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Agronomy Journal : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research in crops, soils, and agronomy. Articles are compiled into bimonthly issues at www.agronomy.org/publications/aj, which includes the complete archive. Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Zhu, Q., M.J. Schlossberg, R.B. Bryant, and J.P. Schmidt. 2012. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. doi:10.2134/agronj2012.0157

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Current issue: Agron. J. 107(2)



  • AGRONOMY, SOILS & ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    • Aaron J. Sindelar, Jeffrey A. Coulter, John A. Lamb and Jeffrey A. Vetsch
      Nitrogen, Stover, and Tillage Management Affect Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Continuous Corn

      Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in corn (Zea mays L.) is critical for optimizing yield and reducing environmental impact. Stover removal in continuous corn (CC) for biofuel production, coupled with reduced-tillage systems, could alter NUE and residual soil nitrate-N. Experiments were conducted in Minnesota over 3 yr to determine how N uptake, NUE, and residual soil nitrate-N are affected by stover (remove and retain), tillage (chisel- [CT], strip- [ST], and no-till [NT]), and fertilizer N (0, 45, 89, 134, 179, and 224 kg N ha–1) management. There was a linear response of grain and total aboveground N uptake to fertilizer N across stover management and tillage treatments. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0535
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Xianlong Peng, Bijesh Maharjan, Cailian Yu, Anyu Su, Virginia Jin and Richard B. Ferguson
      A Laboratory Evaluation of Ammonia Volatilization and Nitrate Leaching following Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on a Coarse-Textured Soil

      In a series of field studies, differing rainfall patterns within the first month after N fertilizer application to a coarse-textured soil significantly affected yields and N-use efficiency of irrigated corn (Zea mays L.), and responses varied with N source. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate effects of N source with precipitation following N application to a coarse-textured soil. Nitrogen sources included urea-ammonium nitrate solution (UAN), UAN with additives of either nitrapyrin (2-chloro-6-[trichloromethyl] pyridine) as a nitrification inhibitor or maleic-itaconic acid copolymer as a urease and nitrification inhibitor, or polymer-coated dry urea (PCU). These products were applied to soil in chambers from which ammonia (NH3) volatilization and nitrate (NO3) leaching were measured over 31 d following fertilization. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0537
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Gustavo Mack Teló, Enio Marchesan, Renato Zanella, Maurício Limberger de Oliveira, Lucas Lopes Coelho and Manoel Leonardo Martins
      Residues of Fungicides and Insecticides in Rice Field

      The use of pesticides assists in integrated programs that aim high yield and quality grains in irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, the use of pesticides can pose risk to rice quality as well as the environment and general population. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the dissipation and persistence of fungicides (azoxystrobin and difenoconazole) and the insecticides (lambda-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam) in irrigation water, soil, rice plant, panicle, and rice grain. The study was conducted in the field during the 2011/2012 crop season, with fungicides and insecticides applied to the aerial parts of the rice plants, the samples were collected in different moments during a 40-d monitoring period after the application of the pesticides. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0475
      Published: February 27, 2015



  • CLIMATOLOGY & WATER MANAGEMENT

    • Marco Schiavon, Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, Rossana Sallenave and James H. Baird
      Seeding Date and Irrigation System Effects on Establishment of Warm-Season Turfgrasses

      The need for water conservation in urban landscapes requires research to investigate alternative irrigation methods that are more efficient than overhead sprinkler systems. A study was conducted in 2009 at New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, and was repeated in 2013 at the University of California, Riverside, to compare the establishment of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) ‘Princess 77’ ] and seashore paspalum [Paspalum vaginatum (Sw.) ‘Sea Spray’] seeded on either 15 April or 15 May and irrigated at 100% reference evapotranspiration (ETos) with either an overhead sprinkler (OSI) or subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system. Higher germination rates were observed at both locations when OSI was used. All treatments reached full ground cover by the end of the growing season in California, whereas SDI plots seeded in May in New Mexico reached only 75% ground cover. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0322
      Published: February 27, 2015



  • CROP ECONOMICS, PRODUCTION & MANAGEMENT

    • J. Li, R. Z. Xie, K. R. Wang, B. Ming, Y. Q. Guo, G. Q. Zhang and S. K. Li
      Variations in Maize Dry Matter, Harvest Index, and Grain Yield with Plant Density

      Modern maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids are generally regarded as strongly population dependent because maximum grain yields (GYs) per area are achieved primarily in high-density populations. This study was conducted to analyze changes in density independence with plant density based on the response of GY, dry matter (DM) accumulation, and the harvest index (HI) to changes in plant density. Two modern cultivars, ZhengDan958 and ZhongDan909, were planted at 12 densities ranging from 1.5 to 18 plants m–2. The experiment was conducted for 3 yr, with drip irrigation and plastic mulching, at the 71 Group and Qitai Farms located in Xinjiang, China. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0522
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Christopher N. Boyer, Roland K. Roberts, James A. Larson, M. Angela McClure and Donald D. Tyler
      Risk Effects on Optimal Nitrogen Rates for Corn Rotations in Tennessee

      The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of risk exposure on optimal N fertilizer rates for continuous corn (Zea mays L.), corn grown after cotton (Gossypium ssp.), and corn grown after soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and identify the optimal corn rotation for risk-averse corn producers. Data were collected from a 7-yr, corn-rotation, N-fertilizer experiment in Tennessee. Partial budgets were used to calculate net returns to N for corn grown after corn, corn grown after cotton, and corn grown after soybean. The flexible moment method was used for risk analysis, a unique application of this method that provides producers with information concerning traditional risk effects on decisions about crop rotations and N rates augmented by the effects of downside risk. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0546
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Abdul Khaliq and M. Kaleem Abbasi
      Soybean Response to Single or Mixed Soil Amendments in Kashmir, Pakistan

      The application of animal- and plant-derived organic substrates with minimal additions of commercial N fertilizers is an important management strategy for sustainable agriculture production systems in mountain upland soils subjected to continuous erosion. A 3-yr (2009, 2010, and 2011) field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of separate and combined use of poultry manure (PM), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) milling residues (WMR), and urea N (UN) on the productivity and N2 fixation of rainfed soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] grown in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included UN100, PM100, WMR100, PM50 + WMR50, UN50 + PM50, UN50 + WMR50, UN50 + PM25 + WMR25, and an unfertilized control. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0359
      Published: February 27, 2015



  • SOIL FERTILITY & CROP NUTRITION

    • Yanling Chen, Jie Zhang, Qian Li, Xiaolong He, Xiaopo Su, Fanjun Chen, Lixing Yuan and Guohua Mi
      Effects of Nitrogen Application on Post-Silking Root Senescence and Yield of Maize

      The size of roots and their physiological activity during the grain-filling stage affect water and nutrient uptake, and grain yield (GY) in maize (Zea mays L.). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different N levels on postanthesis root senescence in field-grown maize. Three N levels (0, 120, 240 kg N ha–1) was applied to field-grown maize, and the length and weight of roots in the 0- to 40-cm soil layer, nitrogenous compounds in xylem sap, N uptake, dry matter (DM), N accumulation, and GY were analyzed. Shoot N accumulation, but not grain yield, was higher in the N240 treatment than in the N120 treatment. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0509
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Bhupinder Singh Farmaha, Albert L. Sims and Jochum J. Wiersma
      Impact of Nitrogen Fertility on the Production Performance of Four Hard Red Spring Wheat Cultivars

      Under rainfed conditions, apart from genetic differences, N fertility is a major determinant of grain yield and grain N concentration of hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., HRSW). The goal of this study was to determine if prescriptive N recommendations are needed or useful for individual HRSW cultivars to maximize their grain yield and grain N concentration. To answer this question, the impact of N fertility was determined on the production performance of four HRSW cultivars. Field experiments were conducted from 2010 to 2012 with Faller, Samson, Glenn, and Vantage cultivars known to vary in their potential to produce grain yield and grain N concentration at low, medium, and high N fertility levels. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0278
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Peter Hooper, Yi Zhou, David R. Coventry and Glenn K. McDonald
      Use of Nitrogen Fertilizer in a Targeted Way to Improve Grain Yield, Quality, and Nitrogen Use Efficiency

      Nitrogen fertilizer management in rainfed Mediterranean environments can be financially risky because of the strong interaction between N and water availability on yield. This study was conducted to investigate whether the use of split-applications of N fertilizer that targeted specific growth stages could improve grain yield, grain protein concentration (GPC), and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Experiments with 7 N-application timings, two N-rates, and two wheat varieties were conducted at two sites over two seasons. Despite the seasonal rainfall in both years being below the historic averages, delayed or split N applications were able to significantly increase grain yield (2.50 vs. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0363
      Published: February 27, 2015



  • SYMPOSIUM: STATISTICAL CONCEPTS

    • Barry Glaz, Jochum Wiersma, Jose A. Hernandez, Nicolas F. Martin and Kathleen M. Yeater
      Introduction to the Statistical Concepts Symposium Section: Selected Review Topics to Improve Our Understanding and Use of Statistics

      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0888
      Published: February 27, 2015
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  • SYMPOSIUM: WATER SECURITY TASK FORCE

    • Neil C. Hansen
      Blue Water Demand for Sustainable Intensification

      The agricultural challenge of meeting global food demand requires an increase in the level of agricultural water productivity and some increases in global water use. But many arid or semiarid agricultural regions of the world are facing declining water availability for irrigation. Examples of declining groundwater availability are seen throughout arid and semiarid areas of North America, Africa, and Asia. Relevant to water demand for sustainable intensification of agriculture, this paper touches on concepts where policy can work toward improving water productivity, including: (i) assessing crop water use and productivity, (ii) promoting cultural practices for increasing crop water productivity, (iii) improving efficiency of green water use, and (iv) protecting agricultural water supplies. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0138
      Published: August 22, 2014



    • John C. Peck
      Legal Challenges in Government Imposition of Water Conservation: The Kansas Example

      This article deals with legal challenges in conserving water in the United States, using Kansas as an example. The focus is on one aspect of American water allocation law—the extent to which a state can force reductions in pumping by holders of water rights. It explains the hybrid nature of water rights, which on the one hand are “real property rights,” and yet on the other hand they are viewed as rights only to use water and not to own the water itself. Because they are a kind of property right, they are protected by the fifth amendment to the U.S. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0058
      Published: August 8, 2014



    • Claudia Ringler and Tingju Zhu
      Water Resources and Food Security

      Agricultural water use includes a continuum from purely rainfed to fully irrigated systems. Growing pressures on limited water supplies from domestic, industrial, and environmental uses will likely lead to a decline in water availability for food production. Similarly, income growth and urbanization lead to dietary shifts that require more water resources per calorie consumed, putting further pressures on water supplies. As a result, semiarid and arid countries continue to increase net imports of food. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0256
      Published: July 18, 2014



    • B. A. Stewart and G. A. Peterson
      Managing Green Water in Dryland Agriculture

      Green water is the portion of precipitation that is stored in the soil, or temporarily stays on top of the soil or vegetation during the growing season. Eventually, part of it is used by plants as transpiration and the amount of water transpired is directly related to biomass production. For grain crops, a portion of the biomass is grain, and the ratio of grain to biomass is the harvest index. The portion of precipitation that becomes green water generally increases with increasing precipitation. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0038
      Published: June 20, 2014



    • Jerry L. Hatfield
      Environmental Impact of Water Use in Agriculture

      Agriculture is an important component of the hydrologic cycle and the use of water in agricultural production is necessary to feed the world’s population and provide ecosystem services. As the population increases there is more concern about the potential role of agriculture on environmental quality and the role water management has on environmental quality. Water use by agricultural systems through evapotranspiration effects both the plant and the surrounding microclimate and the modification of the microclimate is a major environmental impact from agricultural water use. Sources of water for agriculture are from direct use of precipitation and indirect through irrigation from either surface or groundwater resources. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0064
      Published: May 23, 2014



    • Lois Wright Morton
      Achieving Water Security in Agriculture: The Human Factor

      It is widely recognized that achieving water security will take substantive investments in hydrology, engineering, soil science, agronomy, and a wide variety of physical and natural sciences and technologies. Less understood is the human aspect, the social science of beliefs, values, human perceptions and decision-making, social relationships, and social organization that intentionally and unintentionally construct, destroy, and reconstruct the water and land resources to which society is intimately linked. Addressing the complex issues of water security will require humans to acknowledge the threats to security and a willingness to give priority to assuring water quality, water availability, and water access to meet the needs of a growing world population and their economic engines. Soil–water–vegetation–climate–human relationships are central to maintaining and repairing the hydrological cycle necessary for fresh, safe, and abundant water supply. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0039
      Published: May 23, 2014



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