View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

The influence of N and water rates on crop reflectance at the erect growth/stem extension growth stage.

 
N rate Blue
Green
Red
Red edge
NIR†
506–514 563–573 605–515 704–716 753–765 NDVI SI-NDVIwf SI-NDVImz
% Reflectance
0 4.73 7.2 6.59 12.4 35.2 0.71 0.89 0.95
0.25 4.65 7.05 6.36 12.2 37.6 0.74 0.93 0.98
0.5 4.64 7.04 6.36 12.1 38.1 0.74 0.92 0.97
1 4.45 6.77 6.10 11.7 37.6 0.76 0.94 1.00
1.5 4.46 6.75 6.09 11.7 38.3 0.76 0.95 1.00
p 0.13 0.005 0.03 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.03
LSD ns‡ 0.28 0.35 0.40 1.32 0.02 0.03 0.04
Year
2007 3.55 5.83 4.9 11.2 42.9 0.86 0.98 1.00
2008 5.62 8.09 7.2 12.8 31.8 0.62 0.87 0.97
p value 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.008 0.001 0.001 0.02 0.08
Water
Well watered 4.17 6.54 5.7 11.5 38.6 0.78 0.98 0.98
Stressed 5 7.38 5.9 12.5 26.1 0.70 0.87 0.98
p value 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.005 0.008 0.002 0.001 0.8
NIR, near infrared; NDVI, normalized different vegetation index; SI-NDVIwf, ratio between the underfertilized normalized difference vegetation index value and the NDVI value from well fertilized and well watered treatments; SI-NDVImz, ratio between underfertilized normalized difference vegetation index values and NDVI values from well fertilized plots within a water stress treatment.
ns, not significant.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

The influence of N and water treatment on reflectance at the flag leaf growth stage in winter wheat.

 
N rate Blue
Green
Red
Red edge
NIR†
506–514 563–573 605–615 704–716 753–765 NDVI SI-NDVIwf SI-NDVImz
% reflectance
0 3.24 5.68 4.62 9.95 36.3 0.81 0.91 0.94
0.25 3.01 5.35 4.20 9.43 38.7 0.85 0.96 0.98
0.5 2.96 5.25 4.08 9.28 40.3 0.86 0.97 0.99
1 2.95 5.19 4.03 9.16 40.0 0.87 0.97 1.00
1.5 2.92 5.06 3.91 8.90 41.3 0.87 0.97 1.00
p value 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
LSD 0.16 0.23 0.26 0.40 1.87 0.01 0.01 0.02
Year
2007 2.81 4.69 3.62 8.42 39.7 0.88 0.98 0.99
2008 3.22 5.93 4.71 10.30 38.9 0.83 0.94 0.98
p value 0.008 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.24 0.01 0.01 0.64
Water
Well watered 2.64 4.91 3.84 9.13 39.9 0.88 0.99 0.99
Stressed 3.39 5.71 4.49 9.56 38.8 0.83 0.93 0.98
p value 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.03 0.09 0.002 0.002 0.36
NIR, near infrared; NDVI, normalizeddifferent vegetation index; SI-NDVIwf, ratio between the underfertilized normalized difference vegetation index value and the NDVI value from well fertilized and well watered treatments; SI-NDVImz, ratio between underfertilized normalized difference vegetation index values and NDVI values from well fertilized plots within a water stress treatment.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

The influence of N and water treatments on grain yields, yield loss due to water stress (YLWS), yield loss due to nitrogen stress (YLNS), protein, water absorbance, dough stability, and mixing tolerance index (MTI).

 
N rate Yield YLWS YLNS Protein Water absorbance Stability MTI
kg ha−1 g kg−1 min B.U.
0 4087 910 1162 120 540 6.7 29
0.25 4594 622 951 129 543 8.2 22.1
0.5 4662 699 821 136 545 10.0 18.0
1 4991 628 556 143 549 10.2 17.3
1.5 5019 675 488 149 555 11.3 16.1
p value 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
LSD 180 133 194 3 4 1.6 5.4
Year
2007 4174 522 814 143 560 8.8 20.8
2008 5167 892 777 127 534 9.7 20.2
0.01 0.01 0.70 0.004 0.002 0.4 0.8
Water
Well watered 4922 593 658 134 547 9.1 20.7
Stressed 4419 820 933 137 547 9.5 20.3
p value 0.007 0.01 0.04 0.1 0.96 0.4 0.79
B.U., Brabender units.