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Agronomy Journal : Just Published


Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research in crops, soils, and agronomy. Articles are compiled into bimonthly issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/aj, which includes the complete archive. Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Zhu, Q., M.J. Schlossberg, R.B. Bryant, and J.P. Schmidt. 2012. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. doi:10.2134/agronj2012.0157

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Current issue: Agron. J. 107(6)


    • Muhi Eldeen Hussien Ibrahim, Xinkai Zhu, Guisheng Zhou and Nimir Eltyb Ahmed Nimir
      Comparison of Germination and Seedling Characteristics of Wheat Varieties from China and Sudan under Salt Stress

      The seeds of six wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties from China (Xumai 30, Yang 10-13, and Yang 11-10) and Sudan (Argine, Buahin, and Elnilein) were cultured in NaCl solution containing (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mM NaCl). Germination and early growth were determined. There were significant differences among salinity levels for water uptake, germination percentage, shoot and root length, dry weight, and salt tolerance index. At all salinity levels, the six varieties showed similar salt resistance, but each variety had different degrees of salt resistance. (continued)

      Published: October 16, 2015

    • Kirby T. Nilsen, John M. Clarke, Brian L. Beres and Curtis J. Pozniak
      Sowing Density and Cultivar Effects on Pith Expression in Solid-Stemmed Durum Wheat

      The wheat stem sawfly (WSS) (Cephus cinctus; Hymenoptera: Cephidae) is a destructive insect pest of spring, winter (Triticum aestivum L.), and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) in North America. Sawfly larvae hatch from eggs deposited inside the stem, and their subsequent feeding damages vascular tissue, reducing photosynthetic capacity and grain yields. (continued)

      Published: October 30, 2015

    • Guihua Chen, Cerruti R. R. Hooks, Terry W. Patton, Robert Kratochvil and Galen Dively
      Tolerance to Stalk and Ear-Invading Worms and Yield Performance of Bt and Conventional Corn Hybrids

      European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) and corn earworm (CEW, Helicoverpa zea Boddie) are important yield-reducing insect pests of field corn (Zea mays L. var. indentata) in the northeastern United States. Transgenic hybrids bioengineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have revolutionized methods to control these caterpillars and other insect pests in corn. (continued)

      Published: October 16, 2015


    • Patrick D. Keyser, Elizabeth D. Holcomb, Christopher M. Lituma, Gary E. Bates, John C. Waller, Christopher N. Boyer and J. Travis Mulliniks
      Forage Attributes and Animal Performance from Native Grass Inter-Seeded with Red Clover

      Native warm-season grasses (NWSG) could provide desirable complementary summer forage for tall fescue [TF; Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.] systems, especially for reproductive animals that may be disproportionately affected by TF toxicosis. Inter-seeding legumes into pastures is a common practice but has received only limited attention for NWSG. Switchgrass (SG; Panicum virgatum L.) and a big bluestem (BB; Andropogon gerardii Vitman) indiangrass (IG; Sorghastrum nutans Nash) blend (BB/IG), each with and without inter-seeded red clover (RC; Trifolium pratense L.), were grazed (46–54 and 38–46-cm canopy heights for SG and BB/IG, respectively) by bred dairy heifers for 3 yr. Establishment of RC was inconsistent leading to limited influence on forage mass, crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Gulshan Mahajan and Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
      Performance of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice in Response to Genotype and Seeding Rate

      Dry direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) (DSR) is an emerging production system in South Asia. Limited research has been done in DSR for optimizing seeding rate to achieve a high yield in South Asia, especially for hybrids. In this study, we investigated yield formation, dry matter, and N translocation of four rice genotypes (two hybrids: ‘PAC-837’ and ‘SVH-127’; two inbreds: ‘PR-115’ and ‘PR-121’) in response to varying seeding rates (80, 120, 160, and 200 seeds m−2). The grain yield of the hybrids was higher (6.84−8.52 Mg ha−1) than that of inbreds (5.41–6.70 Mg ha−1) at each seeding rate; however, the magnitude of the increases in yield was higher at the lowest seeding rate (80 seeds m−2). (continued)

      Published: October 30, 2015

    • Amir Sadeghpour, Quirine M. Ketterings, Gregory S. Godwin and Karl J. Czymmek
      Nitrogen- vs. Phosphorus-Based Manure and Compost Management of Corn

      Animal manure is typically applied to meet the N needs of crops. This can lead to overapplication of P and K. We evaluated the impact of a change from N-based applications of manure and compost without incorporation to a P-based (crop-removal) management system with immediate incorporation of manure on (i) silage corn (Zea mays L.) yield and quality, and (ii) soil test NO3, P (STP), and K (STK). A 5-yr field study was conducted with annual spring applications of composted dairy solids (46 and 74 Mg ha–1), liquid dairy manure (68 and 196 kL ha–1), and inorganic N fertilizer (0 and 112 kg ha–1). (continued)

      Published: October 27, 2015


    • Amanda J. Ashworth, Pat D. Keyser, Fred L. Allen, Donald D. Tyler, Adam M. Taylor and Charles P. West
      Displacing Inorganic Nitrogen in Lignocellulosic Feedstock Production Systems

      Second-generation feedstocks such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) have been proposed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels, although they still require nonrenewable inputs, notably, inorganic N. Therefore, our objectives were to determine (i) the effects of biochar (1 and 2 Mg ha−1), three intercropped legumes [red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), partridgepea (Chamaecrista fasciculata [Michx.] Greene), and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)] vs. inorganic N [67 kg ha−1 and 0 kg ha−1 (control)] on desired feedstock characteristics, yield, and soil characteristics; and (ii) feedstock alterations and tissue-nutrient levels for postsenescence (November) and overwintering (February) harvests in a two-factor randomized block design. Overwintering harvests increased P and K remobilization, ethanol yield, fermentable sugars, and in-field dry-down (P ≤ 0.05), although yield losses occurred (22%). (continued)

      Published: October 16, 2015


    • Marvellous M. Zhou and Eastonce T. Gwata
      Quantifying Sugarcane Cultivar Genetic Gains in the Midlands Region of South Africa

      Analyzing genetic gains of sugarcane cultivars provides a measure of performance for plant breeding programs. Previous studies in several countries showed yield of up to 150% in the last 50 yr. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic gains for cane yield, percent estimated recoverable crystal (ERC%) cane and sugar yield of cultivars grown in the humic and sandy soils of the Midlands region in South Africa. Data were derived from the final stage of cultivar testing. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Julia L. Piaskowski, David Brown and Kimberly Garland Campbell
      Near-Infrared Calibration of Soluble Stem Carbohydrates for Predicting Drought Tolerance in Spring Wheat

      Soluble stem carbohydrates are a component of drought response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other grasses. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) can rapidly assay for soluble carbohydrates indirectly, but this requires a statistical model for calibration. The objectives of this study were: (i) to build a robust calibration between the NIR spectra and soluble carbohydrate concentration of ground wheat stems; and (ii) to determine whether soluble stem carbohydrates are correlated with yield rankings of drought-stricken wheat grown in the northwestern United States. Five spring wheat cultivars were grown in field trials conducted at six environments in the state of Washington varying in annual precipitation from 212 to 474 mm. (continued)

      Published: November 6, 2015

    • Dariusz Załuski, Bogdan Dubis, Wojciech Budzyński and Krzysztof Jankowski
      Applicability of the 3 5–2 Fractional Factorial Design in Determining the Effects of Cultivation Factors on Hulless Oat

      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of five cultivation factors (sowing date, seeding rate, N fertilization, Mg fertilization, and disease control), applied at three levels of intensity, on the grain yield and 1000-grain weight of hulless spring oat (Avena sativa var. nuda L.) under variable weather conditions with the use of the 35–2 fractional factorial Resolution III design. In a 3-yr field experiment, Polar hulless oat was grown on a gray-brown podsolic soil in northeastern Poland. In the group of five analyzed production factors, the fixed effect of N fertilization and sowing rate had the greatest influence on oat yield. (continued)

      Published: October 30, 2015

    • Jinou Huang, Menggui Jin, Yi-ming Kuo, Zhijiao Di, Yang Xian and Jingjing Yuan
      Compartment Model for Estimating Element Content in a Water–Soil–Cotton System

      Nutrient status provides crucial information about the stability and potential recycling capacity of a specific ecosystem. To comprehend the nutrient element transport in a typical cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivation ecosystem, this study established dynamic compartment models to estimate the contents of four elements (Ca, Na, K, and B) in five compartments during five growth stages. The stage-variable parameters were determined using three methods. Pot experiments were conducted for model calibration and validation. (continued)

      Published: October 27, 2015

    • Liwang Ma, Lajpat R. Ahuja, Thomas J. Trout, Bernard T. Nolan and Robert W. Malone
      Simulating Maize Yield and Biomass with Spatial Variability of Soil Field Capacity

      Spatial variability in field soil properties is a challenge for system modelers who use single representative values, such as means, for model inputs, rather than their distributions. In this study, the root zone water quality model (RZWQM2) was first calibrated for 4 yr of maize (Zea mays L.) data at six irrigation levels in northern Colorado and then used to study spatial variability of soil field capacity (FC) estimated in 96 plots on maize yield and biomass. The best results were obtained when the crop parameters were fitted along with FCs, with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 354 kg ha–1 for yield and 1202 kg ha–1 for biomass. When running the model using each of the 96 sets of field-estimated FC values, instead of calibrating FCs, the average simulated yield and biomass from the 96 runs were close to measured values with a RMSE of 376 kg ha–1 for yield and 1504 kg ha–1 for biomass. (continued)

      Published: October 27, 2015

    • Sukhbir Singh, Kenneth J. Boote, Sangamesh V. Angadi, Kulbhushan Grover, Sultan Begna and Dick Auld
      Adapting the CROPGRO Model to Simulate Growth and Yield of Spring Safflower in Semiarid Conditions

      The importance of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is increasing as a low input, stress-tolerant oilseed crop around the world. Adapting a crop growth model for safflower will help to assess the feasibility of this crop under diverse environmental conditions with relatively limited field experimentation. The objective of the project was to adapt the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) Cropping System Model (CSM-CROPGRO) to simulate growth and seed yield of spring safflower. The CROPGRO template approach was used, and parameters in species and cultivar files were developed based on safflower literature and calibration to field data. (continued)

      Published: October 16, 2015


    • D. Y. Ding, H. Feng, Y. Zhao, J. Q. He, Y. F. Zou and J. M. Jin
      Modifying Winter Wheat Sowing Date as an Adaptation to Climate Change on the Loess Plateau

      Adopting convenient strategies to cope with climate change is necessary for farmers. In this study, we modified winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) sowing date employing the root zone water quality model (RZWQM2) on the semiarid Loess Plateau of China, and mainly aimed to (i) investigate how the adapted sowing date affects winter wheat production and water use efficiency (WUE) under global warming and (ii) explore the optimal sowing date under different precipitation patterns (i.e., wet, medium, and dry years). Results showed that the RZWQM2 model could efficiently simulate crop development, water movement, and final crop yields on the Loess Plateau. The properly delayed sowing date efficiently maintained wheat yield, reduced evapotranspiration, increased WUE, and minimized the decreasing rate of wheat yield and WUE under global warming from the 1950s. (continued)

      Published: October 9, 2015


    • Baoyuan Zhou, Yang Yue, Xuefang Sun, Xinbing Wang, Zhimin Wang, Wei Ma and Ming Zhao
      Maize Grain Yield and Dry Matter Production Responses to Variations in Weather Conditions

      Variations in weather conditions could alter maize (Zea mays L.) growth and development. This study was conducted to determine the eco-physiological determinants of variations in maize yield with weather conditions, and the relationship between grain yield, dry matter production, and climatic factors. Eight sowing dates were set at 15- to 20-d intervals from mid-March to mid-July during 2012 and 2013 in the Huang-Huai-Hai region of China. When the sowing date was delayed, the yield increased initially and later declined, and the greatest yield was obtained at 12 June (SD6) sowing date for both years. (continued)

      Published: October 30, 2015

    • Guang Chu, Zhiqin Wang, Hao Zhang, Jianchang Yang and Jianhua Zhang
      Agronomic and Physiological Performance of Rice under Integrative Crop Management

      Agronomic and physiological performances of a crop are closely associated with the yield and resource use efficiency. This study investigated if an integrative crop management (ICM) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) could improve agronomic and physiological performances and, consequently, increase grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and water use efficiency (WUE). A japonica hybrid rice cultivar was field-grown in 2012 and 2013. Three treatments were conducted: no N application, local high-yielding cultivation method (LHY), and ICM. (continued)

      Published: October 16, 2015

    • Chen Dong, Lingzhi Shao, Minjuan Wang, Guanghui Liu, Hui Liu, Beizhen Xie, Bowei Li, Yuming Fu and Hong Liu
      Wheat Carbon Dioxide Responses in Space Simulations Conducted at the Chinese Lunar Palace-1

      Since the industrial revolution, anthropogenic activities, such as fossil fuel use and deforestation, have caused a dramatic increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. To understand how the growth and development in cereal crops may respond to elevated CO2, it is necessary to determine if the leaves of crops grown in a closed artificial ecosystem have a fully developed photosynthetic apparatus and whether or not photosynthesis in these leaves is more responsive to an elevated CO2 concentration. To address this issue, we evaluated the response of the photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant capacity, and water use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under four CO2 concentrations (500, 1000, 3000, and 5000 ppm) for 3 d in Lunar Palace-1, which is the first bioregenerative life support system developed in China. The results showed that wheat cultivated at 1000 ppm from vegetative growth to maturity was characterized by more appropriate relative water content, membrane stability index, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll concentration, and antioxidant capacity, which was more beneficial to growth and development in a closed artificial environment. (continued)

      Published: October 9, 2015

    • George Y. Mahama, P. V. Vara Prasad, Kraig L. Roozeboom, Jesse B. Nippert and Charles W. Rice
      Response of Maize to Cover Crops, Fertilizer Nitrogen Rates, and Economic Return

      Leguminous cover crops are considered part of sustainable agricultural systems. With the development of no-till cropping systems, cover crops have been recognized for their ability to provide N for succeeding crops. The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine the N contribution of summer cover crops and double-cropped grain crops following winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and N rates to subsequent maize (Zea mays L.) crops’ physiological traits and yield, (ii) to calculate the fertilizer N replacement value, and (iii) to perform economic analyses of the cropping systems. Field experiments were conducted during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 growing seasons in Kansas. (continued)

      Published: October 9, 2015

    • George Y. Mahama, P. V. Vara Prasad, Kraig L. Roozeboom, Jesse B. Nippert and Charles W. Rice
      Cover Crops, Fertilizer Nitrogen Rates, and Economic Return of Grain Sorghum

      Leguminous cover crop systems have been envisaged as a critical component of sustainable agriculture because of their potential to increase soil productivity by cycling C and N in agricultural systems. Our objectives were to: (i) determine the effects of including summer cover crops and N rates in the cropping system on the growth and yield of the succeeding grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crop, (ii) calculate the N fertilizer replacement value (NFRV) and evaluate economic returns, and (iii) determine the most cost-effective cropping system. Field experiments were conducted for two seasons in Kansas. Leguminous summer cover crops and double-cropped soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] residues improved soil N availability; N was subsequently used by the succeeding crop. (continued)

      Published: October 9, 2015


    • Henry Y. Sintim, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Augustine K. Obour, Axel Garcia y Garcia and Thomas K. Foulke
      Evaluating Agronomic Responses of Camelina to Seeding Date under Rain-Fed Conditions

      The potential to use camelina (Camelina sativa L.) as a bioenergy crop has increased the need to develop management practices that would improve sustainable production. This study evaluated the effects by cultivars (Blaine Creek, Pronghorn, and Shoshone) and three spring seeding dates on the performance of camelina grown under rain-fed conditions in northern Wyoming. Results showed significant effects of cultivar and/or seeding dates on camelina establishment, phenology, yield, seed protein, oil content, and estimated biodiesel yield. Growing degree-day (GDD) requirements for plant emergence, flowering, and maturity were 34, 417, and 998, respectively. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Kurtis D. Reitsma, David E. Clay, Sharon A. Clay, Barry H. Dunn and Cheryl Reese
      Does the U.S. Cropland Data Layer Provide an Accurate Benchmark for Land-Use Change Estimates?

      Even though the cropland data layer (CDL) has been used in policy discussions it has not been independently validated using publically available information. The projects objective was to conduct an independent validation of the CDL. South Dakota was selected as a model system because it is located in a climate transition zone, with row crop production being the dominant practice in eastern South Dakota and the grazing of grassland being the dominant practice in western South Dakota. High resolution imagery was used to determine land-uses (cropland, grassland, non-agricultural, habitat, and water) at 14,400 points in 2006 and 2012. (continued)

      Published: November 6, 2015

    • David C. Nielsen, Drew J. Lyon, Robert K. Higgins, Gary W. Hergert, Johnathon D. Holman and Merle F. Vigil
      Cover Crop Effect on Subsequent Wheat Yield in the Central Great Plains

      Crop production systems in the water-limited environment of the semiarid central Great Plains may not have potential to profitably use cover crops because of lowered subsequent wheat (Triticum asestivum L.) yields following the cover crop. Mixtures have reportedly shown less yield-reducing effects on subsequent crops than single-species plantings. This study was conducted to determine winter wheat yields following both mixtures and single-species plantings of spring-planted cover crops. The study was conducted at Akron, CO, and Sidney, NE, during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 wheat growing seasons under both rainfed and irrigated conditions. (continued)

      Published: October 30, 2015

    • Alexander J. Lindsey and Peter R. Thomison
      Drought-Tolerant Corn Hybrid and Relative Maturity Yield Response to Plant Population and Planting Date

      Non-transgenic drought-tolerant (Tol) corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids may be a tool to help growers manage for precipitation variability during the growing season. However, there is little agronomic research on these hybrids in the eastern U.S. Corn Belt. A field study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 at three Ohio locations (Hoytville, South Charleston, and Wooster) to investigate the yield response of two Tol hybrids compared to two conventional (Con) hybrids of similar relative maturity at five populations (59,000; 74,000; 89,000; 104,000; and 124,000 plants ha–1) planted in May and June. (continued)

      Published: October 30, 2015

    • Christopher G. Misar, Lan Xu, Roger N. Gates, Arvid Boe, Patricia S. Johnson, Christopher S. Schauer, John R. Rickertsen and Walter W. Stroup
      Establishment and Persistence of Yellow-Flowered Alfalfa No-Till Interseeded into Crested Wheatgrass Stands

      Crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn., A. desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult., and related taxa] often exists in near monoculture stands in the northern Great Plains. Introducing locally adapted yellow-flowered alfalfa [Medicago sativa L. (continued)

      Published: October 27, 2015

    • Matt A. Sanderson, Robert Stout and Geoffrey Brink
      Productivity, Botanical Composition, and Nutritive Value of Commercial Pasture Mixtures

      Pastures in the northeastern United States are often planted to mixtures of grasses and legumes. We evaluated several commercial seed mixtures to determine if the number of species in mixture affected yield and botanical composition in central Pennsylvania. Three replicate plots of 25 mixtures, five each of two, three, four, five, and six species of grasses and legumes were planted in August 2007 near State College, PA. Plots were grazed by beef cows for 3 yr. (continued)

      Published: October 16, 2015

    • Brian K. Northup and Srinivas C. Rao
      Effects of Legume Green Manures on Forage Produced in Continuous Wheat Systems

      Inorganic N fertilizers are important to continuous systems of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) in the U.S. southern Great Plains (SGP). Costs have increased in recent years and resulted in producers considering summer-grown legumes as green N sources. (continued)

      Published: October 16, 2015


    • Stephen Mason, Tomie Galusha and Zaher Kmail
      Soybean Yield and Nodulation Response to Crop History and Inoculation

      Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] inoculation was imposed on a long-term continuous grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and soybean cropping systems study with and without manure application at Mead, NE. The objective was to determine the influence of 28-yr history of continuous grain sorghum and soybean production, inoculation, and manure on soybean yield and nodulation. Average 2-yr soybean grain yield was 0.5 Mg ha–1 greater on plots with continuous grain sorghum crop history rather than soybean history, even after this history was broken by 2-yr crop rotation with grain sorghum in the 2 yr previous to the evaluation. Continuous production of soybean in the same field is undesirable, and besides short-term loss of yield from lack of crop rotation, also leads to long-term soybean yield reductions. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015


    • Erin C. Hill, Karen A. Renner and Christy L. Sprague
      Cover Crop Impact on Nitrogen Availability and Dry Bean in an Organic System

      Cover crops could play an important role in increasing nutrient availability and crop yield in organic systems. This study had two main objectives, (i) compare the effects of medium red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), and oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cover crops on N availability and dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth and yield and (ii) compare the use of ion exchange resin and chlorophyll content monitoring with traditional soil KCl extractions for determining soil inorganic N availability. Red clover increased soil inorganic N up to 55 kg ha–1, resulting in delayed maturity and greater grain N in some site-years; population and yield were not affected. Rye reduced soil inorganic N and caused early maturity of bean in some site-years; at maximum dry biomass production (12.8 Mg ha–1) rye reduced dry bean yield. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Denise M. Finney, Charles M. White and Jason P. Kaye
      Biomass Production and Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio Influence Ecosystem Services from Cover Crop Mixtures

      Increasing plant diversity in agroecosystems with cover crops has been a successful strategy to augment ecosystem services from agriculture, and increasing diversity of cover crops may provide even greater benefits. Productivity and ecosystem services from multi-species cover crop mixtures were measured in a 2-yr field study of 18 cover crop treatments preceding conventionally tilled corn in central Pennsylvania. Increasing the number of species in a stand increased cover crop biomass (R2 = 0.15). However, mixing cover crop species that were complementary in phenology or N acquisition strategy did not result in mixtures that produced more biomass than high yielding monocultures. (continued)

      Published: October 9, 2015


    • Rodrigo Werle, Amit J. Jhala, Melinda K. Yerka, J. Anita Dille and John L. Lindquist
      Distribution of Herbicide-Resistant Shattercane and Johnsongrass Populations in Sorghum Production Areas of Nebraska and Northern Kansas

      Overreliance on acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides for weed control during the 1990s resulted in selection of ALS-resistant shattercane [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) de Wet ex Davidse] biotypes in Nebraska. The objective of this study was to assess the baseline presence of ALS-resistance in 190 shattercane and 59 johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.] populations collected across northern Kansas, northwestern Missouri, and southern Nebraska in 2013. In 2014, a preliminary field experiment was conducted to evaluate the presence of herbicide resistance in the aforementioned populations. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015


    • Xuekuan Miao, Xiaoming Xing, Yanfeng Ding, Jian Ke, Zhenghui Liu, She Tang, Chengqiang Ding, Shaohua Wang and Ganghua Li
      Yield and Nitrogen Uptake of Bowl-Seedling Machine-Transplanted Rice with Slow-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer

      Slow-release N fertilizer is considered an effective method of improving the N use efficiency (NUE). To investigate yield and N uptake of bowl-seedling machine-transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) with slow-release N fertilizer, three fertilizers treatments including slow-release fertilizer blend (SFB), polymer-coated urea (PCU), and sulfur-coated urea (SCU), and two fertilizer methods including single basal application (B), and combined with tillering urea (BT) were performed from 2013 to 2014 in Jiangsu Yellow Sea Farm of China. Conventional split fertilization (CK) and zero N treatment (N0) are controls. Yield and NUE improvement was found in PCU under both fertilization methods in both years when compared with the CK. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Henry Y. Sintim, Albert T. Adjesiwor, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, M. Anowarul Islam and Augustine K. Obour
      Nitrogen Application in Sainfoin under Rain-Fed Conditions in Wyoming: Productivity and Cost Implications

      Leguminous crops such as sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) have low N2 fixation; hence, supplementary N is usually provided to realize maximum yield. Nonetheless, N application should be justified by economic benefit to the cropping system. This study evaluated the productivity, nutritive value, and cost implications of N application in sainfoin under rainfed conditions at high elevations in Wyoming. The study was a 2-factorial experiment set in a randomized complete block design with four replications, where four cultivars (Delaney, Remont, Rocky Mountain, and Shoshone) and four N rates (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha−1) were the treatments. (continued)

      Published: November 6, 2015

    • Honggang Bu, Lakesh K. Sharma, Anne Denton and David W. Franzen
      Sugar Beet Yield and Quality Prediction at Multiple Harvest Dates Using Active-Optical Sensors

      Yield prediction in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is important as a basis for in-season N application. Active optical sensors have been researched in sugar beet for yield estimation. A common field method for using active-optical sensors is to establish an N non-limiting area, and compare the yield predicted from sensor readings with readings from the rest of the field. Yield difference is the basis for calculation of N rate. (continued)

      Published: November 6, 2015

    • Miriam F. Gieske, Victoria J. Ackroyd, Dean G. Baas, Dale R. Mutch, Donald L. Wyse and Beverly R. Durgan
      Brassica Cover Crop Effects on Nitrogen Availability and Oat and Corn Yield

      Cover crops are used to scavenge residual soil nitrate, with the goal of reducing N losses from agricultural fields and increasing subsequent N availability. Two experiments were conducted to determine fall-planted brassica cover crops’ effect on N availability for rotational crops. The first evaluated five species—brown mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern], hybrid turnip (Brassica rapa L. × B. (continued)

      Published: October 27, 2015


    • M. Scott Wells, S. Chris Reberg-Horton and Steven B. Mirsky
      Planting Date Impacts on Soil Water Management, Plant Growth, and Weeds in Cover-Crop-Based No-Till Corn Production

      Low input and organic farmers are utilizing cover crop mulches in corn (Zea mays L.) production. Corn planting is typically delayed to improve the efficacy of mechanical termination with roller-crimpers. During the late spring, as cover crops are allowed to grow to maximize biomass production, soil moisture reserves can become depleted, thereby directly impacting early season growth of the subsequent cash crop. A 4 site-year study was conducted in North Carolina (Goldsboro, Kinston, and Salisbury) to evaluate the effects of timing of corn planting after roller-crimping a cover crop mulch, on soil moisture, crop stand, weed pressure and corn yield. (continued)

      Published: October 27, 2015

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