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Agronomy Journal : Just Published


Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/aj, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Zhu, Q., M.J. Schlossberg, R.B. Bryant, and J.P. Schmidt. 2012. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. doi:10.2134/agronj2012.0157

Current issue: Agron. J. 109(1)


    • Luis Villalobos and Joe E. Brummer
      Yield and Nutritive Value of Cool-Season Annual Forages and Mixtures Seeded into Pearl Millet Stubble

      Cool-season annual forages can provide grazing for beef cattle during fall and early winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate yield and nutritive value of nine forage combinations seeded in early August into pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hay stubble that was either sprayed or allowed to regrow. Grass species included spring triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Each grass was then combined with a brassica mixture {turnip [Brassicas rapa L. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Annual cool-season forages with high biomass yields may be stockpiled for fall grazing.
      • Species composition was affected by the seeding rates of individual species used within the bulk seeding rate.
      • Controlling millet regrowth with herbicide prior to seeding resulted in greater establishment, yield, and nutritive value of the seeded cool-season forages.
      • Annual forages can meet the requirements of beef cattle grazing during the fall and early winter.

      Published: January 5, 2017


    • Qi Jing, Budong Qian, Jiali Shang, Ted Huffman, Jiangui Liu, Elizabeth Pattey, Taifeng Dong, Nicolas Tremblay, Craig F. Drury, Bao-Luo Ma, Guillaume Jégo, Xianfeng Jiao, John Kovacs, Dan Walters and Jinfei Wang
      Assessing the Options to Improve Regional Wheat Yield in Eastern Canada Using the CSM–CERES–Wheat Model

      Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield is relatively low in eastern Canada. This study aimed to assess fertilizer N management options to improve the regional yield of wheat using the CSM–CERES–Wheat model. The model was adapted to simulate winter wheat by replacing air temperatures with estimated temperatures under snow cover, and then the model was evaluated for simulating winter wheat using experimental data collected at two sites and spring wheat at three sites in eastern Canada. Across all the experimental years and sites, the normalized root mean squared error (nRMSE) between simulated and measured yields was 14%. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Wheat yield at both field and regional scales was successfully simulated using CSM–CERES–Wheat.
      • There is a considerable room to improve spring wheat yield in eastern Ontario.
      • Average yield in eastern Ontario can reach 3600 kg ha–1 with fertilization at 100 kg N ha–1.
      • Crop models may need to include lodging—often related to high N rates in eastern Canada.

      Published: January 12, 2017


    • Lucas A. Haag, Jonathan D. Holman, Joel Ransom, Tom Roberts, Scott Maxwell, Mark E. Zarnstorff and Leigh Murray
      Compensation of Corn Yield Components to Late-Season Stand Reductions in the Central and Northern Great Plains

      Hail insurance adjustment procedures for corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States prior to 2014 assumed that yield reductions from V9 through milk stage were linear with stand reduction on a percentage basis. Other research suggests that corn plants retain some level of yield plasticity past the V9 growth stage. Some methods of estimating yield reductions may not be appropriate for modern hybrids and management practices. Field trials were conducted in the central Great Plains near Garden City, KS, in 2008, 2009, and 2011 and the northern Great Plains near Prosper, ND, in 2008 to 2010. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Plasticity of remaining yield components can reduce the impact of late season stand losses.
      • Stand reductions as late as V14 did not result in 1:1 yield losses.
      • The relative importance of yield component compensation varied by timing and location/hybrid.

      Published: January 12, 2017

    • Alexander J. Lindsey, Peter R. Thomison, David J. Barker and James D. Metzger
      Evaluating Water Exclusion using Plastic Ground Cover in Maize at Two Population Densities

      Evaluating maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids under drought conditions in rain-fed environments can be difficult using deficit irrigation practices, and installation of permanent rain-exclusion structures can be cost prohibitive. Covering the soil surface to reduce infiltration has been successful in other crops, but limited evaluation has been conducted in maize systems of the U.S. Corn Belt. The objective of this study was to determine if black plastic ground cover could exclude water from maize under varying agronomic conditions to generate dry soil conditions. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Evaluating drought-tolerant maize hybrids is a challenge in the eastern U.S. Corn Belt.
      • Treatments with black plastic had lower soil moisture with minor increases in soil temperature.
      • Water exclusion using plastic ground cover reduced soil moisture and grain yield compared to the rain-fed plus irrigation control.

      Published: January 5, 2017


    • Christopher A. Seifert, Michael J. Roberts and David B. Lobell
      Continuous Corn and Soybean Yield Penalties across Hundreds of Thousands of Fields

      The effects of crop rotations on yields have historically been assessed with field trials, but new datasets offer an opportunity to evaluate these effects using data from commercial farmers’ fields. Here we develop a unique dataset of 748,374 joint observations of field-level yields, crop histories, and soil and weather conditions across the U.S. Midwest to empirically evaluate crop rotations. For rainfed fields, we found an average continuous corn (Zea mays L.) yield penalty (CCYP) of 4.3% and continuous soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield penalty (CSYP) of 10.3% during the 2007 to 2012 growing seasons. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Analysis of 748,374 yield records showed a 4.3% yield penalty for continuous corn.
      • Corn yield penalties were more severe in areas with low moisture and low yields.
      • Continuous soybean showed a 10.3% yield penalty, worse in low-yielding years.
      • Corn yield penalties grew with up to 3 yr of continuous cropping, but not more.
      • Soybean penalties increased monotonically with number of years continuously cropped.

      Published: January 12, 2017


    • Alejandra A. Acuña E., Claudio Pastenes V. and Luis Villalobos G.
      Carbon Sequestration and Photosynthesis in Newly Established Turfgrass Cover in Central Chile

      Growth of the urban population in central Chile may have contributed to increased CO2 emissions, thus information regarding the role of turfgrass in public spaces and its ability to sequester CO2 would be valuable. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare the magnitude of C sequestration of seven newly established turfgrass species to bare soil using seasonal organic C stocks measurements aboveground (aboveground organic carbon [AOC]) and belowground (soil organic carbon [SOC]) and to associate these data with turfgrass seasonal photosynthetic behavior. Festuca arundinacea Schreb, Festuca rubra L. ssp. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Soil organic C varied for 3 yr and four seasons for the five cool season turfgrass species (C3) and the two warm season turfgrass species (C4) when compared to bare soil. The effect of turfgrass species was detected in all of the seasons, where turfgrass coverage increased soil organic C over time, primarily at the 0- to 10-cm soil depth.
      • Carbon dioxide fixation rate can be an adequate indicator of carbon sequestration potential in a short-term period for turfgrass species.
      • This study showed that Cynodon dactylon L. and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. were the most promising species to increase C sequestration and to better use the irrigation water in central Chile.

      Published: October 20, 2016


    • C. A. Francis, E. S. Jensen, G. Lieblein and T. A. Breland
      Agroecologist Education for Sustainable Development of Farming and Food Systems

      Twelve educational strategies for future agroecologists are based on experiences in Nordic universities, with priorities informed by six propositions about future resource challenges. The principal objective is student learning for future challenges and contributions to sustainable development of farming and food systems, including practice in acquiring capacities needed for responsible future action. The heart of the program is learning to apply ecological principles in design of farming and food systems, using multi-criteria evaluation for prioritizing sustainability challenges, and measuring ex-ante success of transition. Working closely with farming and food system stakeholders in design and implementation of learning environment is essential, plus recognizing contributions of farmers and food system professionals as vital to education for design of future systems. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Ecological principles are applied in design of future farming systems.
      • Close working relationships with farmers and other stakeholders are essential to education.
      • Educational programs will develop autonomous and social learners.
      • Local food systems provide an alternative to growing globalization of food.
      • Graduate study in agroecology prepares students for responsible action in the future.

      Published: January 5, 2017


    • Joseph Young, Mike Richardson and Douglas Karcher
      Golf Ball Mark Severity and Recovery as Affected by Mowing Height, Rolling Frequency, Foot Traffic, and Moisture

      Putting greens experience stress from golf balls striking the surface, maintenance equipment, and foot traffic. Improved creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) cultivars, sand-based root zones, and skilled superintendents maintain plant health while providing firmer conditions. Many researchers have studied effects of compaction and wear on putting greens, but few have determined the effect of these stresses on ball marks. The objective of this research was to evaluate ball mark severity and recovery of creeping bentgrass under different mowing heights (2.5, 3.2, and 4.0 mm), rolling frequencies (0, 3, or 6 d wk–1), and foot traffic using digital image analysis. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Digital image analysis methods to evaluate putting green ball mark severity and recovery.
      • Firmer surfaces from dry conditions or lightweight rolling increased maximum ball mark injury area.
      • Rate of recovery was similar for all treatments, but increased wear increased time to 50% recovery.
      • Demonstrates positive attributes of dispersing foot and equipment traffic throughout the green.

      Published: January 5, 2017

    • John R. Brewer, John Willis, Sandeep S. Rana and Shawn D. Askew
      Response of Six Turfgrass Species and Four Weeds to Three HPPD-Inhibiting Herbicides

      Mesotrione (2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)-2-nitrobenzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione), tembotrione (2-[2-chloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)-3-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)methyl]benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione), and topramezone ([3-(4,5-dihydro-3-isoxazolyl)-2-methyl-4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl](5-hydroxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methanone) are new herbicides that control many troublesome weeds, but little is known about the response of several turfgrass species to these herbicides. A multiyear study was conducted to determine the response of six turfgrass species and four weeds to these three herbicides. Study results generally agreed with previous reports of turfgrass and weed response to mesotrione, and suggest that tembotrione could be safely used, depending on rate, to control weeds such as smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl.], broadleaf plantain (Plantago major L.), and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) selectively in tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., nom. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Tembotrione controlled weeds selectively in bluegrass, fescue, and zoysiagrass turf.
      • Topramezone controlled key weeds better than mesotrione and tembotrione.
      • Topramezone was among the safest herbicides on four of the six turfgrasses tested.
      • Results will aid herbicidal-risk assessment near potentially sensitive turfgrass species.
      • The study supports considerations for herbicide label expansion or registration in turf.

      Published: December 1, 2016

    • Quincy D. Law, Jon M. Trappe, Yiwei Jiang, Ronald F. Turco and Aaron J. Patton
      Turfgrass Selection and Grass Clippings Management Influence Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics

      Little information is available about how grass species and management practices, such as grass clippings management, influence soil C and N accumulation, especially labile soil C. Thus, the objective of this field experiment was to determine the labile soil C, total soil C, soil organic matter (SOM), and total soil N accumulation of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Less than 3 yr post-establishment, tall fescue accumulated more soil C (i.e., labile soil C, total soil C, and soil organic matter) than Kentucky bluegrass.
      • Returning grass clippings for 2 yr increased both soil C (i.e., labile soil C and total soil C) and N (i.e., total soil N) compared to collecting clippings over the same period.
      • Labile soil C increased linearly over the 5 yr of the experiment.

      Published: December 1, 2016

    • Luqi Li, Matthew D. Sousek, Keenan L. Amundsen and Zachary J. Reicher
      Seeding Date and Bur Treatment Affect Establishment Success of Dormant-Seeded Buffalograss

      Dormant seeding is common for establishing cool-season turfgrasses, but minimal information exists on dormant seeding of the native warm-season buffalograss [Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] in the Midwest and northern Great Plains of the United States. The objective of these studies was to determine the effect of commercial KNO3 seed treatment on cultivar Cody buffalograss germination when seeded at various dates in winter and spring. Cody buffalograss burs were either commercially treated or untreated and both were seeded in the field the third week of November, January, March, or May. Buffalograss cover was rated monthly until the following August. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Dormant seeding of buffalograss in November can be as effective as traditional May seeding.
      • Commercially potassium nitrate treated burs resulted in consistently higher cumulative germination regardless of seeding date.
      • Commercial treatment of burs may not be necessary when dormant seeding in November, but maximized buffalograss germination following an exceptionally dry winter.

      Published: December 1, 2016

    • Joshua Friell, Eric Watkins, Brian P. Horgan and Matthew Cavanaugh
      Sod Strength Characteristics of 51 Cool-Season Turfgrass Mixtures

      Successful establishment of turfgrass on roadsides often necessitates using species mixtures not typically used for sod production. Evaluating mechanical characteristics of sod produced using such mixtures is necessary to determine if they possess sufficient strength for harvest and handling. The objective of this work was to evaluate tensile strength and work required to tear sod of mixtures of nine cool-season turfgrass species previously determined to perform well on Minnesota roadsides. Three replications of 51 mixtures were established in a randomized complete block design at St. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Turfgrass seed mixtures containing fine fescue species can produce sod that achieves equal or greater strength than those containing large amounts of Kentucky bluegrass when harvested 22 mo after establishment.
      • Change in proportion of fine fescues from each initial seed mixture to the resulting final plant community was negatively correlated with sod strength characteristics.
      • Thatch development was only weakly correlated with either maximum tensile load or work required to tear sod.
      • Mixtures with different seed compositions, but resulting in similar or identical final species compositions, often possessed very different mechanical properties.

      Published: October 6, 2016

    • Paul Koch
      Optimal Fungicide Timing for Suppression of Typhula Blight under Winter Covers

      Synthetic covers are often used to protect high-value golf course putting greens throughout much of North America and Scandinavia from injury during harsh winter conditions. However, these covers may trap heat and moisture at the turf surface and provide optimal conditions for snow mold development. This study was conducted to determine the most effective fungicide application strategy under both permeable and impermeable synthetic covers. Three different fungicide timings (early, late, and early + late) were tested under no cover, a permeable Evergreen (Hinspergers Poly Industries, Mississauga, ON) cover, and an impermeable GreenJacket cover (GreenJacket, Genoa City, WI) during the winters of 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 in Antigo, WI. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Winter covers increase snow mold severity on golf course turfgrass.
      • Despite increased pressure, effective fungicides are available to limit disease to acceptable levels.
      • Applying fungicides as a single application shortly before snow cover or splitting out into two applications are both effective at reducing snow mold.

      Published: September 29, 2016

    • Matthew D. Jeffries, Travis W. Gannon and Fred H. Yelverton
      Tall Fescue Roadside Right-of-Way Mowing Reduction from Imazapic

      Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire] is commonly established along roadside rights-of-way in adapted zones due to its tolerance of drought, heat, and wear; however, its upright growth habit coupled with seedhead production can impair motorist vision. Field research was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to quantify tall fescue mowing requirements following imazapic {( ± )-2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid}, an herbicide commonly used for plant growth regulation, application (53 g a.i. ha–1) alone, as well as tank-mixed with clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) + triclopyr {[(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy]acetic acid} (158 + 473 g a.i. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Imazapic provided 100% tall fescue seedhead suppression through 56 d after treatment.
      • Imazapic reduced tall fescue mowing requirements by two cycles across 23- and 30-cm intervention heights.
      • Imazapic application to tall fescue mown at 30-cm intervention height required one mowing event through 70 d after treatment.

      Published: September 22, 2016


    • Stephen C. Mason, Cory G. Walters, Tomie D. Galusha, Roger K. Wilson and Zaher Kmail
      Planting Saved Roundup Ready 1 Soybean Seed Implications on Yield and Profit

      A 3-yr study was conducted to address agronomic considerations and economic feasibility for the legal right for Nebraska farmers to plant saved seed of Roundup Ready (RR1) (Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO) soybean [GLYCINE MAX (L). Merr.] varieties rather than purchasing commercial Genuity (Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO) Round Ready 2 Yield (to be referred to as RR2Y throughout the rest of the manuscript) seed. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • RR1 Soybean seed produces similar yield to RR2Y seed.
      • Saving RR1 soybean affords large economic advantages with lower risk.
      • Saved RR1 soybean seed had similar yield, bulk densities, and percent lodging as commercial RR2Y seed.

      Published: January 5, 2017


    • José Roberto Brito Freitas, Mara Regina Moitinho, Daniel De Bortoli Teixeira, Elton da Silva Bicalho, João Fernandes da Silva, Diego Silva Siqueira, Bruno Flávio Figueiredo Barbosa, Pedro Luiz Martins Soares and Gener Tadeu Pereira
      Soil Factors Influencing Nematode Spatial Variability in Soybean

      The economic damage to Brazilian soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production attributed to Pratylenchus brachyurus has increased in recent years. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of soil properties on nematode variability in a soybean crop. Soil and root samples (0–0.20 m) were collected from 142 points in an area that was 180 by 180 m. Root samples were analyzed for nematodes, and soil samples were analyzed for chemical attributes. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Spatial distribution P. brachyurus nematode is influenced by soil chemical properties.
      • In sites with low fertility the plants become more susceptible to nematode attack.
      • In sites concentrating greater amount Mg are favorable to greater number of nematode.

      Published: January 5, 2017

    • Guoqi Chen, Qinghu Liu, Yuhua Zhang, Jun Li and Liyao Dong
      Comparison of Weed Seedbanks in Different Rice Planting Systems

      Machine-transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) (MTR), water direct-seeded rice (WDSR), and dry direct-seeded rice (DDSR) are three important alternatives to traditional manual transplantation of rice. Weed infestation is a pervasive problem in all rice planting systems. The weed seedbanks under different rice planting systems have seldom been compared. Thus, we sampled weed seeds in fields employing MTR, WDSR, and DDSR consecutively for at least 5 yr in Wujin County, eastern China. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Weed seedbanks were compared in three rice planting systems: machine-transplanted rice, water direct-seeded rice, and dry direct-seeded rice.
      • Weed seedbanks were mainly distributed in soil within a depth of 10 cm.
      • Dry direct-seeded rice tended to maintain larger seedbanks of sedges, grasses, and some upland weeds.
      • Water direct-seeded rice contained the smallest weed seedbank overall.
      • Machine-transplanted rice had larger seedbanks of broadleaf weeds and some traditional rice weeds.

      Published: January 5, 2017


    • Dan S. Long, John D. McCallum, Catherine L. Reardon and Richard E. Engel
      Nitrogen Requirement to Change Protein Concentration of Spring Wheat in Semiarid Pacific Northwest

      On-combine yield monitors and grain protein analyzers enable mapping of grain N removal at time of harvest. Nitrogen removal maps combined with estimates of the fertilizer nitrogen equivalent (FNE) for each 10 g kg–1 change in grain protein concentration (GPC) are useful for developing site-specific fertilizer prescriptions for fields. This study was conducted to determine the critical protein concentration where yield is maximized and FNE for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown under low annual precipitation (<350 mm) in the inland Pacific Northwest. Five hard red spring (HRS) cultivars and one soft white spring (SWS) cultivar were grown under three water levels over an N application range of 0–235 kg ha–1 in eastern Oregon. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Nitrogen removal maps combined with the fertilizer N equivalent are useful for precision N management.
      • More N is needed to change spring wheat protein in Pacific Northwest than in northern Plains.
      • The fertilizer N equivalent is generalizable among spring wheat cultivars.
      • Growers can use yield and protein maps to implement the N replacement approach

      Published: January 12, 2017

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