8 0.47 0.77 3.01 74.5 188
P > F 0.8756 0.0002 0.0001 0.0202 0.0355 0.2957 0.8471 0.0046
SED 1452 0.3 0.2 0.11 0.03 1.32 1.7 44
LSD 0.05 0.6 0.6 0.05 0.04 22.8
Blender (Blen) Clean 9117 3.1 3.1 0.47 0.78 2.86 74.6 189
Dirty 9021 2.4 2.5 0.46 0.76 2.72 74.5 177
P > F 0.6383 0.0350 0.0438 0.1106 0.2431 0.3283 0.6027 0.0959
SED 1442 0.2 0.2 0.11 0.03 1.31 1.6 44
LSD 0.05 0.5 0.5
Drill-fill Through 8976 2.6 2.6 0.46 0.77 2.70 74.5 181
Not through 9162 2.9 3.1 0.47 0.77 2.87 74.6 186
P > F 0.4336 0.0882 0.0616 0.1570 0.3217 0.1960 0.7608 0.2930
SED 1442 0.2 0.2 0.11 0.03 1.31 1.6 44
LSD 0.05
Interactions
(P > F) Imp × Blen 0.5931 0.6831 0.6543 0.3325 0.9347 0.2856 0.1801 0.2522
Imp × Drill-fill 0.9592 0.7714 0.6700 0.5918 0.9589 0.3887 0.5516 0.9399
Blen × Drill-fill 0.8082 0.4627 0.7180 0.9504 0.5399 0.9205 0.7269 0.4822
Imp × Blen × Drill-fill 0.0730 0.6789 0.7863 0.9232 0.4226 0.8893 0.9847 0.0455



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Influence of increased rates of seed-placed N release on spring wheat caused by coating abrasions to environmentally smart nitrogen (ESN), Lethbridge, AB, Canada; 2008 to 2011.

 
Main effect Implement Grain yield Early season vigor Late Season vigor NDVI (Zadoks 31) NDVI (Zadoks 37) Leaf area index Grain bulk density Stand establishment
kg ha−1 kg hL−1 plants m−2
Implement (Imp) Control 4708 3.2 3.3 0.37 0.72 2.34 68.3 187
ConservaPak high 4692 3.2 3.2 0.37 0.73 2.34 68.2 183
ConservaPak medium 4789 3.3 3.4 0.37 0.74 2.11 68.1 184
Drop spreader high 4735 3.5 3.6 0.39 0.75 2.34 68.3 183
Drop spreader medium 4655 3.4 3.5 0.38 0.73 2.51 68.4 192
Flexi-Coil–manifold 4644 3.2 3.3 0.37 0.73 2.18 68.0 170
Flexi-Coil–no manifold 4681 3.3 3.3 0.38 0.73 2.33 68.1 179
Valmar high 4598 3.3 3.4 0.38 0.73 2.26 68.2 180
Valmar low 4640 3.2 3.3 0.38 0.73 2.32 68.1 179
P > F 0.5613 0.5798 0.1808 0.4642 0.4289 0.0404 0.3705 0.6786
SED 840 0.3 0.4 0.07 0.06 0.45 47.6 24
LSD 0.05 0.36
Blender (Blen) Clean 4692 3.3 3.4 0.38 0.73 2.27 68.2 185
Dirty 4673 3.2 3.4 0.37 0.73 2.30 68.2 179
P > F 0.6102 0.2480 0.9123 0.3660 0.6880 0.6089 0.4851 0.2978
SED 838 0.3 0.3 0.07 0.06 0.45 47.6 23
LSD 0.05
Drill-fill Through 4683 3.3 3.4 0.38 0.73 2.27 68.2 181
Not through 4682 3.2 3.4 0.38 0.73 2.30 68.2 183
P > F 0.9841 0.2280 0.7761 0.3824 0.6150 0.5596 0.8307 0.7636
SED 838 0.3 0.3 0.07 0.06 0.45 47.6 23
LSD 0.05
Interactions
(P > F) Imp × Blen 0.3156 0.6487 0.6263 0.5633 0.6488 0.0558 0.7012 0.2698
Imp × Drill-fill 0.7329 0.5225 0.8163 0.5076 0.7235 0.9169 0.0994 0.0388
Blen × Drill-fill 0.9377 0.3853 0.1828 0.7998 0.6844 0.3461 0.2219 0.5788
Imp × Blen × Drill-fill 0.0651 0.5163 0.1666 0.1569 0.6271 0.9194 0.2590 0.8182