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Study site weather data from 2009 through 2011.

 
Month 2009
2010
2011
Precipitation Air temperature
Precipitation Air temperature
Precipitation Air temperature
Avg. Max. Min. Avg. Max. Min. Avg. Max. Min.
mm °C mm °C mm °C
April 53.9 15.7 21.8 8.4 0.0 9.6 17.5 3.7 16.3 14.7 21.1 7.0
May 15.2 25.4 29.2 14.6 29.0 20.9 31.1 13.3 18.0 21.2 29.1 14.1
June 144.0 25.7 31.8 18.7 45.4 25.6 32.8 18.7 88.4 26.1 33.1 21.3
July 233.2 26.3 31.7 21.7 31.2 29.0 38.3 22.9 213.8 27.0 33.6 22.9
Aug. 74.7 24.8 30.4 20.5 105 27.2 35.7 21.7 55.4 26.5 31.1 22.5
Sept. 29.0 21.4 27.1 16.4 82 21.8 31.5 12.6 18.2 21.8 30.3 15.2
Oct. 15.0 14.6 22.5 9.0 41.4 12.8 20.2 5.4 28.5 13.3 19.7 7.3
Nov. 28.2 3.0 11.0 0.3 28.2 3.0 11.0 0.3 21.1 5.9 11.6 0.1



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Water quality of irrigation sources used on sand-based creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) putting greens during 2010 and 2011.

 
Water source Statistic pH
EC†
Na
Ca
Mg
K
Total N
Total P
NH3–N
2010 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011
dS m–1 mg L–1
Portable Avg. 7.5 7.7 0.64 0.70 143 143 25 24 21 20 1.7 1.8 2.8 4.1 0.03 0.09 0.2 0.6
SD 0.3 0.2 0.06 0.08 4.5 8.0 4.0 4.0 3.4 3.6 0.2 0.3 1.0 2.0 0.01 0.04 0.1 0.2
Min. 7.0 7.5 0.57 0.57 139 130 18 19 16 16 1.4 1.5 1.1 2.9 0.02 0.04 0.1 0.1
Max. 7.8 7.9 0.70 0.79 150 151 28 30 251 26 1.9 2.2 3.9 8.1 0.04 0.17 0.3 0.8
Secondary Avg. 7.7 7.8 1.03 5.43 578 690 59 60 24 26 21.6 23.2 5.7 6.4 0.37 0.36 0.3 2.0
SD 0.4 0.1 0.04 1.21 11.5 61 6.8 8.1 3.2 4.7 3.6 4.5 1.9 2.5 0.59 0.27 0.1 0.5
Min. 7.3 7.7 0.95 3.30 262 610 49 52 21 19 16.2 18.5 2.6 2.6 0.05 0.13 0.1 1.3
Max. 8.3 7.9 1.07 7.03 590 763 68 70 29 32 24.3 30.0 7.2 9.1 1.42 0.87 0.5 2.6
Tertiary Avg. 7.7 7.7 1.04 1.08 183 197 33 30 22 24 16.1 18.2 5.0 4.3 0.55 0.16 0.9 1.1
SD 0.3 0.2 0.06 0.14 8.5 9.3 4.2 1.8 2.8 5.4 1.3 2.7 1.6 2.0 0.63 0.04 1.1 0.2
Min. 7.2 7.6 0.98 0.93 170 184 29 28 20 16 14.2 15.5 2.1 2.3 0.04 0.11 0.1 0.9
Max. 8.0 8.0 1.11 1.33 190 210 37 32 26 31 17.8 22.8 6.0 8.1 1.39 0.21 2.7 1.4
Electrical conductivity.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) turf quality, using the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (www.ntep.org/) guidelines: scale of 1 to 9, with 1 representing dead grass, 6 representing a minimum acceptable level, and 9 representing the best quality, on sand-based putting greens as affected by soil amendments and irrigation source from 2010 and 2011, with the data combined for the 2 yr.

 
Treatment df Apr. May June July Aug. Sept.
Water source
 Potable 6.1 a† 6.3 a 6.8 a 6.3 a 6.4 a 6.2 a
 Secondary 6.1 a 5.7 a 5.7 c 5.9 a 6.3 a 6.6 a
 Tertiary 6.4 a 6.2 a 6.3 b 6.0 a 6.4 a 6.3 a
Soil amendment
 Gypsum 6.5 a 6.5 a 6.2 a 6.8 a 6.4 a 6.3 a
 Wetting agent 6.3 a 6.1 a 6.1 a 6.2 b 6.1 a 6.1 a
 Control 6.2 a 5.9 a 5.7 a 6.2 b 6.3 a 6.0 a
ANOVA, Pr > F
Source of variance
 Water (W) 2 0.2042 0.0756 0.0034 0.0634 0.7984 0.0947
 Soil (S) 2 0.8720 0.2201 0.5917 0.0216 0.4120 0.5739
 W ´ S 4 0.8471 0.7810 0.2928 0.0030 0.7699 0.3953
CV, % 7.8 9.7 6.3 4.0 5.9 5.8
Means within a column of the same treatment factor followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 probability level.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) clipping yield on sand-based putting greens as affected by soil amendments and irrigation sources during the growing seasons of 2010 and 2011 with data combined for both years.

 
Treatment df Clipping yield
Apr. May June July Aug. Sept.
g m–2
Water source
 Potable 8.91 c† 29.98 c 87.47 c 63.07 c 52.99 c 51.11 b
 Secondary 12.11 a 40.41 a 120.05 a 72.37 a 66.25 a 66.99 a
 Tertiary 10.56 b 34.25 b 106.47 b 68.93 b 58.78 b 53.54 b
Soil amendment
 Gypsum 10.87 a 37.61 a 115.27 a 69.95 a 58.95 a 58.65 a
 Wetting agent 10.47 a 34.94 a 105.76 ab 70.41 a 61.14 a 58.32 a
 Control 10.23 a 32.10 a 92.96 b 64.01 a 57.92 a 54.67 a
ANOVA, Pr > F
Source of variance
 Water (W) 2 0.0320 0.0419 0.0045 0.0142 0.0399 0.0437
 Soil (S) 2 0.8397 0.3944 0.0500 0.2099 0.7865 0.8053
 W ´ S 4 0.9057 0.5339 0.5868 0.6832 0.7630 0.9228
CV, % 20.96 23.86 16.89 11.12 16.88 24.74
Means within a column of the same treatment factor followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 probability level.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Turfgrass tissue analysis of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) as affected by soil amendments and irrigation source during 2010 and 2011, with data combined for the 2 yr.

 
Treatment df Turf tissue content
Na Ca P
mg kg–1 %
Water source
 Potable 559 b† 7545 a 0.38 b
 Secondary 764 a 5682 b 0.38 b
 Tertiary 630 ab 5720 b 0.41 a
Soil amendment
 Gypsum 636 a 6984 a 0.39 a
 Wetting agent 656 a 5750 b 0.39 a
 Control 661 a 6215 b 0.40 a
ANOVA, Pr > F
Source of variance
 Water (W) 2 0.0487 0.0038 0.0339
 Soil (S) 2 0.3901 0.0500 0.7895
 W ´ S 4 0.1592 0.1251 0.3382
CV, % 13.93 28.34 7.79
Means within a column of the same treatment factor followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 probability level.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Soil chemical properties of sand-based putting greens as affected by soil amendments and irrigation source sampled in October 2010 and 2011, with data combined for the 2 yr.

 
Treatment df Na Ca Mg K EC† Infiltration rate
mg kg–1 dS m–1 cm h–1
Water source
 Potable 449 b‡ 14,157 a 1236 a 10,921 b 0.15 b 112.8 a
 Secondary 574 a 13,800 a 1345 a 13,117 a 0.29 a 79.9 b
 Tertiary 501 b 12,893 a 1237 a 11,903 ab 0.17 b 94.6 b
Soil amendment
 Gypsum 508 a 15,381 a 1405 a 13,786 a 0.22 a 110.2 a
 Wetting agent 495 a 13,052 b 1254 ab 11,520 b 0.20 a 74.9 b
 Control 522 a 12,428 b 1160 b 10,635 b 0.18a 102.3 a
ANOVA, Pr > F
Source of variance
 Water (W) 2 0.0026 0.1326 0.3372 0.0427 0.0044 0.0003
 Soil (S) 2 0.7354 <0.0001 0.0192 0.0025 0.6100 <0.0001
 W × S 4 0.9589 0.3833 0.8036 0.9164 0.7674 0.0430
CV, % 24.3 13.9 19.8 21.9 35.4 23.4
Electrical conductivity.
Means within a column of the same treatment factor followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 probability level.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Chemical properties of water leachate from sand-based putting greens as affected by soil amendments and irrigation source sampled in July, August, and September of 2010 and 2011, with data combined for the 2 yr.

 
Treatment df EC†
Na
Ca
Mg
K
July Aug. Sept. July Aug. Sept. July Aug. Sept. July Aug. Sept. July Aug. Sept.
ds m–1 mg L–1
Water source
 Potable 1.07 b‡ 1.10 b 1.36 b 34.7 b 40.5 b 41.8 b 67.8 b 72.5 b 72.9 b 45.4 c 46.86 b 41.4 b 3.5 b 4.3 c 4.3 c
 Secondary 2.58 a 2.82 a 3.11 a 197.1 a 264.9 a 248.3 a 107.9 a 114.2 a 113.5 a 68.4 a 68.64 a 72.4 a 4.5 a 6.5 a 7.0 a
 Tertiary 1.22 b 1.29 b 1.44 b 86.2 b 69.1 b 62.6 b 63.9 b 72.8 b 77.8 b 55.9 b 54.40 b 40.4 b 3.7 b 5.5 b 5.9 b
Soil amendment
 Gypsum 2.08 a 2.04 a 2.21 a 111.8 a 129.9 a 125.1 a 102.4 a 104.5 a 119.5 a 60.0 a 60.95 a 57.7 a 4.1 a 5.8 a 5.7 a
 Wetting agent 1.42 a 1.62 a 1.86 a 91.7 a 128.4 a 115.1 a 70.4 b 79.9 b 77.3 b 54.8 a 57.07 a 47.8 b 3.8 a 5.3 a 5.7 a
 Control 1.37 a 1.54 a 1.84 a 86.2 a 116.1 a 112.5 a 67.0 b 75.2 b 67.5 b 54.8 a 51.86 a 48.6 b 3.8 a 5.3 a 5.8 a
ANOVA, Pr > F
Source of variance
 Water (W) 2 0.0013 0.0006 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0012 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0002 0.0002 <0.0001 0.0089 <0.0001 <0.0001
 Soil (S) 2 0.1818 0.4978 0.5707 0.6676 0.9406 0.9440 0.0109 0.0079 <0.0001 0.4982 0.1753 0.0023 0.6320 0.1452 0.9716
 W × S 4 0.9819 0.9988 0.9560 0.9869 0.9967 0.9777 0.4059 0.5708 0.8652 0.5678 0.2942 0.7568 0.6992 0.2999 0.2834
 CV, % 27.81 27.48 28.70 45.76 42.77 44.28 36.95 33.13 31.36 26.84 25.37 17.13 24.21 17.11 17.94
Electrical conductivity.
Means within a column of the same treatment factor followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 probability level.