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Agronomy Journal : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research in crops, soils, and agronomy. Articles are compiled into bimonthly issues at www.agronomy.org/publications/aj, which includes the complete archive. Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Zhu, Q., M.J. Schlossberg, R.B. Bryant, and J.P. Schmidt. 2012. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. doi:10.2134/agronj2012.0157

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Current issue: Agron. J. 107(3)



  • AGRONOMIC APPLICATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES

    • Guicheng Song, Chenliang Jiang, Xiaoyang Ge, Quanzhan Chen and Canming Tang
      Pollen Thermotolerance of Upland Cotton Related to Anther Structure and HSP Expression

      High temperature stress influences pollen grains development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) anthers, resulting in anthers with an abnormal structure and pollen grains with a low germination rate. To examine the thermotolerance mechanisms of pollen grains in upland cotton, we observed pollen germination rates, pollen grain ultrastructure, anther structure, and the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes in pollen grains after the plants were continuously exposed to high temperatures (36/30°C) in a phytotron for 8 h every day over a period of 10 d. After the high-temperature treatment, the pollen germination percentage of the heat-sensitive cultivar was reduced compared with the heat-tolerant cultivar, and the structure of indehiscent anthers and the ultrastructure of pollen grains in the heat-sensitive cultivar were more abnormal than that in the heat-tolerant cultivar. There were more abnormal mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuoles as well as fewer starch granules in the pollen grains of the heat-sensitive cultivar compared with the heat-tolerant cultivar. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0458
      Published: April 17, 2015



    • H. Y. Tian, S. A. Channa and S. W. Hu
      Heterotic Grouping and the Heterotic Pattern among Chinese Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.) Accessions

      Heterotic groups and patterns are extremely important in hybrid breeding. Nine elite inbreds widely used in Chinese rapeseed hybrid breeding programs were crossed in a diallel mating design to develop 36 hybrids. These hybrids and their parents were evaluated for two successive years in northern China. Five different methods, which were based on specific combining ability (SCA) effects, SCA-Yang’s effects, molecular markers, heterotic group specific and general combining ability, and heterotic grouping based on the general combining ability of multiple traits, were compared for their ability to classify the tested inbreds into heterotic groups. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0557
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • AGRONOMY, SOILS & ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    • Ardell D. Halvorson and Catherine E. Stewart
      Stover Removal Affects No-Till Irrigated Corn Yields, Soil Carbon, and Nitrogen

      Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal can increase yields under no-till (NT) in climates where cold spring soil temperatures delay emergence and plant growth. The study objective was to evaluate partial stover removal (PR) effects on irrigated NT corn grain and stover yields, N uptake, and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TSN) compared to full stover retained (FR) under three N treatments on a clay loam soil. Stover removal (average 66%) increased early spring soil temperatures and enhanced early plant development compared to FR. Grain and stover yields increased with increasing N rate, as did plant N and C uptake, but varied with stover treatment. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0074
      Published: May 22, 2015



    • Francirose Shigaki and Curtis J. Dell
      Comparison of Low-Cost Methods for Measuring Ammonia Volatilization

      Nitrogen fertilizer use to improve crop production is increasing worldwide, and subsequent N losses via NH3 emissions generate undesirable economic and environmental consequences. Thus, low cost and practical methods to quantify NH3 emissions are essential for the development of management practices that minimize environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to compare different methods to quantify NH3 loss following urea application to a grass field and indoor soil boxes. The methods tested were: semi-open chamber (SOC), open-collector (OC), closed chamber (CC), and a recirculating chamber (RC). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0431
      Published: May 15, 2015



    • Shujie Miao, Keqin Zhou, Yueyu Sui, Xingyi Zhang and Xiaobing Liu
      Impact of Eight-Year Topsoil Removal and Soil Amendments on Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission in an Eroded Chinese Mollisols

      Soil erosion is a serious environmental issue. Information in the severity of soil erosion on CO2 emission is limited. A soil erosion simulation experiment was used to examine the influence of topsoil removal and cattle manure amendment on soil CO2 emission for a cultivated Mollisols in Northeast China. Soil CO2 flux was determined during corn (Zea mays L.) growing season. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0515
      Published: April 24, 2015



    • Hiran Marcelo Siqueira da Silva, José Carlos Batista Dubeux, Maria Lúcia Silveira, Erinaldo Viana de Freitas, Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos Santos and Mário de Andrade Lira
      Stocking Rate and Nitrogen Fertilization Affect Root Decomposition of Elephantgrass

      Roots are an important component controlling grassland sustainability. They can act as a C sink of atmospheric CO2 and supply essential nutrients for plant growth. Pasture management strategies intended to increase forage and animal production can also affect root biomass, root composition, and root decomposition. This 2-yr study evaluated the effects of N fertilization and stocking rate (SR) on root decomposition and root chemical composition of grazed elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0618
      Published: May 8, 2015



    • Krzysztof J. Jankowski, Wojciech S. Budzyński, Łukasz Kijewski and Tadeusz Zając
      Biomass Quality of Brassica Oilseed Crops in Response to Sulfur Fertilization

      Rapeseed [Brassica napus (L.)], white mustard [Sinapis alba (L.)], and Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Coss] belong to the family Brassicaceae. These crop species synthesize substantial amounts of fat, protein, and glucosinolates (GLS). Brassica species can differ in their concentrations of fat, protein, and GLS in response to S fertilization. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0386
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • BIOMETRY, MODELING & STATISTICS

    • Manyowa N. Meki, Jim R. Kiniry, Adel H. Youkhana, Susan E. Crow, Richard M. Ogoshi, Mae H. Nakahata, Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá, Ray G. Anderson, Javier Osorio and Jaehak Jeong
      Two-Year Growth Cycle Sugarcane Crop Parameter Attributes and Their Application in Modeling

      The renewed interest in the use of sugarcane (Saccharin officinarum L.) for biofuel could provide a viable market for potential Hawaiian sugarcane feedstock producers. In Hawaii, sugarcane is grown as an irrigated 2-yr cycle crop. There is however little information on crop parameter attributes of 2-yr cycle sugarcane. This field study on Maui, Hawaii, analyzed the relationship between sugarcane biomass accumulation and specific crop parameters. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0588
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • CLIMATOLOGY & WATER MANAGEMENT

    • Dariusz P. Malinowski and William E. Pinchak
      Summer Dormancy Trait as a Strategy to Provide Perennial Cool-Season Grass Forage Alternatives in Southern Latitude Environments Affected by Climate Change

      Climate change and extreme weather events are affecting agriculture, water supplies, ecosystems, energy use, and the socio–economic system in the southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States and other semiarid regions of the world. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the crops with the ability to compensate for these weather extremes. Wheat is often managed as a dual-use crop in the SGP, providing winter forage for cattle and grain. In the 1970s and 1980s, introduced cool-season perennial grasses were an important source of high quality forage to complement dual-use wheat and perennial native and introduced warm-season grass pastures. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0628
      Published: April 17, 2015



  • CROP ECOLOGY & PHYSIOLOGY

    • Bruno Bouffier, Jeremy Derory, Alain Murigneux, Matthew Reynolds and Jacques Le Gouis
      Clustering of Environmental Parameters Discriminates Drought and Heat Stress Bread Wheat Trials

      Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely cultivated crop worldwide and faces a wide range of stresses. To make effective crop improvement decisions, environmental characterization is of paramount importance. This study presents a new methodology for characterizing the environment that enables replacing the conventional arbitrary classification of the environment by a series of environmental covariates that capture and describe the stresses the plant encounters. Three CIMMYT bread wheat populations, combining complementary heat and drought adaptive traits, were grown over 3 yr in northwestern Mexico under limited irrigation, heat stress, and irrigated conditions. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0452
      Published: May 22, 2015



    • Jin Zhao, Xiaoguang Yang, Xiaomao Lin, Gretchen F. Sassenrath, Shuwei Dai, Shuo Lv, Xiaochao Chen, Fanjun Chen and Guohua Mi
      Radiation Interception and Use Efficiency Contributes to Higher Yields of Newer Maize Hybrids in Northeast China

      A significant trend of decreasing solar radiation has been observed in Northeast China over the past six decades. Such a decline in solar radiation could negatively impact maize (Zea mays L.) production. The improved cultivated hybrids may have adapted to these changes in solar radiation. In this study, four commonly cultivated maize hybrids in Northeast China were selected for a 2-yr field study. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0510
      Published: May 22, 2015



    • Ahmed Attia, Nithya Rajan, Glen Ritchie, Song Cui, Amir Ibrahim, Dirk Hays, Qingwu Xue and Jim Wilborn
      Yield, Quality, and Spectral Reflectance Responses of Cotton under Subsurface Drip Irrigation

      In the semiarid Texas Rolling Plains, the growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is driven by the amount of water available to the crop through irrigation and precipitation. A field study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at Chillicothe, TX, to investigate the growth, yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and spectral reflectance responses of cotton. A split-split plot design with three replications was used with irrigation as the main plot (three irrigation levels and dryland), tillage (no tillage and conventional tillage) as the subplot, and cultivars (PHY499, DP1044, PHY375, and FM9170) as the sub-subplot treatments. Plant height, lint yield, WUE, and fiber quality were significantly affected by irrigation and irrigation × cultivar interaction. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0502
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • CROP ECONOMICS, PRODUCTION & MANAGEMENT

    • Yi Wang, Matthew D. Ruark, Amanda J. Gevens, Don T. Caine, Amanda L. Raster, Nicholas J. Goeser and Alvin J. Bussan
      Processing Snap Bean Variety Responses to Applied Nitrogen and Irrigation in the North Central United States

      Irrigated processing snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Wisconsin, mostly in the central sands region, ranks first in both yield and harvested hectarage in the U.S. However, there is little information assessing N need across processing snap bean varieties under different irrigation strategies on sandy soils. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of N rate and irrigation on yield, pod quality, and other agronomic traits across different varieties with known differences in nodulation. Results indicated that nodulating varieties such as DMC04-95 consistently produced higher yields than the non-nodulating variety Huntington by 3.5 to 4.3 Mg ha–1. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0406
      Published: May 22, 2015



    • José Alberto García-Salazar and Rhonda Skaggs
      Strategies for White and Yellow Maize Cultivar Improvement Research and Technology Transfer in Mexico

      The Mexican federal government recently implemented a program to increase Mexico’s maize (Zea mays L.) production through development and diffusion of technological packages incorporating improved seed cultivars. The initiative is known as MasAgro, Modernización Sustentable de la Agricultura Tradicional (i.e., Program of Sustainable Modernization of Traditional Agriculture). Mexico’s diverse maize production sector requires research and technology transfer of white and yellow maize produced under rainfed and irrigated conditions by both traditional and commercially oriented farmers. A spatial and intertemporal Mexican maize sector model was formulated to assess three strategies for targeted cultivar development and optimized spatial distribution of maize production to improve Mexico’s food security. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0429
      Published: May 15, 2015



    • M. Baseggio, Y. C. Newman, L. E. Sollenberger, C. Fraisse and T. Obreza
      Stolon Planting Rate Effects on Tifton 85 Bermudagrass Establishment

      Cultivar Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is often propagated using stolons, but the planting rate required for successful establishment varies under different soil conditions and on-farm irrigation management. In the sandy soils of the U.S. Gulf Coast, desiccation of planting material can occur rapidly even under irrigated conditions due to variable on-farm irrigation management, and few studies have evaluated stolon planting rate effects under these conditions. The objective was to assess the effect of stolon planting densities on establishment of Tifton 85. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0188
      Published: April 24, 2015



  • PEST INTERACTIONS IN AGRONOMIC SYSTEMS

    • Thomas Björkman, Carolyn Lowry, Joseph W. Shail, Daniel C. Brainard, Daniel S. Anderson and John B. Masiunas
      Mustard Cover Crops for Biomass Production and Weed Suppression in the Great Lakes Region

      Short-season cover cropping can be an important weed management tool. To optimize the use of mustard [Sinapis alba L. and Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] in the Great Lakes region, we assessed planting time effects, mustard biomass production, and weed suppression during mustard growth and after incorporation. The study was conducted in Illinois, Michigan, and New York for spring and fall from 2010 to 2012. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0461
      Published: April 17, 2015



  • REVIEW & INTERPRETATION

    • Jerry L. Hatfield and Charles L. Walthall
      Meeting Global Food Needs: Realizing the Potential via Genetics × Environment × Management Interactions

      Global food needs are projected to double by 2050 to feed the 9 billion people and the challenge presented to agriculture is whether this is feasible. These goals will be faced with an increasing variability in climate and more extremes in temperature and precipitation in all parts of the world and a decreasing land resource base in extent and quality. There are many challenges to be faced; however, focusing on the interactions of genetics × environment × management (G × E × M) offers the potential to feed the 9 billion. Understanding and quantifying yield gaps offer a framework to assess the progress, and the challenge will be to determine the most effective and efficient way of closing the yield gap by using water and nutrients more efficiently. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0076
      Published: April 17, 2015



    • Quirine M. Ketterings, Sheryl N. Swink, Sjoerd W. Duiker, Karl J. Czymmek, Douglas B. Beegle and William J. Cox
      Integrating Cover Crops for Nitrogen Management in Corn Systems on Northeastern U.S. Dairies

      Northeastern U.S. (New York, Pennsylvania, and New England states) dairy farmers are increasingly interested in improving soil health, nutrient sequestration, and dry matter production. Consequently, farmers ask about managing winter cover crops (WCCs) in corn silage (Zea mays L.) rotations. In this literature review we identify WCCs most suitable to the Northeast, and summarize studies on (i) fall and spring N accumulation, (ii) nitrogen fertilizer replacement value (NFRV) for the next corn crop, and (3) environmental and management variables that affect N uptake and NFRV. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0385
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • SOIL FERTILITY & CROP NUTRITION

    • Gilles Bélanger, Noura Ziadi, Denis Pageau, Cynthia Grant, Jean Lafond and Judith Nyiraneza
      Shoot Growth, Phosphorus–Nitrogen Relationships, and Yield of Canola in Response to Mineral Phosphorus Fertilization

      Crop responses to increasing P fertilization are often variable and poorly related to soil P test. Our objectives were to determine the influence of P fertilizer on the growth and seed yield of canola (Brassica napus L.) and to develop a first approximation of its critical phosphorus concentration (Pc) in shoot biomass. An experiment with four rates of P fertilizer (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg P ha–1) was conducted on soils with a low available P content at 5 site-years [Normandin (QC; 2010, 2011, 2012) and Brandon (MB; 2010, 2012)] in Canada. Dry matter (DM) yield, and N and P concentrations were measured weekly on 5 d from early bolting to late flowering, and seed yield was measured at harvest. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0050
      Published: May 22, 2015



    • Shasha Luo, Lin Zhu, Jianliang Liu, Lingduo Bu, Shanchao Yue, Yufang Shen and Shiqing Li
      Mulching Effects on Labile Soil Organic Nitrogen Pools under a Spring Maize Cropping System in Semiarid Farmland

      Understanding the response of labile soil organic nitrogen (SON) pools to soil surface mulching is essential in identifying changes in soil N availability. Three treatments included non-mulched (CK), gravel-mulched (GM), and plastic film-mulched (FM), based on a 5-yr spring maize (Zea mays L.) field experiment in northwestern China. Compared with the CK, the GM and FM treatments significantly increased the grain yield and aboveground biomass, while had no effect on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents after 5 yr of this study. Compared with the CK, the GM and FM treatments significantly decreased light fraction organic N by 12.2 and 6.5 mg kg–1, respectively, and extractable organic N by 7.7 and 9.3 mg kg–1 in the 0- to 20-cm layer; while significantly increased water soluble organic N by 1.6 and 1.5 mg kg–1 in the 0- to 20-cm layer, respectively, and by 1.3 and 1.2 mg kg–1 in the 20- to 40-cm layer after 4 yr of this study. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0643
      Published: May 22, 2015



    • Lucas R. Amaral, José P. Molin and James S. Schepers
      Algorithm for Variable-Rate Nitrogen Application in Sugarcane Based on Active Crop Canopy Sensor

      Nitrogen fertilization is challenging for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) producers due to its complex interaction with the crop and soil. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a feasible approach to guide variable-rate N application in sugarcane based on canopy sensor readings. This study was conducted for 5 yr. Several plot and strip N-rate experiments were conducted under a wide range of crop conditions in Brazil and evaluated with the Crop Circle active canopy sensor (Holland Scientific Inc.). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0494
      Published: May 22, 2015



    • Kristin M. Trippe, Stephen M. Griffith, Gary M. Banowetz and Gerald W. Whitaker
      Changes in Soil Chemistry following Wood and Grass Biochar Amendments to an Acidic Agricultural Production Soil

      The ability of biochars that are produced by biomass gasification to remediate acidic production soils is generally not as well known in comparison to biochars resulting from pyrolysis. A recent characterization of biochar produced from gasification of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) seed screenings (KB) suggested that KB biochar might have utility in remediation of acidic agricultural production soils where aluminum uptake limits wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth. A replicated greenhouse pot study was conducted in which single plants of wheat were grown for 74 d in a Freeman (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquandic Palexeralf) or Bernhill (fine-loamy, isotic, mesic Vitrandic Haploxeralf) soil amended with biochars produced by gasification of either KB seed screenings or chipped conifer tree tops. Addition of either biochar to the soils immobilized soil-Al. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0593
      Published: May 15, 2015



    • Péter Kovács, George E. Van Scoyoc, Thomas A. Doerge, James J. Camberato and Tony J. Vyn
      Anhydrous Ammonia Timing and Rate Effects on Maize Nitrogen Use Efficiencies

      Current guidance and equipment technologies permit anhydrous ammonia (NH3) to be confidently placed parallel to crop rows in both before- and after-planting situations at shallower depths than traditional applications. Field studies from 2010 to 2012 investigated the effects of pre-plant vs. side-dress NH3 at four N rates (0, 90, 145, and 202 kg N ha–1) on maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield (GY), N recovery efficiency (NRE), and N use efficiency (NUE). All NH3 was injected to a 12-cm depth; pre-plant NH3 was banded parallel to, but approximately 15 cm offset from, intended rows a few days before planting. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0350
      Published: April 17, 2015



    • T. Morier, A. N. Cambouris and K. Chokmani
      In-Season Nitrogen Status Assessment and Yield Estimation Using Hyperspectral Vegetation Indices in a Potato Crop

      The rate and timing of N applications are important issues in precision agriculture because of the within-field spatial and temporal variability of soil N availability. In-season assessment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop N status (CNS) is required to better match N fertilizer supply to crop N demand and improve N use efficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of hyperspectral vegetation indices (HVIs) to assess the CNS and tuber yield of irrigated ‘Russet Burbank’ potato at different growth stages. A 2-yr field experiment was conducted near Quebec City, QC, Canada, on plots receiving five different N rates ranging from 0 to 280 kg N ha–1, with 40% applied at planting and 60% at hilling. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0402
      Published: May 8, 2015



    • Kurt Steinke, Jeff Rutan and Luke Thurgood
      Corn Response to Nitrogen at Multiple Sulfur Rates

      Early planting into cooler soils, increased nutrient removal by higher yielding hybrids, and reduced atmospheric S depositions suggest reassessing S application strategies for corn (Zea mays L.) in Michigan. In 2012 and 2013, field studies were initiated to evaluate corn response to S and N applications by measuring S and N plant concentrations, uptake, grain yield, and agronomic efficiency (AE). The study was arranged as a split-plot randomized complete block with four replications. Main plots consisted of three S rates (0, 23, and 45 kg S ha–1) while subplots consisted of six N rates (0, 56, 112, 169, 225, and 281 kg N ha–1). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0424
      Published: May 8, 2015



    • Judith Nyiraneza, Rick D. Peters, Vernon A. Rodd, Mark G. Grimmett and Yefang Jiang
      Improving Productivity of Managed Potato Cropping Systems in Eastern Canada: Crop Rotation and Nitrogen Source Effects

      Strategies to improve sustainability are important in intensively managed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) systems. This study has assessed rotation systems and N sources to mitigate potato yield and soil organic matter decline in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Three-year potato rotation systems were initiated in 2006: continuous potato (CP); potato–barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) underseeded with red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)–red clover (PBR); and potato–barley–sorghum sudan grass ([Sorghum bicolor L.) used as green manure])/winter rape (Brassica napus subsp. rapifera) (PBSW); and potato–barley–canola ([Brassica napus susbsp. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0430
      Published: May 22, 2015



  • SOIL TILLAGE, CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT

    • Jalal D. Jabro, William M. Iversen, William Bart Stevens, Robert G. Evans, Maysoon M. Mikha and Brett L. Allen
      Effect of Three Tillage Depths on Sugarbeet Response and Soil Penetrability Resistance

      Tillage can alter soil properties and affect crop yield and quality. A 4-yr study was conducted on a Lihen sandy loam soil loam (sandy, mixed, frigid Entic Haplustoll) to evaluate the effect of tillage depth on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root yield, root quality, and soil penetration resistance (PR). Tillage treatments consisted of no-tillage (NT), shallow tillage (ST), and deep tillage (DT). Soil PR was measured with a penetrometer in 2.5-cm increments to a 40-cm depth at three locations within each plot. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0561
      Published: May 22, 2015



    • Mahdi M. Al-Kaisi, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, David Kwaw-Mensah and Fernando Miguez
      Tillage and Crop Rotation Effects on Corn Agronomic Response and Economic Return at Seven Iowa Locations

      Corn yield (Zea mays L.) and economic return with different tillage systems and crop rotations are highly influenced by regional soil and climate conditions. This study was conducted at seven locations in Iowa from 2003 to 2013. The experiment design was split-plot with tillage as the main factor, which included five tillage systems (no-tillage, NT; strip-tillage, ST; chisel plow, CP; deep rip, DR; and moldboard plow, MP).Three crop rotations of corn–soybean (Glycine max L.), C–S; corn–corn–soybean, C–C–S; and corn–corn, C–C were subplots in a completely randomized block design in four replications. The objectives were to: (i) investigate seasonal variability in corn yield as affected by tillage and crop rotation, (ii) identify appropriate tillage for each crop rotation and location, and (iii) evaluate the magnitude of crop rotation effect on corn yield. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0470
      Published: May 22, 2015



    • Edwin L. Ritchey, Donald D. Tyler, Michael E. Essington, Michael D. Mullen and Arnold M. Saxton
      Nitrogen Rate, Cover Crop, and Tillage Practice Alter Soil Chemical Properties

      Long-term management practices can influence many physical and chemical soil properties. This study investigated the influence of 14 yr of continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) management systems on soil pH, soil organic C (SOC), and exchangeable cations. Management practices consisted of varying N rate, tillage (no-tillage [NT] or disk tillage [DT]), and cover crop on a Lexington silt loam soil (Ultic Hapludalf) in the absence of lime additions. Lower soil pH was present in NT, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L.) cover treatments and with increasing N rate but similar between 0- to 7.5- and 0- to 15-cm sample depths. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0226
      Published: April 24, 2015



    • William B. Stevens, Robert G. Evans, William M. Iversen, Jalal D. Jabro, Upendra M. Sainju and Brett L. Allen
      Strip Tillage and High-Efficiency Irrigation Applied to a Sugarbeet–Barley Rotation

      Strip tillage (ST) and high-efficiency overhead irrigation methods reduce fuel and water inputs compared to conventional practices, but have not been extensively evaluated in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.)–malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cropping systems. A field study comparing conventional tillage (CT) and ST systems and two sprinkler irrigation methods (mid-elevation spray application, MESA; low-energy precision application, LEPA) was conducted near Sidney, MT, from 2004 to 2008. Strip tillage was performed (for sugarbeet only) using a single operation that left alternating 30-cm wide strips of tilled and untilled soil while fertilizer was simultaneously banded 10 cm below the seed row. Conventional tillage for sugarbeet consisted of six separate tillage operations following a broadcast application of fertilizer. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0525
      Published: April 17, 2015



    • Fabián G. Fernández, Brad A. Sorensen and Maria B. Villamil
      A Comparison of Soil Properties after Five Years of No-Till and Strip-Till

      Recent research in Illinois suggests that yield increase in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] with strip-till (ST) vs. no-till (NT) could be explained by differences in root characteristics and enhanced nutrient uptake in ST. However, the effect of these tillage practices on soil properties remains unclear. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0549
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • SYMPOSIUM: STATISTICAL CONCEPTS

    • Barry Glaz, Jochum Wiersma, Jose A. Hernandez, Nicolas F. Martin and Kathleen M. Yeater
      Introduction to the Statistical Concepts Symposium Section: Selected Review Topics to Improve Our Understanding and Use of Statistics

      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0888
      Published: February 27, 2015
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  • SYMPOSIUM: WATER SECURITY TASK FORCE

    • Neil C. Hansen
      Blue Water Demand for Sustainable Intensification

      The agricultural challenge of meeting global food demand requires an increase in the level of agricultural water productivity and some increases in global water use. But many arid or semiarid agricultural regions of the world are facing declining water availability for irrigation. Examples of declining groundwater availability are seen throughout arid and semiarid areas of North America, Africa, and Asia. Relevant to water demand for sustainable intensification of agriculture, this paper touches on concepts where policy can work toward improving water productivity, including: (i) assessing crop water use and productivity, (ii) promoting cultural practices for increasing crop water productivity, (iii) improving efficiency of green water use, and (iv) protecting agricultural water supplies. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0138
      Published: August 22, 2014



    • John C. Peck
      Legal Challenges in Government Imposition of Water Conservation: The Kansas Example

      This article deals with legal challenges in conserving water in the United States, using Kansas as an example. The focus is on one aspect of American water allocation law—the extent to which a state can force reductions in pumping by holders of water rights. It explains the hybrid nature of water rights, which on the one hand are “real property rights,” and yet on the other hand they are viewed as rights only to use water and not to own the water itself. Because they are a kind of property right, they are protected by the fifth amendment to the U.S. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0058
      Published: August 8, 2014



    • Claudia Ringler and Tingju Zhu
      Water Resources and Food Security

      Agricultural water use includes a continuum from purely rainfed to fully irrigated systems. Growing pressures on limited water supplies from domestic, industrial, and environmental uses will likely lead to a decline in water availability for food production. Similarly, income growth and urbanization lead to dietary shifts that require more water resources per calorie consumed, putting further pressures on water supplies. As a result, semiarid and arid countries continue to increase net imports of food. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0256
      Published: July 18, 2014



    • B. A. Stewart and G. A. Peterson
      Managing Green Water in Dryland Agriculture

      Green water is the portion of precipitation that is stored in the soil, or temporarily stays on top of the soil or vegetation during the growing season. Eventually, part of it is used by plants as transpiration and the amount of water transpired is directly related to biomass production. For grain crops, a portion of the biomass is grain, and the ratio of grain to biomass is the harvest index. The portion of precipitation that becomes green water generally increases with increasing precipitation. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0038
      Published: June 20, 2014



    • Jerry L. Hatfield
      Environmental Impact of Water Use in Agriculture

      Agriculture is an important component of the hydrologic cycle and the use of water in agricultural production is necessary to feed the world’s population and provide ecosystem services. As the population increases there is more concern about the potential role of agriculture on environmental quality and the role water management has on environmental quality. Water use by agricultural systems through evapotranspiration effects both the plant and the surrounding microclimate and the modification of the microclimate is a major environmental impact from agricultural water use. Sources of water for agriculture are from direct use of precipitation and indirect through irrigation from either surface or groundwater resources. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0064
      Published: May 23, 2014



    • Lois Wright Morton
      Achieving Water Security in Agriculture: The Human Factor

      It is widely recognized that achieving water security will take substantive investments in hydrology, engineering, soil science, agronomy, and a wide variety of physical and natural sciences and technologies. Less understood is the human aspect, the social science of beliefs, values, human perceptions and decision-making, social relationships, and social organization that intentionally and unintentionally construct, destroy, and reconstruct the water and land resources to which society is intimately linked. Addressing the complex issues of water security will require humans to acknowledge the threats to security and a willingness to give priority to assuring water quality, water availability, and water access to meet the needs of a growing world population and their economic engines. Soil–water–vegetation–climate–human relationships are central to maintaining and repairing the hydrological cycle necessary for fresh, safe, and abundant water supply. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0039
      Published: May 23, 2014



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