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Agronomy Journal : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research in crops, soils, and agronomy. Articles are compiled into bimonthly issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/aj, which includes the complete archive. Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Zhu, Q., M.J. Schlossberg, R.B. Bryant, and J.P. Schmidt. 2012. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. doi:10.2134/agronj2012.0157

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Current issue: Agron. J. 107(4)



  • AGRONOMIC APPLICATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES

    • Sayareh Irani, Mohammad Mahdi Majidi, Aghafakhr Mirlohi, Mahnaz Zargar and Mostafa Karami
      Assessment of Drought Tolerance in Sainfoin: Physiological and Drought Tolerance Indices

      The physiological basis of genetic variation in drought response and its association with forage yield and drought tolerance indices is not clear in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.). In this study, 100 sainfoin genotypes from 10 ecotypes were clonally propagated and evaluated under non-stressed and water deficit conditions during 2 yr. Physiological traits including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid content, proline content, relative water content (RWC), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, dry matter yield (DMY), and stress tolerance index (STI) were studied. Large genotypic variation was observed among ecotypes for most of the studied traits indicating that selection in this germplasm would be useful. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0131
      Published: July 10, 2015



  • AGRONOMY, SOILS & ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    • Tracy M. Wilson, Blake McGowen, Jeremiah Mullock, D. B. Arnall and Jason G. Warren
      Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Continuous Winter Wheat in the Southern Great Plains

      Fertilizer-induced N2O-N emissions (the difference between fertilized and unfertilized soils) are estimated to be 0.01 kg N2O-N kg–1 of applied N. One approach to limiting N2O-N production in soils is by improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in dryland agricultural systems. However, baseline data on the rate of emissions is needed to determine the potential impact that these efforts might have on N2O-N concentrations in the atmosphere. A study was established in a long-term continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fertility experiment in Stillwater, OK, to determine the effects of N rate on N2O-N emissions from a dryland winter wheat–summer fallow system in the southern Great Plains of the United States to fill this knowledge gap. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0096
      Published: July 20, 2015



    • Resham Thapa, Amitava Chatterjee, Jane M.F. Johnson and Rakesh Awale
      Stabilized Nitrogen Fertilizers and Application Rate Influence Nitrogen Losses under Rainfed Spring Wheat

      Nitrogen losses associated with fertilizer application have negative economic and environmental consequences, but urease and nitrification inhibitors have potential to reduce N losses. The effectiveness of these inhibitors has been studied extensively in irrigated but not in rainfed systems. This study was conducted at Glyndon, MN, under rainfed conditions to assess the impact of urease and nitrification inhibitors on NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and NO3 concentrations below the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rooting zone. Urea (U), urea with urease and nitrification inhibitors (SU), and urea with nitrification inhibitor only (UI) were applied at 146 and 168 kg N ha–1 along with the control treatments. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0081
      Published: July 20, 2015



    • Stephen Machado, Larry Pritchett and Steven Petrie
      No-Tillage Cropping Systems Can Replace Traditional Summer Fallow in North-Central Oregon

      Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–summer fallow (WW–SF) using conventional tillage (CT), the predominant cropping system in eastern Oregon, has increased soil erosion and depleted soil organic carbon (SOC). This research evaluates no-tillage (NT) systems designed to reduce these negative impacts on soil. In this long-term experiment (2004–2010), WW–SF using CT was compared with annual winter wheat (WW–WW), annual spring wheat (SW–SW), annual spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (SB–SB), winter wheat–chemical fallow (WW–CF), winter wheat–winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) (WW–WP), and winter wheat–spring barley–chemical fallow rotation (WW–SB–CF), using NT. Measurements included, phenology, plant population, grain yield and yield components, residues, SOC, soil moisture, and precipitation. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0511
      Published: July 20, 2015



    • Bennett C. T. Macdonald, Ian J. Rochester and Anthony Nadelko
      High Yielding Cotton Produced without Excessive Nitrous Oxide Emissions

      Excessive N fertilizer use leads to enhanced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems. The objective of the study was to quantify nitrous oxide emissions from the ridges within a furrow-irrigated field during the growth of a cotton crop that had been fertilized with urea at 0, 120, 200, or 320 kg N ha–1. No measurements were taken from the furrows; we assumed similar N2O emissions from the furrows in this system. The N2O emissions increased exponentially with N fertilizer rate. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0369
      Published: June 25, 2015



    • Xianlong Peng, Yanming Yang, Cailian Yu, Linan Chen, Mingcong Zhang, Zhilei Liu, Yankun Sun, Shenguo Luo and Yuanyin Liu
      Crop Management for Increasing Rice Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Northeast China

      Poor management is the main reason for high N losses and reduced yield in rice production. Improved crop management in northeastern China is becoming increasingly important due to economic pressures in southern and central China along with rising temperatures in the Northeast, which have led to a major shift in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production to this region. Here, we examine the opportunities for improving the yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of irrigated rice in northeastern China by optimizing nutrients and increasing the transplanting density. In 2009 to 2011, field experiments were conducted to compare optimized nutrient management (ONM) and optimized crop management treatments (OCM) with the farmers’ crop management (FCM) and no N treatment (control). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0013
      Published: June 25, 2015



  • BIOFUELS

    • Curtis B. Adams, John E. Erickson, David N. Campbell, Maninder P. Singh and Juan Pablo Rebolledo
      Effects of Row Spacing and Population Density on Yield of Sweet Sorghum: Applications for Harvesting as Billets

      As an emerging biofuel feedstock, sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] could perhaps most readily be integrated into sugarcane production systems where existing harvesters can be utilized to process the crop. This will require row spacing compatible with the harvesters, but the literature on row spacing and planting density in sweet sorghum is scarce and gives conflicting results. In North Florida in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons, we therefore examined the effects of row spacing configurations (61 and 76 cm single rows, 71 by 107 cm double rows (DR), and 35.5 by 35.5 by 107 cm triple rows) and initial plant population densities (74,100; 98,800; 123,500; and 148,200 plant ha–1) on fresh biomass yield, Brix, estimated sugar yield, and stem diameter. We found no advantage of multiple row configurations (double and triple rows) in 2012 on biomass yield, Brix, or estimated sugar yield, and a definitive disadvantage in 2013 compared to the single row treatments. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0295
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • Jacob M. Jungers, Adam T. Clark, Kevin Betts, Margaret E. Mangan, Craig C. Sheaffer and Donald L. Wyse
      Long-Term Biomass Yield and Species Composition in Native Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems

      Biomass yield is an important factor when recommending native perennial plants and mixtures for bioenergy production. Our objective was to determine long-term biomass yields in fertilized and unfertilized native plant monocultures and mixtures that show promise for bioenergy across diverse environments in the Upper Midwest. We measured biomass yields, species composition, and diversity annually in monocultures and mixtures ranging from 4 to 24 planted species including grasses, legumes, and other forbs; each managed with and without 67 kg N ha–1 fertilizer applied annually at nine locations for 7 yr. Without N fertilization, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) monocultures and an eight-species mixture of grasses and legumes produced the most biomass over locations and years (5.1 Mg ha–1). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0014
      Published: June 25, 2015



  • BIOMETRY, MODELING & STATISTICS

    • Bandara Gajanayake, K. Raja Reddy and Mark W. Shankle
      Quantifying Growth and Developmental Responses of Sweetpotato to Mid- and Late-Season Temperature

      The growth and developmental responses of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] to a wide range of temperatures have not been addressed extensively. The objectives of this study were to quantify temperature effects on growth, development, and biomass yield of sweetpotato during mid and late season. Four day/night temperature treatments, 25/17, 30/22, 35/27, and 40/32°C, were imposed after the storage root initiation stage, 17 d after transplanting (DAT). Growth and developmental parameters were recorded from plants harvested at 91 DAT. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0545
      Published: July 10, 2015



  • CLIMATOLOGY & WATER MANAGEMENT

    • B. Hao, Q. Xue, T. H. Marek, K. E. Jessup, J. Becker, X. Hou, W. Xu, E. D. Bynum, B. W. Bean, P. D. Colaizzi and T. A. Howell
      Water Use and Grain Yield in Drought-Tolerant Corn in the Texas High Plains

      Drought is an important factor limiting corn (Zea mays L.) yields in the Texas High Plains, and adoption of drought-tolerant (DT) hybrids could be a management tool under water shortage. We conducted a 3-yr field study to investigate yield, evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) in DT hybrids. One conventional (33D49) and 4 DT hybrids (P1151HR, P1324HR, P1498HR, and P1564HR) were grown at three water regimes (I100, I75, and I50, referring to 100, 75, and 50% ET requirement) and three planting densities (PD) (5.9, 7.4, and 8.4 plants m–2). Yield (13.56 Mg ha–1) and ET (719 mm) were the greatest at I100 but WUE (2.1 kg m–3) was the greatest at I75. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0133
      Published: July 20, 2015



  • CROP ECOLOGY & PHYSIOLOGY

    • Bablu Sharma, Cory I. Mills, Chase Snowden and Glen L. Ritchie
      Contribution of Boll Mass and Boll Number to Irrigated Cotton Yield

      The production of fruit on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varies with environment, cultivar, and management practices, including irrigation. Yield increase in response to irrigation is a combination of additional boll production on the plant and differences in the size of individual bolls. Previous research on this subject is incomplete. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of irrigation on boll distribution and boll size in four cotton cultivars in West Texas. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0024
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • Ruth E. Shaw and Wayne S. Meyer
      Improved Empirical Representation of Plant Responses to Waterlogging for Simulating Crop Yield

      Waterlogging causes apparent reductions in crop yields around the world. Crops undergo plant responses and adaptations due primarily to the reduction in soil oxygen concentrations in the plant root zone that occur during waterlogged conditions. Current methods of assessing and quantifying crop yield reductions due to waterlogging, such as the sum of excess water (SEW) and stress day index (SDI) accumulating methods, and the models DRAINMOD, Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), and Salt Water And Groundwater MANagement (SWAGMAN) Destiny (Destiny) do not include plant physiological adaptation processes that may limit or avoid reductions in crop yield. This paper analyses results from field trials to create a unifying concept that recognizes the various responses and adaptations of crops to waterlogging. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0625
      Published: June 25, 2015



    • Grace M. Bluck, Laura E. Lindsey, Anne E. Dorrance and James D. Metzger
      Soybean Yield Response to Rhizobia Inoculant, Gypsum, Manganese Fertilizer, Insecticide, and Fungicide

      From 2000 to 2013, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] grain commodity price increased by almost 300% generating interest in inputs to maximize yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of commonly sold inputs on soybean grain yield in enhanced (high-input) and traditional (low-input) production systems. Inputs evaluated included: Rhizobia inoculant, gypsum, Mn fertilizer, insecticide, and fungicide. A 16 site-year trial was established in Ohio during 2013 and 2014. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0094
      Published: July 2, 2015



  • CROP ECONOMICS, PRODUCTION & MANAGEMENT

    • C. B. Neely, C. Walsh, J. B. Davis, C. Hunt and J. Brown
      Investigation of Early Planted Winter Canola as a Dual-Purpose Crop for Silage and Seed Production

      Despite benefits to crop rotations and recent increases in value, the United States produces only a third of the canola (Brassica napus L.) it consumes. To encourage production expansion, an experiment in Moscow, ID, evaluated dual-purpose winter canola in a biennial system for forage and seed production. Two winter canola cultivars were sown at three planting densities (4.5, 6.7, and 9.0 kg ha–1) over four planting dates (May through September) in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011. Vegetative biomass during the first year was harvested and ensiled to determine silage quality. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0547
      Published: July 20, 2015



    • Valéria X. O. Apolinário, José C. B. Dubeux, Mário A. Lira, Rinaldo L. C. Ferreira, Alexandre C. L. Mello, Mércia V. F. Santos, Everardo V. S. B. Sampaio and James P. Muir
      Tree Legumes Provide Marketable Wood and Add Nitrogen in Warm-Climate Silvopasture Systems

      Warm-climate grasslands can be degraded by overgrazing and reduced soil fertility. However, legume trees integrated into these systems (silvopasture) can provide long-term marketable wood for sale and add N to the system. In addition, tree legumes can improve livestock diet by providing high crude protein forage. Our research assessed biomass and N accumulation by tree legumes: gliricidia [Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunthe] and sabia (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) grown in conventionally grazed signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf) pasture. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0624
      Published: July 20, 2015



    • R. L. Baumhardt, S. A. Mauget, P. H. Gowda, D. K. Brauer and G. W. Marek
      Optimizing Cotton Irrigation Strategies as Influenced by El Niño Southern Oscillation

      Equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies can cause a systematic El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) coupling with the atmosphere to produce predictable weather patterns in much of North America. Adapting irrigation strategies for drought-tolerant crops like cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to exploit forecast climatic conditions represents one potential innovative technique for managing the declining Ogallala Aquifer beneath the US Southern High Plains. The crop simulation model GOSSYM was used with ENSO phase-specific weather records during 1959 to 2000 at Bushland, TX, to estimate lint yields of cotton emerging on three dates from soil at 50 or 75% available water content for all possible combinations of irrigation durations (0, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wk) and rates (2.5, 3.75, and 5.0 mm d–1). From those data, our objective was to compare partial center pivot deficit irrigation strategies that optimize calculated net cotton lint yield in relation to ENSO phase, initial soil water content, and emergence date. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0471
      Published: July 20, 2015



    • P. R. Nash, K. A. Nelson and P. P. Motavalli
      Corn Response to Drainage and Fertilizer on a Poorly Drained, River Bottom Soil

      Poorly drained soils located in Missouri river bottoms have not traditionally been tile drained due to high clay content in the surface soil layers and low overall soil hydraulic conductivity. A combination of increased land and corn (Zea mays L.) grain prices along with increased variability and intensity of rainfall have stimulated interest in the region to utilize managed subsurface drainage (MD) to increase yields. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of subsurface tile drainage systems [no drainage (ND), free drainage (FD), and MD] and N fertilizer source (polymer-coated urea [PCU] or non-coated urea [NCU]) on corn yield in a poorly-drained river bottom soil. Abnormally dry growing seasons in 2011 to 2013 likely limited N loss, plant N uptake, and the subsequent yield response to PCU and drainage. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0380
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • Martin M. Williams
      Identifying Crowding Stress-Tolerant Hybrids in Processing Sweet Corn

      Improvement in tolerance to intense competition at high plant populations (i.e., crowding stress) is a major genetic driver of corn (Zea mays L.) yield gain the last half-century. Recent research found differences in crowding stress tolerance among a few modern processing sweet corn hybrids; however, an investigation of interactions with other factors would reveal a deeper understanding of crowding stress tolerance in sweet corn. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare yield, recovery, and processor profitability of sweet corn hybrids grown under conditions of crowding stress, and (ii) determine if an interaction exists between N fertilization and hybrid on crop response to crowding stress. Twenty-six hybrids were grown under suboptimal and supraoptimal N fertilization at 72,000 plants ha–1, a level beyond the optimal population of the most crowding stress-tolerant hybrid. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0011
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • Mark V. Brady, Katarina Hedlund, Rong-Gang Cong, Lia Hemerik, Stefan Hotes, Stephen Machado, Lennart Mattsson, Elke Schulz and Ingrid K. Thomsen
      Valuing Supporting Soil Ecosystem Services in Agriculture: A Natural Capital Approach

      Soil biodiversity through its delivery of ecosystem functions and attendant supporting ecosystem services—benefits soil organisms generate for farmers—underpins agricultural production. Yet lack of practical methods to value the long-term effects of current farming practices results, inevitably, in short-sighted management decisions. We present a method for valuing changes in supporting soil ecosystem services and associated soil natural capital—the value of the stock of soil organisms—in agriculture, based on resultant changes in future farm income streams. We assume that a relative change in soil organic C (SOC) concentration is correlated with changes in soil biodiversity and the generation of supporting ecosystem services. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0597
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • Diego N. L. Pequeno, Carlos G. S. Pedreira, Lynn E. Sollenberger, Ana F. G. de Faria and Liliane S. Silva
      Forage Accumulation and Nutritive Value of Brachiariagrasses and Tifton 85 Bermudagrass as Affected by Harvest Frequency and Irrigation

      Brachiaria and Cynodon are important pasture grasses in Brazil. Convert HD 364 (Dow AgroSciences, São Paulo, Brazil) brachiariagrass (Brachiaria hybrid CIAT 36087; also known as Mulato II) is a new hybrid released for use in a broad range of environments. It has high nutritive value and yield, but there are no year-round comparisons, including the dry season, with other pasture grasses. Forage accumulation and crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM) concentrations were evaluated for Convert HD 364, Marandu palisadegrass {B. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0115
      Published: July 2, 2015



    • Joe K. Lowe, Christopher N. Boyer, Andrew P. Griffith, Gary E. Bates, Patrick D. Keyser, John C. Waller, James A. Larson and William M. Backus
      Profitability of Beef and Biomass Production from Native Warm-Season Grasses in Tennessee

      Native warm-season grasses (NWSGs) have demonstrated potential to reduce summer forage variability, and furthermore, there has been growing interest in the use of NWSGs as lignocellulosic biomass crops. The objective of this research was to determine if there was a difference in net returns for full-season summer grazing beef steers (Bos taurus) on three NWSGs. Additionally, the expected price for biomass that a beef producer would need to break even between using the dual-purpose early-season grazing and biomass system and the full-season grazing system was calculated for these three NWSGs. Weaned beef steers grazed switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) (SG), a big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman) and indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash] mixture (BBIG), and eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.] at Grand Junction (AP) and Highland Rim (HR), TN, from 2010 to 2012. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0083
      Published: July 2, 2015



    • Chang-An Liu and Kadambot H.M. Siddique
      Does Plastic Mulch Improve Crop Yield in Semiarid Farmland at High Altitude?

      Crop yields have increased greatly due to the use of plastic-film mulching in dryland areas of China at low to mid-altitudes. However, its effect at high altitude remains unknown. We studied the effect of ridge–furrow with plastic-mulching practices on crop yields in semiarid farmland at high altitude (2400 m) from 2010 to 2011. The three treatments were as follows: (i) flat plot with no mulching (CK); (ii) alternating ridges (60-cm wide, 15-cm high) and furrows (60-cm wide) without plastic film (RF); and (iii) alternating ridges (60-cm wide, 15-cm high) and furrows (60-cm wide), with the ridges mulched with plastic film (RFM). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0052
      Published: June 25, 2015



    • Brian K. Northupl and Srinivas C. Rao
      Green Manures in Continuous Wheat Systems Affect Grain Yield and Nitrogen Content

      Continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) is the foundation for most US Southern Great Plains (SGP) agriculture. Inorganic N fertilizers are important to wheat production, but increasing N prices have caused producers to reconsider growing legumes during summer fallow for green N. This study was conducted during 2008 to 2012 to determine the potential for using lablab [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet cv. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0428
      Published: June 25, 2015



    • B. Lal, B. B. Panda, Priyanka Gautam, R. Raja, Teekam Singh, S. Mohanty, Md. Shahid, R. Tripathi, Anjani Kumar and A. K. Nayak
      Input–Output Energy Analysis of Rainfed Rice-Based Cropping Systems in Eastern India

      Crop and cultivar diversification in cropping systems may improve crop productivity and energy efficiency along with the sustainability of agricultural production in eastern India, but the choices may be made based on the cropping area. This study was conducted to examine the energy input–output relationship, energy requirement, and system productivity of rainfed rice (Oryza sativa L.) based cropping systems (Swarna rice–Annada rice–black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper var. mungo], Naveen rice–toria [Brassica rapa L. ssp. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0313
      Published: July 2, 2015



    • Yaping Xie, Yantai Gan, Yang Li, Junyi Niu, Yuhong Gao, Huihui An and Airong Li
      Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Nitrogen Accumulation, Translocation, and Use Efficiency in Dryland Oilseed Flax

      Oilseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) yields are primarily fertilizer-limited, especially by N supply in the semiarid regions of North China. This study was conducted to determine whether N accumulation, translocation and N use efficiency (NUE) could be manipulated through N. The effects of N on N translocation, oilseed flax yield, oil content and NUE were studied at Zhangjiakou, China. Plants were grown at 0, 45, 90, and 135 kg N ha–1 (designated as the control, low N, moderate N, and high N, respectively), in 2011 and 2012. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0602
      Published: July 24, 2015



  • CROP ECONOMICS, PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT

    • Dongxia Zhan, Chao Zhang, Ying Yang, Honghai Luo, Yali Zhang and Wangfeng Zhang
      Water Deficit Alters Cotton Canopy Structure and Increases Photosynthesis in the Mid-Canopy Layer

      Little is known about how water deficit affects cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) canopy architecture and the vertical distribution of photosynthesis within the canopy. The objective of this 2-yr field experiment was to determine the effects of reduced water supply on (i) surface area distribution within a cotton canopy, (ii) the transmission of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) within the canopy, and (iii) the contribution of leaves and non-leaf organs at different positions within the canopy to whole-canopy photosynthesis. The results showed that compared with conventional irrigation, water deficit reduced leaf surface area in the upper canopy layer by 20 to 46% and increased PAR transmission into the mid-canopy layer by 38 to 73%. Slight water deficit reduced leaf photosynthetic rates in the upper canopy layer by 24%, but increased leaf photosynthetic rates in the mid-canopy layer by 23% and the lower canopy layer by 79%. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0426
      Published: July 24, 2015



  • ERRATUM

    • Mahdi M. Al-Kaisi, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, David Kwaw-Mensah and Fernando Miguez
      Tillage and Crop Rotation Effects on Corn Agronomic Response and Economic Return at Seven Iowa Locations

      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0470er
      Published: July 24, 2015



  • NOTES & UNIQUE PHENOMENA

    • Antonio J. Hall and Thomas R. Sinclair
      Rooting Front and Water Uptake: What You See and Get May Differ

      Soil water extraction is a key function of plant roots, and in drought-stressed plants the differentiation in the location of roots in the soil and the location of water extraction has usually not been considered. In this experiment with maize (Zea mays L.) grown in columns of drying sand, there was a clear lag in the depth of the water extraction front with respect to the depth of rooting. Under water-deficit stress at least 10 cm to as much as 30 cm of the terminal segment of maize roots could not extract substrate water at measurable rates. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0551
      Published: July 10, 2015



  • ORGANIC AGRICULTURE & AGROECOLOGY

    • Sarah E. Eichler Inwood, Gary E. Bates and David M. Butler
      Forage Performance and Soil Quality in Forage Systems under Organic Management in the Southeastern United States

      Interest is increasing in organic forage production and sod-based rotations in the southeastern United States, but research-based information is limited. A replicated field study was established to evaluate productivity and soil quality changes in five organically-managed forage systems over 2 yr. Systems included four regionally-adapted perennial systems and one warm- and cool-season annual rotation: (i) alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), (ii) red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), (iii) alfalfa/orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), (iv) red clover/orchardgrass, and (v) an annual system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/crimson clover (T. incarnatum L.) followed by sorghum–sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor × S. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0472
      Published: June 25, 2015



  • SOIL FERTILITY & CROP NUTRITION

    • Xiaoxiao Lyu, Yuechao Yang, Yuncong Li, Xiaohui Fan, Yongshan Wan, Yuqing Geng and Min Zhang
      Polymer-Coated Tablet Urea Improved Rice Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency

      The high cost of coating materials prevents the wide use of controlled release urea (CRU). A large size polymer-coated tablet urea (PCTU) can be produced with <30% of coating materials used for traditional size of CRUs. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of a PCTU produced in our laboratory on root growth, grain yield, and N use efficiency on rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in a silt loam soil during two growing seasons. The PCTU, regular CRU and urea formaldehyde (UF) were applied into the soil one time before transplanting at the rate of 0.93 g N pot–1, while the conventional urea (U) treatment was applied three times in the tillering (40%), jointing (30%), and heading stages (30%). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0629
      Published: July 20, 2015



    • Krishna P. Woli, Dorivar A. Ruiz-Diaz, Daniel E. Kaiser, Antonio P. Mallarino and John E. Sawyer
      Field-Scale Evaluation of Poultry Manure as a Combined Nutrient Resource for Corn Production

      An on-farm study was conducted in Iowa from 2004 to 2006 at 18 sites to evaluate corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield (GY) and soil- and plant-test responses to poultry manure (PM) nutrient application at the field scale. A control and two target PM rates based on total N (PM-N) were applied in randomized field-length strips with three replications. Corn GY responded positively to PM applications. While N, P, and K plant and soil tests were related to PM nutrient rates, there was considerable variation, and relationships were probably influenced by the multiple applied nutrients. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0611
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • Alan J. Schlegel, Yared Assefa, H. Dewayne Bond, Scott M. Wetter and Loyd R. Stone
      Corn Response to Long-Term Applications of Cattle Manure, Swine Effluent, and Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilizer

      Cattle (Bos taurus) manure and swine (Sus scrofa) effluent are applied to cropland to recycle nutrients, build soil quality, and increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of land application of cattle manure and swine effluent using the Kansas Nutrient Utilization Plan on crop yield, yield components, and crop nutrient uptake. The study was conducted for 10 yr (1999 through 2008) near Tribune, KS. There were 10 treatments: three levels of cattle manure and swine effluent (P, N, and 2N), three levels of N fertilizer (N1 = 56, N2 = 112, and N3 = 168 kg N ha–1), and an untreated control. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0632
      Published: June 25, 2015



    • Adrien N’Dayegamiye, Joann K. Whalen, Gilles Tremblay, Judith Nyiraneza, Michèle Grenier, Anne Drapeau and Marie Bipfubusa
      The Benefits of Legume Crops on Corn and Wheat Yield, Nitrogen Nutrition, and Soil Properties Improvement

      Legume crops leave N-rich residues and improve soil properties that can boost the yield of subsequent crops. This study conducted at two sites in Québec, eastern Canada, identified the most appropriate preceding legume crops for subsequent corn (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and N nutrition. Legumes were established in 2011, in monoculture or mixed with grain crops, for a total of 13 treatments: common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), dry pea (Pisum sativum L.), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), hairy vetch/wheat, crimson clover/wheat, field pea/wheat, alfalfa/corn, hairy vetch/corn, crimson clover/corn) and a non-N fixing crop (corn) as the control. In 2012, each plot was split and five N fertilizer rates applied to corn and wheat. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0416
      Published: June 25, 2015



    • Eugenia M. Pena-Yewtukhiw, John H. Grove and Gregory J. Schwab
      Fertilizer Nitrogen Rate Prescription, Interpretational Algorithms, and Individual Sensor Performance in an Array

      Many sensors require algorithms/mathematical functions to translate measurements into practical outcomes. In arrays (sensor groups), the agronomic consequences of variations in individual unit performance, while driving an algorithm, remains uncharacterized. Our objective was to study the performance of individual active canopy reflectance sensors outputting normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) data, used to prescribe the corrective N fertilization rate for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We hypothesized that sensor output differences would influence corrective N prescriptions when the NDVI data were interpreted with the usual discontinuous, “stair-step”, algorithms. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0573
      Published: June 25, 2015



  • SOIL TILLAGE, CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT

    • Michael Vanhie, William Deen, Horst Bohner and David C. Hooker
      Corn Residue Management Strategies to Improve Soybean Yield in Northern Climates

      Many soybean [Glycine max (Merr.)] growers in northern climates are reverting back to some tillage based on perceptions that increasing corn residues interfere with no-till (NT) soybean performance. Field trials were established in southern Ontario, Canada, to investigate the impact of corn residues on soybean among seven tillage strategies (NT, stalk chop, vertical tillage (VT) twice in the fall, fall and spring VT, fall disc plus spring cultivate, fall disc plus fall cultivate, and fall plowed plus spring cultivate), three corn residue removal treatments (none, intermediate, and nearly complete), and two planters (row-unit and drill). Overall, soybean yields were not different between NT and plowed systems, despite delayed development, and cooler/wetter seedbeds where corn residue was not removed. Shallow tillage after corn harvest did not increase yields from NT alone. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0190
      Published: July 24, 2015



    • Upendra M. Sainju, Brett A. Allen, Thecan Caesar-TonThat and Andrew W. Lenssen
      Dryland Soil Carbon and Nitrogen after Thirty Years of Tillage and Cropping Sequence Combination

      Little is known about the long-term management impact on soil C and N contents in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the 30-yr effect of tillage and cropping sequence combination on dryland crop biomass yield and soil bulk density, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil inorganic carbon (SIC), soil total nitrogen (STN), NH4–N, and NO3–N contents at the 0- to 120-cm depth in a Dooley sandy loam (fine loamy, mixed, frigid Typic Argiboroll) in eastern Montana. Treatments were no-till continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall and spring till spring wheat–barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 1984–1999) followed by spring wheat–pea (Pisum sativum L., 2000-2013) (FSTW–B/P), and spring till spring wheat–fallow (STW–F, traditional system). Mean annualized crop biomass returned to the soil was 23 to 30 % greater in NTCW, STCW, FSTCW, and FSTW–B/P than STW–F. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0106
      Published: July 10, 2015



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