View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Particle-size distribution of rootzone sand and rootzone media amended with Canadian sphagnum peat (CSP) and inorganic amendments, calcined clay (CC), and diatomaceous earth (DE) at 15% by volume along with the gravel used to construct simulated golf greens.

 
Particle size, mm
Rootzone media >2.0 1.0 0.50 0.25 0.10 0.05 <0.05
% by wt.
Sand 0.0 4.9 37.1 43.8 13.7 0.4 0.2
CC 0.0 0.0 59.2 40.0 0.7 0.2
DE 0.0 23.3 68.9 5.9 1.4 0.6
Sand: CSP 0.0 6.9 35.6 41.4 15.1 0.5 0.5
Sand: CC 0.0 2.9 28.9 46.2 21.1 0.6 0.3
Sand: DE 0.0 3.4 30.3 44.6 19.0 0.6 2.0
USGA† specifications <10 >60 <20 <10
Particle size, mm
12.7 6.3 4.0 2.0 <2.0
% by wt.
Gravel 0.0 86.2 12.9 0.4 0.6
U.S. Golf Association.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Physical properties of rootzone sand and rootzone media amended with peat and inorganic amendments at 15% by volume used for simulated putting greens.

 
Rootzone media Particle density Bulk density Total porosity† Air-filled porosity‡ Capillary porosity§ K Sat
g cm−3 cm3 cm−3 cm h−1
Sand 2.65 1.61 0.392 0.191 0.201 64.1b
Sand: peat 2.62 1.41 0.460 0.152 0.308 62.6c
Sand: calcined clay 2.68 1.48 0.449 0.191 0.258 70.3a
Sand: diatomaceous earth 2.64 1.50 0.433 0.189 0.244 41.9d
USGA specifications 0.35–0.55 0.15–0.30 0.15–0.25 30–60
Total porosity was calculated as Total porosity = [1 − (Bulk density ÷ Particle density)].
Air-filled porosity was calculated as the difference between total porosity and capillary porosity.
§ Capillary porosity determined at −4.0 kPa pressure.
Saturated hydraulic conductivity was determined using a mariotte tube to maintain a constant head. Means followed by the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P = 0.05 (LSD = 1.3, CV = 7.51).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Water retention following 24 h of free drainage of rootzone sand and rootzone media amended with Canadian sphagnum peat (CSP) and inorganic amendments, calcined clay (CC), and diatomaceous earth (DE) at 15% by volume. All mixtures overlay 7.6 cm of gravel meeting U.S. Golf Association specifications.

 
Depth, cm
Rootzone media Total water retained 0–7.6 7.6–15 15–30 <30
cm % total water retained
Sand 19.9c 6.1c 31.0c 43.3a 18.2b
Sand: CSP 27.0a 13.2a 38.6a 32.5c 15.7c
Sand: CC 23.1b 8.3bc 34.9b 37.2b 19.6a
Sand: DE 22.8b 9.7b 35.5b 34.0c 20.7a
SE 0.70 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01