View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Location, soil series, soil taxonomy, crop history, planting and harvest dates, and manure history for 21 starter N trial sites in New York.

 
Site County Predominant soil
Previous crops Planting date Harvest date Manure history†
Trial year
Soil series Soil taxonomy Application rate and method
Manure N Side-dress N
Trial year 1 yr prior 2 yr prior
m3 ha–1 kg N ha–1
1 Cayuga Lima fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs corn, 2005–2008 12 May 2009 13 Nov. 2009 75 spring aerator 75 spring aerator 89 spring aerator 174 0
2 Cayuga Lima fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs corn, 2005–2008 12 May 2009 13 Nov. 2009 75 spring chisel 75 spring chisel 89 spring chisel 174 0
3 Cayuga Lima fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs corn, 2005–2008 12 May 2009 13 Nov. 2009 none none none 0 134
4 Cayuga Lima fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs corn, 2005–2008 12 May 2009 13 Nov. 2009 75 spring surface 75 spring surface 89 spring surface 88 0
5 Cayuga Lima fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs corn, 2005–2008 11 May 2010 31 Aug. 2010 75 spring aerator 75 spring aerator 75 spring aerator 122 0
6 Cayuga Lima fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs corn, 2005–2009 11 May 2010 31 Aug. 2010 75 spring chisel 75 spring chisel 75 spring chisel 122 0
7 Cayuga Lima fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs corn, 2005–2009 11 May 2010 31 Aug. 2010 none none none 0 90
8 Cayuga Lima fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs corn, 2005–2009 11 May 2010 31 Aug. 2010 75 spring surface 75 spring surface 75 spring surface 35 0
9 Steuben Howard loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic Glossoboric Hapludalfs alfalfa–grass, 2007; corn, 2008–2009 7 May 2010 26 Aug. 2010 47 spring chisel 47 spring chisel 47 spring chisel NA‡ 0
10 Washington Vergennes very fine, illitic, mesic Glossaquic Hapludalfs corn, 2007–2009 28 May 2010 15 Nov. 2010 112 fall and spring disk >5 d 112 fall and spring disk >5 d 94 fall and spring disk >5 d 82 0
11 Columbia Occum coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic Fluventic Dystrochrepts corn, 2007–2009 11 May 2010 8 Sept. 2010 37 spring chisel 45§ spring chisel 45§ spring chisel 111
12 Albany Angola fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aeric Ochraqualfs sod, 2007; corn, 2008–2009 27 May 2010 7 Sept. 2010 94 spring incorporated 37 spring incorporated 239 0
13 Washington Hoosic sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrudepts corn, 2006–2008 5 May 2009 23 Sept. 2009 56 spring incorporated none 94 spring surface 0
14 Rensselaer Occum–Barbour coarse-loamy/coarse-loamy over sandy or sandy skeletal, mesic Fluventic Dystrochrepts sod, 2007; corn, 2008–2009 10 May 2010 7 Sept. 2010 75 spring surface 84 spring surface 84 spring surface 77 0
15 Lewis Croghan sandy, mixed, frigid Aquic Haplorthods corn, 2008–2010 25 May 2011 3 Oct. 2011 56 spring chisel 1 d 56 spring chisel 1 d 56 spring chisel 1 d 67 0
16 Tompkins Hudson fine, illitic, mesic Glossaquic Hapludalfs corn, 2008–2010 14 May 2011 26 Sept. 2011 63 fall injection 69 spring injection 80 fall surface 99 fall and spring injection 161 79
17 St. Lawrence Hogansburg coarse-loamy, mixed, semiactive, frigid Aquic Eutrudepts corn, 2008–2010 13 May 2011 21 Sept. 2011 103 spring injection 137 spring injection 59 summer surface 82 28
18 Steuben Howard loamy-skeletal, mixed, active, mesic Glossic Hapludalfs corn, 2008–2010 12 May 2011 23 Sept. 2011 56§ winter 2011 surface 56§ winter 2010 surface 56§ winter 2009 surface 0
19 St. Lawrence Swanton coarse-loamy over clayey, mixed, nonacid, frigid Aeric Haplaquepts alfalfa–grass, 2007–2008; corn, 2009 4 May 2010 24 Sept. 2010 107 spring injection none 69 fall 2008 surface 143 0
20 St. Lawrence Malone coarse-loamy, mixed, nonacid, frigid Aeric Haplaquepts sod, 2007–2008; corn, 2009 29 May 2010 23 Sept. 2010 19 spring chisel 19 spring chisel 56 summer surface 61
21 Clinton Malone coarse-loamy, mixed, nonacid, frigid Aeric Epiaquepts corn, 2007–2009 10 May 2010 17 Sept. 2010 38§ winter 2009 surface 150 winter 2008 surface 11§ winter 2007 surface 56 80
Manure applied as a slurry unless otherwise indicated.
NA, not available.
§Solid application.
Manure probably applied, missing farm records for application rate and/or manure analysis.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Initial soil fertility status (0–20-cm depth) for each of the 21 sites (means of plot values) included in the starter N project. All soils were analyzed for pH (water), organic matter (OM) by loss-on-ignition, Morgan-extractable P, K, Mg, Ca, Al, Mn, Zn, and Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test (ISNT). Trials at Sites 1 to 4 and 13 were conducted in 2009, at Sites 5 to 12, 14, and 19 to 21 in 2010, and all others in 2011.

 
Morgan-extractable elements†
P K Mg ISNT
Site pH OM Conc. Class Conc. Class Conc. Class Ca Al Mn Zn Conc. Ratio‡ Rating§
g kg–1 mg kg–1 mg kg–1 mg kg–1 mg kg–1 mg kg–1
1 7.8 35 14 high 108 very high 371 very high 2971 6 14 1 264 0.92 D
2 7.8 33 14 high 105 very high 348 very high 2833 6 14 1 252 0.89 D
3 7.7 31 8 high 64 high 331 very high 2636 6 13 <1 224 0.81 D
4 7.8 33 16 high 112 very high 353 very high 2806 5 15 1 252 0.89 D
5 7.7 37 16 high 134 very high 343 very high 2806 5 20 1 257 0.87 D
6 7.7 35 15 high 122 very high 334 very high 2876 5 20 1 248 0.86 D
7 7.7 33 9 high 58 high 312 very high 2738 5 18 <1 230 0.82 D
8 7.7 35 17 high 132 very high 343 very high 2946 5 19 1 245 0.85 D
9 6.1 33 5 high 99 high 222 very high 1069 17 10 <1 235 0.83 D
10 7.0 41 13 high 122 very high 292 very high 2674 18 20 1 247 0.81 D
11 6.4 28 40 very high 389 very high 192 very high 1491 10 27 2 216 0.81 D
12 6.6 35 36 very high 167 very high 162 very high 2214 9 11 1 290 1.01 M
13 6.4 49 47 very high 480 very high 213 very high 1782 15 17 3 336 1.05 M
14 6.9 40 18 high 305 very high 212 very high 1868 14 17 2 315 1.05 M
15 6.2 52 3 medium 131 high 157 very high 1108 71 3 2 314 0.97 M
16 7.4 41 40 very high 234 very high 274 very high 2733 6 29 1 324 1.07 M
17 6.7 41 6 high 107 very high 256 very high 1851 8 23 1 356 1.17 O
18 6.8 53 82 very high 783 very high 367 very high 1690 11 16 2 439 1.35 O
19 7.0 42 8 high 75 medium 462 very high 2616 8 13 1 334 1.09 O
20 7.0 41 8 high 32 low 312 very high 2298 10 11 1 344 1.13 O
21 6.9 43 25 very high 288 very high 275 very high 1717 12 13 2 344 1.12 O
Morgan-extractable P, K, and Mg interpretations are defined in Cornell Cooperative Extension (2012). A soil is classified as medium in soil test P when the Morgan-extractable P is between 2 and 4.5 mg kg–1 high in soil test P with a test result between 4.5 and 20 mg kg–1, and very high when the Morgan soil test P exceeds 20 mg kg–1. Soils are very high in Mg when exceeding 100 mg kg–1. Potassium soil test interpretations depend on soil type, as documented in Ketterings et al. (2003).
ISNT-N/critical ISNT-N ratio, where the critical ISNT-N level for a given soil was determined according to Klapwyk and Ketterings (2006) and Lawrence et al. (2009). ISNT-N was measured in 0–20-cm depth samples taken when the corn was 15–30-cm tall (V4–V6 stage). Test results are classified as “deficient in soil N supply potential” when the ratio is <0.93, “marginal in soil N supply potential” when the ratio is between 0.93 and 1.07, and “optimal in soil N supply potential” with a ratio >1.07.
§O, optimal; M, marginal; D, deficient.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Corn silage dry matter (DM) yield expressed at 650 g kg–1 moisture, moisture content at harvest (MC), corn population, and silage quality response to banded starter N applications at a western New York dairy farm, expressed in terms of milk production estimates per megagram DM and per hectare, crude protein (CP), soluble protein (SP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), digestible neutral detergent fiber at 48 h (dNDF 48h), lignin, and starch contents. Fields received manure injected in the spring at a rate of 85 m3 ha–1.

 
Starter N rate DM yield MC Corn population Milk production† CP SP NDF dNDF 48h Lignin Starch
kg N ha–1 Mg ha–1 g kg–1 plants ha–1 kg Mg–1 kg ha–1 g kg–1 DM g kg–1 NDF g kg–1 DM
Second-year corn after alfalfa (2006)
0 59 a‡ 638 a
34 58 a 652 a
67 58 a 629 a
First-year corn after alfalfa (2007)
0 61 a 595 a 81,400 a 1730 a 37,000 a 62 b 15 a 438 a 701 a 29 a 356 a
34 61 a 597 a 79,600 a 1690 a 36,200 a 67 ab 15 a 460 a 691 a 33 a 329 a
67 62 a 581 a 78,900 a 1680 a 36,500 a 71 a 17 a 463 a 698 a 32 a 325 a
Fourth-year corn after alfalfa (2007)
0 40 a 628 a 79,600 a 1690 a 25,000 a 77 a 21 a 448 a 690 a 32 a 337 a
34 42 a 631 a 78,200 a 1700 a 24,200 a 75 a 20 a 444 a 692 a 31 a 337 a
67 41 a 640 a 80,300 a 1730 a 37,000 a 62 b 15 a 438 a 701 a 29 a 356 a
Milk per megagram and milk per hectare are indicators of overall forage quality estimated using Milk2006 (Shaver, 2006).
Means for starter N rates within a field that are followed by different letters showed a significant change in quality indicators with the use of starter N (P ≤ 0.05).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Pre-sidedress NO3 test N (PSNT-N), end-of-season soil NO3–N, both measured in 0- to 30-cm depth samples, Illinois soil N test N (ISNT-N), measured in 0- to 20-cm depth samples taken when the corn was 15- to 30-cm tall (V4–V6 stage), and cornstalk NO3 test N (CSNT-N) following three rates of banded starter N applications to silage corn at a western New York dairy farm. Manure was injected in the spring at a rate of 85 m3 ha–1 for an estimated available N application of 105 kg N ha–1 for second- and fourth-year corn, and fall-applied at a rate of 39 m3 ha–1 for an estimated 42 kg plant-available N ha–1. Available N estimates assume 35% availability of organic N and 0 and 65% availability of inorganic N for fall application and spring injection, respectively (Ketterings et al., 2003, 2013).

 
Starter N rate ISNT-N PSNT-N CSNT-N End-of-season soil NO3–N
kg N ha–1 mg kg–1
Second-year corn after alfalfa (2006)
0 322 a† 103 a 9774 a 29 a
34 344 a 98 a 9759 a 27 a
67 340 a 105 a 9857 a 33 a
First-year corn after alfalfa (2007)
0 271 a 24 a 302 a 6 a
34 283 a 22 a 391 a 4 a
67 274 a 24 a 308 a 7 a
Fourth-year corn after alfalfa (2007)
0 302 a 37 a 3073 a 12 a
34 291 a 33 a 4119 a 8 a
67 329 a 43 a 2530 a 14 a
Means for starter N rates within a field that are followed by the same letter are not statistically different (P ≤ 0.05).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Corn dry matter (DM) yield expressed at 150 g kg–1 moisture for grain yields (Sites 1-8) or 650 g kg–1 moisture for corn silage harvests (all other sites), moisture content at harvest (MC), corn population, and silage quality expressed in terms of milk production estimates per megagram DM and per hectare, crude protein (CP), soluble protein (SP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), digestible neutral detergent fiber (dNDF), lignin, and starch contents as influenced by starter N applications of 34 kg N ha–1 at planting in 2009 (Sites 1– 8 and 13), 2010 (Sites 5–12, 14, and 19–21), and 2011 (Sites 15–18). Sites 1 to 8 were harvested for grain. All other sites were harvested for corn silage.

 
Site Treatment Yield MC Corn population Milk production CP SP NDF dNDF Lignin Starch
Mg ha–1 g kg–1 plants ha–1 kg Mg–1 DM kg ha–1 g kg–1 DM g kg–1NDF g kg–1 DM
Sites deficient in ISNT-N
1 starter 7.01 a† 182 a 70,600‡
no starter 6.77 a 174 a 70,600‡
2 starter 7.40 a 183 a 72,900‡
no starter 6.54 b 176 a 72,900‡
3 starter 8.96 a 181 a 72,600‡
no starter 7.89 a 190 a 72,600‡
4 starter 6.43 a 185 a 71,300‡
no starter 5.69 a 182 a 71,300‡
5 starter 9.36 a 166 b 68,900 a
no starter 8.61 b 172 a 60,900 b
6 starter 10.00 a 166 a 71,900 a
no starter 9.42 a 169 a 68,800 a
7 starter 10.77 a 169 b 68,100 a
no starter 9.14 b 173 a 59,500 b
8 starter 8.78 a 167 a 68,400 a
no starter 7.80 b 170 a 64,700 a
9 starter 43.0 a 671 a 63,500 a 1720 a 25,900 a 80 a 16 a 464 a 676 a 35 a 293 a
no starter 44.8 a 670 a 63,300 a 1760 a 27,600 a 79 a 16 a 438 a 665 a 33 a 314 a
10 starter 40.3 a 683 a 72,700 a 1800 a 25,300 a 83 a 20 a 393 a 702 a 28 a 345 a
no starter 42.8 a 677 a 72,100 a 1830 a 27,500 a 78 a 19 b 375 a 702 a 27 a 372 a
11 starter 55.3 a 601 a 93,600 a 1680 a 32,500 a 83 a 22 a 470 a 612 a 36 a 287 a
no starter 55.9 a 612 a 92,800 a 1670 a 32,800 a 83 a 24 a 461 a 606 a 35 a 300 a
Sites marginal in ISNT-N
12 starter 42.8 a 650 a 80,000 a 1780 a 26,600 a 78 a 18 a 405 a 698 a 28 a 346 a
no starter 44.8 a 658 a 76,800 a 1780 a 28,000 a 79 a 20 a 396 a 673 a 27 a 356 a
13 starter 56.9 a 673 a 62,100 a 1730 a 34,500 a 83 a 24 a 422 a 652 a 32 a 336 a
no starter 55.8 a 656 a 61,800 a 1710 a 33,400 a 73 b 21 b 425 a 641 a 30 a 347 a
14 starter 47.5 a 596 a 93,700 a 1790 a 29,700 a 78 a 21 a 400 a 643 a 31 a 404 a
no starter 46.1 a 579 a 93,700 a 1760 a 28,500 a 77 a 22 a 411 a 647 a 31 a 386 a
15 starter 47.5 a 585 a 78,300 a 1650 a 27,300 a 63 a 13 a 426 a 608 b 31 a 380 a
no starter 38.5 b 589 a 77,200 a 1640 a 22,100 b 58 a 11 a 444 a 632 a 29 a 362 a
16 starter 39.2 a 590 a 77,400 a 1670 a 22,900 a 91 a 22 a 414 a 795 b 23 a 349 a
no starter 38.1 a 595 a 77,500 a 1690 a 22,500 a 89 a 22 a 416 a 806 a 23 a 348 a
Sites optimal in ISNT-N
17 starter 56.2 a 494 a 81,600 a 1690 b 33,100 a 77 b 19 b 401 a 567 a 32 a 398 a
no starter 54.9 a 587 a 81,500 a 1730 a 33,200 a 80 a 20 a 388 a 582 a 31 a 409 a
18 starter 51.1 a 653 a 77,300 b 1690 a 30,100 a 88 a 24 a 413 a 638 a 32 a 317 a
no starter 54.0 a 659 a 79,800 a 1660 a 31,400 a 90 a 24 a 413 a 625 b 33 a 314 a
19 starter 50.9 a 498 a 75,300 a 1850 a 43,900 a 81 a 17 a 364 a 748 a 24 a 436 a
no starter 49.7 a 501 a 76,500 a 1860 a 43,100 a 81 a 18 a 342 a 721 a 24 a 461 a
20 starter 44.8 a 679 a 75,500 a 1710 a 26,800 a 79 a 21 a 461 a 646 a 35 a 308 a
no starter 47.3 a 665 a 81,700 a 1700 a 28,000 a 76 a 20 a 460 a 631 a 33 a 317 a
21 starter 53.3 a 679 a 78,800 a 1860 a 34,600 a 92 a 25 a 359 b 775 a 24 a 379 a
no starter 52.9 a 689 a 78,000 a 1780 a 33,000 a 89 b 25 a 396 a 770 a 25 a 341 a
Sites with treatment means followed by different letters showed a significant change in quality indicators with the use of starter N (P ≤ 0.05).
Only one stand density (mean of replications) available for combined starter/no starter at this site.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Illinois soil N test (ISNT) ratio and rating, soil NO3–N (0–20- and 0–30-cm depths), pre-sidedress NO3 test (PSNT), and corn stalk NO3 test (CSNT) as influenced by starter N fertilizer (0 vs. 34 kg N ha–1) in corn trials in 2009 (Sites 1–4 and 13), 2010 (Sites 5–12, 14, and 19–21), and 2011 (Sites 15–18).

 
At sidedress time
At harvest
ISNT
NO3–N
PSNT, 0–30 cm§
NO3–N
CSNT¶
Site Ratio† Rating‡ Treatment 0–20 cm Conc. Class 0–20 cm 0–30 cm Conc. Class
mg kg–1 mg kg–1
Sites deficient in ISNT-N
1 0.91 D starter 6 b# 7 a Class 12 b 5 a 94 a deficient
no starter 9 a 8 a deficient 14 a 7 a 90 a deficient
2 0.90 D starter 9 a 12 a deficient 11 b 6 a 94 a deficient
no starter 11 a 9 a deficient 14 a 7 a 105 a deficient
3 0.88 D starter 2 b 6 a deficient 8 a 4 a 160 a deficient††
no starter 6 a 4 a deficient 9 a 5 a 208 a deficient††
4 0.90 D starter 7 a 9 a deficient 10 a 5 a 104 a deficient
no starter 7 a 7 b deficient 13 a 6 a 94 a deficient
5 0.88 D starter 34 a 28 a sufficient 11 a 15 a 182 a deficient
no starter 37 a 28 a sufficient 10 a 17 a 99 a deficient
6 0.86 D starter 32 a 31 a sufficient 11 a 18 a 80 a deficient
no starter 34 a 26 a sufficient 11 a 15 a 89 a deficient
7 0.82 D starter 18 a 14 a deficient 9 a 16 a 827 a optimal††
no starter 18 a 13 a deficient 9 a 14 a 669 a marginal††
8 0.85 D starter 29 a 24 a marginal 11 a 15 a 129 a deficient
no starter 32 a 25 a sufficient 11 a 15 a 83 a deficient
9 0.84 D starter 42 a 57 a sufficient 7 a 7 a 1661 a optimal
no starter 40 a 54 a sufficient 5 a 5 b 463 b marginal
10 0.81 D starter 33 a 33 a sufficient 20 a 33 a 2552 a excess
no starter 33 a 31 a sufficient 16 a 25 a 1174 a optimal
11 0.81 D starter 65 a 52 a sufficient 79 a 44 a 7838 a excess††
no starter 71 a 45 a sufficient 66 a 53 a 5938 a excess††
Sites marginal in ISNT-N
12 1.01 M starter 48 a 31 a sufficient 10 a 10 a 1225 a optimal
no starter 38 a 33 a sufficient 12 a 9 a 818 a optimal
13 1.07 M starter 30 a 34 a sufficient 32 a 27 a 5154 a excess
no starter 26 a 30 a sufficient 24 a 27 a 5017 a excess
14 1.05 M starter 62 a 55 a sufficient 21 a 18 a 10135 a excess
no starter 59 a 53 a sufficient 13 b 11 a 9164 a excess
15 0.97 M starter 19 a deficient 704 a marginal
no starter 20 a deficient 762 a optimal
16 1.07 M starter 21 a marginal 2129 a excess††
no starter 19 a deficient 1308 a optimal††
Sites optimal in ISNT-N
17 1.17 O starter 20 a deficient 2970 a excess††
no starter 21 a marginal 1353 b optimal††
18 1.35 O starter 48 a sufficient 3449 a excess
no starter 44 a sufficient 5872 a excess
19 1.10 O starter 40 a 29 a sufficient 15 a 14 a 4817 a excess
no starter 41 a 33 a sufficient 16 a 16 a 4164 a excess
20 1.13 O starter 27 a 25 a sufficient 19 a 16 a 4484 a excess††
no starter 29 a 27 a sufficient 19 a 16 a 4599 a excess††
21 1.12 O starter 21 a 24 a marginal 34 a 24 a 9326 a excess††
no starter 25 a 23 a marginal 45 a 33 a 10051 a excess††
ISNT-N/critical ISNT-N ratio, where the critical ISNT-N level for a given soil was determined according to Klapwyk and Ketterings (2006) and Lawrence et al. (2009). ISNT-N was measured in 0–20-cm depth samples taken when the corn was 15–30-cm tall (V4–V6 stage). Test results are classified as “deficient in soil N supply potential” when the ratio is <0.93, “marginal in soil N supply potential” when the ratio is between 0.93 and 1.07, and “optimal in soil N supply potential” with a ratio >1.07.
O, optimal; M, marginal; D, deficient.
§PSNT-N interpretation: <21 mg kg–1 is deficient; 21–24 mg kg–1 is marginal; >24 mg kg–1 is sufficient (Ketterings et al., 2012).
CSNT-N interpretation: <250 mg kg–1 is deficient; 250–750 mg kg–1 is marginal; 750–2000 mg kg–1 is optimal; >2000 mg kg–1 is excessive (Lawrence et al., 2012).
#Sites with treatment means followed by different letters showed a significant change (P ≤ 0.05) in N indicators with the use of starter N.
††Sidedressed in addition to receiving manure (Sites 11, 16, 17, 20, and 21) or sidedressed with no manure history (Sites 3 and 7).