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Agronomy Journal : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/aj, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Zhu, Q., M.J. Schlossberg, R.B. Bryant, and J.P. Schmidt. 2012. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. doi:10.2134/agronj2012.0157

Current issue: Agron. J. 108(4)



  • AGRONOMIC APPLICATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES

    • Xiaocong Zhang, HongJun Yong, Lin Zhang, Xianjun Liu, Jinge Hua, Chaoshu Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Jianfeng Weng, Zhuanfang Hao, Degui Zhang, Mingshun Li, Shihuang Zhang, Zhenhua Wang and Xinhai Li
      Genetic Diversity of Seven Representative Germplasm Populations in Chinese Maize Breeding Programs

      Knowledge of the genetic diversity of elite germplasm is of fundamental importance for crop improvement. The objectives of this study were to examine molecular genetic diversity within and among seven representative germplasm populations in China, and identify valuable allelic variation that may be used in maize (Zea mays L.) improvement. Thirty individuals from each of the populations were genotyped using 61 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are uniformly distributed across the entire maize genome. A total of 308 alleles were detected in the 210 genotypes assayed. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Molecular genetic diversity within and among seven representative germplasm populations in Chinese maize breeding programs.
      • Alleles unique within each population or those at highly different frequencies among populations can be used to distinguish the seven maize populations and allow their efficient utilization in germplasm improvement.
      • Molecular characterization of the seven diverse maize populations will contribute to their efficient management and effective utilization in maize improvement.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.02.0073
      Published: July 21, 2016



  • AGRONOMY, SOILS & ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    • Alexandra Keith, Balwant Singh, Feike A. Dijkstra and Floris van Ogtrop
      Biochar Field Study: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Productivity, and Nutrients in Two Soils

      Application of biochar to soil has potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, store C for long-term and provide agronomic benefits. However, the extent of these benefits are dependent on the type of biochar used and the environmental system in which it has been placed. While there are a large number of laboratory and glasshouse experiments, the number of biochar field studies is still limited. We conducted a 2-yr field study to evaluate the effect of a wood-based (blue mallee; Eucalyptus polybractea) biochar on GHG fluxes, pasture biomass, soil nutrient leaching, and nutrient uptake under different fertilizer rates in two soils (Arenosol and Cambisol) under a perennial pasture. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • A wood-based biochar was added to two soil types in a 2-yr field study.
      • Biochar had minimal effect on soil greenhouse gas emissions.
      • Biochar had no effect on plant biomass or soil leachate nutrient concentration.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.02.0074
      Published: July 21, 2016



    • Kun Han, Xue Han, Dell J. Curtis, Peter J.A. Kleinman, Dong Wang and Linquan Wang
      Impact of Irrigation, Nitrogen Fertilization, and Spatial Management on Maize

      Improving water and N use efficiency is essential to the sustainable intensification of irrigated agriculture, providing both crop production and environmental benefits. Partial root-zone irrigation has emerged as one of the most promising forms of deficit irrigation, irrigating only one side of the root zone during an irrigation event while keeping the other side dry. By alternating partial root-zone irrigation with N fertilization it is a possible trigger to physiologic responses in growing crops that reduce evapotranspiration as well as to curtail nitrate leaching associated with conventional irrigation. A growing body of research reveals that careful manipulation of irrigation and N fertilizer application increases maize yield, water use efficiency, and N use efficiency while decreasing soil N leaching, N2O emission, and NH3 loss. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Part of the root system in drying soil could respond to drying by sending root-sourced signals, such as abscisic acid, to the shoots where some of stomata may be closed to reduce water loss by evapotranspiration, but with little effect on photosynthesis.
      • Partial root-zone irrigation could increase water use efficiency and nitrogne use efficiency, and improve fruits quality.
      • The separation of nitrogen and water with alternating furrow irrigation could not only keep the benefit of water saving due to soil re-watering and re-drying, but also have an effective strength on N use and reducing N leaching.
      • The soil moisture with fertilized furrows is co-related to the availability and losses of nutrients, which has a major role on the benefits of separation of nitrogen and water with alternating furrow irrigation.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2015.0551
      Published: June 29, 2016



  • BIOMETRY, MODELING & STATISTICS

    • Mahendra Dia, Todd C. Wehner and Consuelo Arellano
      Analysis of Genotype × Environment Interaction (G×E) Using SAS Programming

      Genotype × environment interaction (G×E) can lead to differences in the performance of genotypes across environments. A G×E analysis can be used to analyze the stability of genotypes and the value of test locations. We developed a SAS program (SASG×E) that calculates univariate stability statistics, descriptive statistics, pooled and yearly ANOVA, genotypic and location variation, cluster analysis for location, and correlations among stability parameters. Univariate stability statistics calculated are Wricke’s ecovalence (Wi2), Shukla’s variance (σi2), Lin and Binns cultivar superiority measure (Pi), Francis and Kannenberg coefficient of variation (CVi), Kang’s yield stability statistic (YSi), Perkins and Jinks β (βi), regression slope (bi), and deviation from regression (Sd2). (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Genotype × environment interaction can lead to differences in genotype performance.
      • G×E analysis can analyze genotype stability and the value of test locations.
      • SASG×E uses SAS and R programming to compute uni- and multi-variate stability statistics.
      • SASG×E output includes univariate stability statistics, ready to go input files, and R code for AMMI and GGE biplot analysis, ANOVA, descriptive statistics, cluster analysis of location, rank correlation among stability parameters, and Pearson correlation of location with average location performance.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.02.0085
      Published: June 29, 2016



  • CROP ECOLOGY & PHYSIOLOGY

    • A. Varmaghani and W. E. Eichinger
      Early-Season Classification of Corn and Soybean Using Bayesian Discriminant Analysis on Satellite Images

      There are numerous applications that require crop classification as early as possible in the growing season. However, information about land cover from official land cover maps of the United States (cropland data layer [CDL] maps by the National Agricultural Statistics Service) are generally not available until after harvest. In the Upper Midwest, the primary rotating crops are corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (covering ~63% of Iowa) with an irregular annual rotation. This study investigated the feasibility of early-season classification of corn and soybean fields in Iowa by comparing the current and previous years’ 30-m 16-d Landsat 8 images during the growing season to produce normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) maps, along with the last-updated CDL land cover, to construct “agricultural units.” We assigned a geometric weight to each unit by performing Bayesian discriminant analysis using the concept of a sliding threshold to categorize pixels. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Classification of corn and soybeans in Iowa is important early in the season.
      • Bayesian discriminant analysis and field geometry were combined with a sliding threshold.
      • This geometrical approach is a promising method for early-season crop classification.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2015.0454
      Published: July 21, 2016



  • CROP ECONOMICS, PRODUCTION & MANAGEMENT

    • Jennifer L. Corbin, John M. Orlowski, Dustin L. Harrell, Bobby R. Golden, Larry Falconer, L. Jason Krutz, Jeffrey Gore, Michael S. Cox and Timothy W. Walker
      Nitrogen Strategy and Seeding Rate Affect Rice Lodging, Yield, and Economic Returns in the Midsouthern United States

      Seeding rate and N application strategies have been extensively researched for drill-seeded, delayed flood rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in the midsouthern United States. However, little economic analysis has been performed to determine the effects of seeding rate and N fertilization strategies on high-yielding, lodging susceptible rice cultivars. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of multiple N fertilization strategies and seeding rates on rice lodging and grain yield and use the data to determine optimal rice management practices based on evaluation of economic returns. Studies were established in Louisiana and Mississippi during the 2010 and 2012 growing seasons. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Split N application in rice limits lodging but also reduce grain yield.
      • High N rates and seeding rates increase lodging and harvest costs.
      • Appropriate early-season (preflood) N is necessary to maximize rice grain yield.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.03.0128
      Published: July 21, 2016



    • Wes Weeks, Michael P. Popp, Montserrat Salmeron, Larry C. Purcell, Edward E. Gbur, Fred M. Bourland, Normie W. Buehring, Larry Earnest, Felix B. Fritschi, Bobby R. Golden, Daniel Hathcoat, Josh Lofton, Angela Thompson McClure, Travis D. Miller, Clark Neely, Grover Shannon, Theophilus K. Udeigwe, David A. Verbree, Earl D. Vories, William J. Wiebold and Bruce L. Dixon
      Diversifying Soybean Production Risk Using Maturity Group and Planting Date Choices

      While soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production risk is typically managed by planting a range of maturity groups (MGs) across a few different planting dates (PDs), there have been no reports that have quantified changes in risk and profitability using this diversification strategy. Three years of field-trial data from eight locations in six states were analyzed to determine risk–return tradeoffs across MG and PD. Producer revenue expectations were adjusted by soybean harvest date, assessing oil and meal premiums or discounts, and differential irrigation requirements by MG and PD, whereas costs for seed, fuel, fertilizer, equipment, and chemicals were held constant. Using portfolio theory, an efficient frontier—maximizing net returns for a given level of risk or minimizing risk for a given level of net return—was estimated by location. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Producers often like to diversify by planting across a range of dates and maturity groups.
      • Diversification is common but risk–return tradeoffs have not been meaningfully quantified.
      • Early-season planting combinations were riskier but led to sale price premiums.
      • Using two to six combinations lowered risk by 29–40% but decreased returns by 2–22%.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.01.0056
      Published: July 21, 2016



    • C. L. Keene and W. S. Curran
      Optimizing High-Residue Cultivation Timing and Frequency in Reduced-Tillage Soybean and Corn

      Integrated weed management (IWM) practices are needed to prevent the development of herbicide-resistant weeds and create more robust weed management programs. This experiment was conducted to determine the optimal timing and frequency of high-residue cultivation in reduced-tillage soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and corn (Zea mays L.) in Pennsylvania. Banded herbicides were applied at planting and high-residue cultivation frequency ranged from one to three passes. A split-plot assessed the effects of cover crop residue, either cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) in soybean or a hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)-triticale (X Triticosecale Wittm.) mixture in corn, on weed control and yields. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • New integrated weed management approaches are greatly needed in reduced-tillage systems to help preempt the continued evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds.
      • High-residue interrow cultivation following banded herbicide application at planting is an in-season weed management program that combines mechanical and chemical weed control tactics. Under conditions of the experiment, two passes with a high-residue cultivator achieved similar cash crop yield as a post-glyphosate application in soybean and corn. Single-pass treatments usually resulted in higher weed biomass and lower yields than two-pass treatments, and no weed control or crop yield benefit was observed with three passes.
      • Rolled cereal rye and hairy vetch–triticale cover crop residues increased soybean and corn yields, respectively, in dry years despite increasing weed biomass.
      • Economic analyses indicated that the benefit to cash crop yield from cover crop residues will not likely exceed establishment costs in every year; however in dry years, residues can increase cash crop yield beyond breakeven levels. The higher seed cost of the hairy vetch–triticale used before corn was able to pay for itself if N provided by the hairy vetch was assumed to offset the cost of urea fertilizer.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2015.0604
      Published: July 14, 2016



    • Wenhai Mi, Xin Yang, Lianghuan Wu, Qingxu Ma, Yanling Liu and Xuan Zhang
      Evaluation of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Cultivation Methods for Agronomic Performance of Rice

      Nitrogen fertilization and cultivation methods are the two principal management approaches used in agronomy to determine the growth and grain yield of rice. In this study, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of three cultivation methods (conventional manual transplanting of field-grown seedlings [TFS], direct seeding [DS], and transplantation of glasshouse-grown seedlings followed by manual transplanting [TGS]) under two N management treatments (split applications of urea [PU] vs. a single basal application of a controlled-release fertilizer [CRF]) for growing rice under a subtropical monsoon climate in China (2011–2014). Annual grain yield, yield components, and total biomass were determined at maturity over the 4-yr experiment. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Controlled-release fertilizer increased the grain yield compared with urea for transplanting rice.
      • Split applications of urea produced more grain yield than controlled-release fertilizer for direct seeding rice.
      • Conventional manual transplanting of field-grown seedlings and glasshouse-grown seedlings followed by manual transplanting produced higher grain yield than direct seeding, irrespective of how N was managed.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.01.0038
      Published: June 29, 2016



  • ORGANIC AGRICULTURE & AGROECOLOGY

    • Elina M. Snyder, Heather D. Karsten, William S. Curran, Glenna M. Malcolm and Jeffrey A. Hyde
      Green Manure Comparison between Winter Wheat and Corn: Weeds, Yields, and Economics

      Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) are leguminous crops (“green manure” hereafter), widely studied for their N2-fixing contributions to cropping systems. Under certain circumstances they can provide weed control in cash crops. This study compared weed control, crop yields, herbicide use, and economic performance of these green manures in a no-till winter cereal–green manure–corn (Zea mays L.) silage cropping sequence in central Pennsylvania. Red clover was interseeded into winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or rye (Secale cereale L.), while hairy vetch and triticale (X Triticosecale) were planted after winter cereal harvest. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • As a green manure, red clover provided multiple benefits over hairy vetch and triticale.
      • Red clover underseeded in winter grain, produced continuous cover, forage, and higher corn yield.
      • Compared to hairy vetch and triticale, red clover controlled weeds with less herbicide.
      • Red clover was more profitable than hairy vetch.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.02.0084
      Published: July 21, 2016



    • J. T. Spargo, M. A. Cavigelli, S. B. Mirsky, J. J. Meisinger and V. J. Ackroyd
      Organic Supplemental Nitrogen Sources for Field Corn Production after a Hairy Vetch Cover Crop

      Legume cover crops and organic amendments in combination could meet corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) needs while optimizing phosphorus (P) inputs. In a 2-yr field study, we characterized the N-mineralization dynamics and impacts on corn grain yield of feather meal (FM), poultry litter (PL), pelletized PL (PPL), and a PPL-FM blend (PFMB) with or without a hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) cover crop. The four amendments, which differed substantially in chemical and laboratory N-release characteristics, provided corn yield benefits only when vetch biomass was low. In 2010, vetch produced 4630 kg biomass ha−1 and increased corn grain yield from 8.7 to 13.3 Mg ha−1 compared with a no-vetch treatment. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Impact of organic amendments on corn grain yield depends on vetch biomass production.
      • Organic amendments did not increase corn yield when vetch biomass was >4500 kg ha–1.
      • Vetch provided no benefit to corn yield when biomass was <1600 kg ha–1.
      • Organic amendments increased corn yield when vetch biomass was <1600 kg ha–1.
      • Amendments applied at 45 kg N ha–1 did not raise concerns about residual P.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2015.0485
      Published: July 14, 2016



    • Kristen Podolsky, Robert E. Blackshaw and Martin H. Entz
      A Comparison of Reduced Tillage Implements for Organic Wheat Production in Western Canada

      Low-tillage systems are needed to improve soil conservation in organic farming. This study evaluated three no-till/low-till cover crop termination strategies on the basis of weeds, N dynamics and growth and yield of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) test crop. Field experiments were conducted in two different Canadian provinces. The blade roller, flail mower, and undercutter cultivator were comparable with standard tillage for controlling a full-season barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)–pea (Pisum sativum L.) cover crop. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Alternative tillage tools were tested for control of cover crops preseeding spring wheat.
      • Perennial weeds meant low tillage options were not feasible when wheat seeding was delayed.
      • Undercutting liberated more cover crop N than blade roll but weeds sometimes captured this N.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.01.0032
      Published: June 29, 2016



    • Suellen B. de M. Costa, Alexandre C. L. de Mello, José C. B. Dubeux, Mércia V. F. dos Santos, Mario de A. Lira, João T. C. Oliveira and Valéria X. O. Apolinário
      Livestock Performance in Warm-Climate Silvopastures Using Tree Legumes

      Tree legumes are a viable option to increase ecosystem services provided by warm-climate grasslands. Benefits of using tree legumes in silvopasture systems (SPS) include the provision of shade for livestock, biological N2 fixation, and C sequestration. This study assessed cattle performance and pasture characteristics in signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) pastures in monoculture or in SPS. The following treatments were assessed: (i) signalgrass/sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.), (ii) signalgrass/gliricidia [Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp.], and (iii) signalgrass monoculture. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Livestock production was similar in silvopasture systems and signalgrass monoculture.
      • Silvopasture systems provided additional ecosystem services compared with grass monoculture.
      • The use of tree legumes adds biologically fixed N2 and provide other ecosystem services.
      • Trees compete with herbaceous vegetation and might reduce livestock production in the long term.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.03.0180
      Published: June 24, 2016



  • REVIEW & INTERPRETATION

    • Dave Franzen, Newell Kitchen, Kyle Holland, James Schepers and William Raun
      Algorithms for In-Season Nutrient Management in Cereals

      The demand for improved decision-making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objectives of this work were to describe validated in-season sensor-based algorithms presently being used in cereal grain production systems for improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and cereal grain yields. A review of research programs in the central Great Plains that have developed sensor-based N recommendations for cereal crops was performed. Algorithms included multiple land-grant university, government, and industry programs. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Normalized difference vegetation index algorithms can improve fertilizer N efficiency.
      • Normalized difference vegetation index sensors currently sold employ these algorithms.
      • Algorithms rely on knowledge that increased yields increase fertilizer N demand.
      • Yield potential and N response are independent.
      • Nitrogen-rich strips help to predict in-season grain yields.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.01.0041
      Published: July 14, 2016



    • J. L. Guil-Guerrero, L. Ramos, C. Moreno, J. C. Zúñiga-Paredes, M. Carlosama-Yepez and P. Ruales
      Plant Foods By-Products as Sources of Health-Promoting Agents for Animal Production: A Review Focusing on the Tropics

      In recent years there has been an increasing trend toward antibiotic use for animal production in tropical countries. As a suitable alternative to such drugs, several highly available plant-food by-products are reviewed here as supplements to feed farm animals. Such materials contain bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, saponins, essential oils, active peptides, and sterols. Phenolics are abundant in mango, avocado, and potato peels and are also found in pineapple and papaya by-products. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Crop by-products from tropical countries contain high levels of bioactive compounds.
      • Mango, avocado, and potato peels contain high concentrations of phenolics.
      • By-products of tropical origin could help against microbial resistance to antibiotics.
      • Carotenoids stand out in papaya by-products and essential oils in mango peels.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2015.0555
      Published: July 14, 2016



  • SOIL FERTILITY & CROP NUTRITION

    • Tai Maaz, William Pan and W. Hammac
      Influence of Soil Nitrogen and Water Supply on Canola Nitrogen Use Efficiency

      Nitrogen fertilizer requirements for economic optimization of spring canola (Brassica napus L.) production in eastern Washington varies with yield potential. Recent research has revealed that more N is needed per unit of grain (UNR) as yield potential decreases. Because UNR is the inverse of N use efficiency (NUE) at optimal yield, the implication of this research is that canola becomes less efficient at using N as yield potential decreases. Our research goal was to identify the NUE components that contribute to higher potential yields with more available water. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Spring canola exhibited Mitscherlich response to soil N and Liebig response to plant N.
      • Water availability limited yields by restricting N utilization, retention, and uptake.
      • Water availability limited grain N accumulation by lowering N uptake from soil.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.01.0008
      Published: June 29, 2016



    • Bijesh Maharjan, Carl J. Rosen, John A. Lamb and Rodney T. Venterea
      Corn Response to Nitrogen Management under Fully-Irrigated vs. Water-Stressed Conditions

      Characterizing corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield (GY) response to N is critical for maximizing profits, increasing N use efficiency and minimizing environmental impacts. Although a large database of GY response to N exists for highly productive soils, few data exist for less productive soils. While changes in precipitation are expected in the future, few studies have compared GY response to varying N management practices under conditions of varying water availability. We measured GY and basal stalk nitrate nitrogen (BSN) at harvest using split-applied urea at eight N rates under fully-irrigated (FI) and water-stressed (WS) conditions in a loamy sand over 2 yr (2009 and 2010). (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Better understanding of water stress effects on corn response to N is needed.
      • We measured yield response to N management with full irrigation and under water-stress.
      • Optimum N rate did not vary by water management despite significant yield differences.
      • Optimizing fertilizer timing or source increased yield but only with full irrigation.
      • Basal stalk nitrate was higher with water-stress than with full irrigation.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.01.0006
      Published: June 24, 2016



    • R. Sakurada L., M. A. Batista, T. T. Inoue, A. S. Muniz and P. H. Pagliari
      Organomineral Phosphate Fertilizers: Agronomic Efficiency and Residual Effect on Initial Corn Development

      This research investigated the efficiency and residual effects of two solid organomineral fertilizers on corn (Zea mays L.) shoot dry matter (SDM), P uptake, P recovery index, P use efficiency index, accumulated SDM (ASDM), and total P uptake. This was a greenhouse pot study where organomineral-granulated (OG) fertilizer, organomineral-pelletized (OM) fertilizer, and inorganic fertilizer mix (MM) were tested on a Eutropherric Red Latossol clay soil (Oxisol). Phosphorus (P) rates were 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg kg−1. Two plants were grown in each pot for 35 d before harvest; this cropping cycle was repeated consecutively four times on the same pots. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Organomineral fertilizers made with different techniques yield fertilizers with different P availability.
      • We observed a different residual effect among the mineral and organomineral fertilizers.
      • The P release kinetics of the mineral fertilizer are different compared with the organomineral.
      • The P content extracted by water in the fertilizers is the main index of the phosphate fertilizer efficiency.

      doi:10.2134/agronj2015.0543
      Published: July 14, 2016



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