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Agronomy Journal : Just Published


Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/aj, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Zhu, Q., M.J. Schlossberg, R.B. Bryant, and J.P. Schmidt. 2012. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. doi:10.2134/agronj2012.0157

Current issue: Agron. J. 108(1)


    • Krishna P. Woli, Matthew J. Boyer, Roger W. Elmore, John E. Sawyer, Lori J. Abendroth and Daniel W. Barker
      Corn Era Hybrid Response to Nitrogen Fertilization

      Corn (Zea mays L.) N use is of continued interest due to agronomic performance and environmental issues. This 2-yr study evaluated era hybrid response to fertilizer nitrogen (FN) rate in a factorial arrangement of one popular hybrid per five decades (1960–2000 eras) and five N rates (0–224 kg N ha–1). An additional hybrid per era was grown at 168 kg N ha–1. Hybrid productivity and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) increased across the eras, but not between the 1980 and 1990 eras. (continued)

      Published: January 4, 2016


    • Zenghui Sun, Zizhong Li, Xianju Lu, Qingguo Bu, Xuan Ma and Ye Wang
      Modeling Soil Type Effects to Improve Rainfed Corn Yields in Northeast China

      Understanding how soil type in the Corn Belt of Northeast China affects both the potential yield of a rainfed crop [Yp(r)] and the yield gap [YG(r)] between Yp(r) and the water non-limiting potential yield (Yp) is essential for enhancing corn (Zea mays L.) production and identifying critical irrigation windows for different soil types. The Root Zone Water Quality Model 2 (RZWQM2) was calibrated and validated based on 2 yr of experimental data and then used to estimate Yp and Yp(r) along with YG(r) in aeolian sandy soil vs. black soil using the same weather data from 1980 to 2012. The values for Yp were the same for both soil types, and the mean Yp was 11.299 Mg ha–1 (CV of 15.6%) during the 33-yr simulation period. (continued)

      Published: February 12, 2016

    • Mamdouh A. Eissa
      Phosphate and Organic Amendments for Safe Production of Okra from Metal-Contaminated Soils

      There is little information available on the impact of superphosphate and compost on the uptake of metals by okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of superphosphate and compost in reducing metals uptake by okra to healthy acceptable levels. A field experiment in randomized complete block design (RCBD) was conducted to investigate the effect of superphosphate (SP) and compost (C) on the availability and uptake of heavy metals by okra cultivated on a metals contaminated soil. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • The study aims to find the optimum plants and fertilization management for contaminated soils.
      • Compost and superphosphate reduced metals concentrations in okra fruit.
      • Okra fruit was safe for human consumption only when the two amendments applied together.

      Published: February 12, 2016

    • Carla G. Marioli Nobile, Mónica Balzarini, Fernando M. Aguate, N. Ruben Grosso, Diego O. Soldini, Huawei Zeng, Wen-Hsing Cheng and María Jose Martínez
      Climatic Thresholds for Concentrations of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Argentinean Soybean

      Minerals affect the nutritional, rheological, and safety features of food products. Soybeans represent a good source of minerals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the environment on the variability of mineral elements in Argentinean soybeans in field experiments. Climatic variables (maximum, mean, and minimum air temperature; solar radiation; precipitation; and potential evapotranspiration) were recorded daily during the seed filling period; soil properties were also reported. (continued)

      Published: February 12, 2016

    • Pavla Ochecova, Pavel Tlustos, Jirina Szakova, Filip Mercl and Matus Maciak
      Changes in Nutrient Plant Availability in Loam and Sandy Clay Loam Soils after Wood Fly and Bottom Ash Amendment

      Wood ash has the potential to be an auxiliary fertilizing material. The effect of growing application of the ash derived from woody biomass (representing both fly and bottom ash) on Ca, K, P, and Mg to plant availability in four soils (two loam and two sandy clay loam soils) was investigated. Additives were applied to soils at two rates (1 and 5% w/w) and incubated for 0, 14, 28, and 56 d. Plant-available element concentrations extractable via Mehlich 3 solution were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) and inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry (ICP–OES). (continued)

      Published: January 6, 2016

    • Ardell D. Halvorson, Catherine E. Stewart and Stephen J. Del Grosso
      Manure and Inorganic Nitrogen Affect Irrigated Corn Yields and Soil Properties

      Manure can substitute for inorganic N fertilizers and can mitigate potential soil deterioration under irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) silage production, but the impact on yields, soil C and N have not been thoroughly studied in the semiarid western United States. Five N source treatments (dairy manure [DM, 412 kg N ha–1], DM + AgrotainPlus [DM+AP], SuperU [SU, 179 kg N ha–1], urea [179 kg N ha–1], and control [no N applied]) were studied (3 yr) to determine effects on silage and grain yields, N uptake, and changes in soil properties (soil organic carbon [SOC], total soil nitrogen [TSN], nitrate-nitrogen [NO3–N], and soil test phosphorus [STP]) in an irrigated, conventionally- tilled clay loam soil under continuous corn silage production. Silage, grain, and stover yields and N uptake were greater with N application than control, with no difference between DM, DM+AP, urea, and SU. Fall soil NO3–N was greater with N application than control (0–90-cm depth), but lower with DM than for SU (0–180-cm depth). (continued)

      Published: January 6, 2016


    • Laura M. Cortese Chaves and Stacy A. Bonos
      Germination in Three Switchgrass Populations after Two Cycles of Divergent Selection for Seed Weight

      Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an emerging bioenergy crop in the US, but little has been done by breeders to improve its poor seed germination and slow and inconsistent establishment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of divergent selection for seed weight on germination in three switchgrass populations over two cycles with and without a cold stratification treatment. Seed from switchgrass populations 9064202, ‘Carthage’, and ‘Timber’ was sorted into light and heavy weight classes via a gravity deck and germinated in a growth chamber. Seedlings were planted to the field in isolated crossing blocks. (continued)

      Published: February 12, 2016

    • Emerson D. Nafziger, María B. Villamil, Jason Niekamp, Frederick W. Iutzi and Vince M. Davis
      Bioenergy Yields of Several Cropping Systems in the U.S. Corn Belt

      While it seems likely that a crop production system designed for bioenergy production would differ from one designed for production of grain, there has been little research to validate this. In a study conducted over 2 yr at two Illinois sites, we found that full-season corn (Zea mays L.) both yielded more grain and produced a larger amount of biomass energy (GJ ha–1) than other systems, though the systems in which rye (Secale cereale L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harvested as forage or field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) harvested as seed followed by double-cropped corn did not yield significantly less energy; these four corn-based systems produced an average of 351 GJ ha–1 of biomass energy. Winter wheat or rye harvested as forage followed by double-cropped soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] produced 35% less energy that did the corn-based systems, and systems in which wheat was harvested as grain followed by double-cropped soybean produced 38% less energy than the corn-based systems. Systems with canola (Brassica napus L.) or field pennycress harvested for seed followed by double-cropped soybean and full-season soybean produced an average of only 198 GJ ha–1 or 44% less energy than the corn-based systems. (continued)

      Published: February 12, 2016

    • Xinmei Hao, Kurt Thelen and Juan Gao
      Spatial Variability in Biomass Yield of Switchgrass, Native Prairie, and Corn at Field Scale

      Evaluating biofuel crop yield and its spatial variability on a field scale is important for determining the proper bioenergy crops suitable for specific lands. Within field spatial variability of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), native prairie mix, and corn (Zea mays L.) biomass yield and its relation to soil properties were investigated in 2011 and 2012 at two farms in southwestern Michigan. At all sites and years, the order of biomass yields was corn > switchgrass > native prairie, which was consistent with fertilization rates of the crops. Short stand age of the perennial grass also contributed to the relatively lower yield. (continued)

      Published: January 4, 2016


    • Qi Jing, Jiali Shang, Budong Qian, Gerrit Hoogenboom, Ted Huffman, Jiangui Liu, Bao-Luo Ma, Xiaoyuan Geng, Xianfeng Jiao, John Kovacs and Dan Walters
      Evaluation of the CSM-CROPGRO-Canola Model for Simulating Canola Growth and Yield at West Nipissing in Eastern Canada

      With increasing demands for renewable energy and dietary vegetable oils, the production of canola has become widespread in recent years. Modeling canola growth and yield is a helpful approach to predict canola responses to various environments, especially under climate change. However, few studies have been performed for predicting growth and yield of canola in Canada. In this study, we evaluated the CSM-CROPGRO-Canola model in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer v4.6 for simulating spring canola at West Nipissing in Eastern Canada. (continued)

      Published: January 29, 2016


    • R. L. Baumhardt, S. A. Mauget, R. C. Schwartz and O. R. Jones
      El Niño Southern Oscillation Effects on Dryland Crop Production in the Texas High Plains

      Risk averse dryland crop management in the U.S. southern High Plains stabilizes annual yields, however in some years the full yield potential is unrealized thereby reducing the overall cropping system productivity. Equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) systematically couple with the atmosphere to produce predictable El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) weather in much of North America that could be exploited for improved crop management. Our objective was to evaluate ENSO effects on site-specific growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in a dryland wheat–sorghum–fallow (WSF) rotation from 1954 to 2011. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • El Niño phases affected site-specific rain and crop yield of a 58-yr field test.
      • Wheat but not sorghum yields responded significantly to El Niño conditions.
      • Predicted El Niño phase has the potential to guide site-specific wheat management.

      Published: January 29, 2016


    • Liying Huang, Yang Sun, Shaobing Peng and Fei Wang
      Genotypic Differences of Japonica Rice Responding to High Temperature in China

      Lacking cultivars with both high yield potential and tolerance to high temperature is the main constraint for planting japonica (Oryza sativa japonica) in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River. In this study, grain yield and quality of 11 elite japonica cultivars together with two indica(O. sativa indica) mega cultivars (YLY6 and HHZ) were studied in 2012 and 2013. The year 2012 was a cool year with an average temperature of 24.6°C, while 2013 was a hot year with an average temperature of 26.2°C. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Genotypic differences in Japonica responding to high temperature were studied in natural environment.
      • There were significant differences in high temperature tolerance among the elite japonica cultivars in China.
      • Some cultivars escaped high temperature in the Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River.

      Published: February 12, 2016

    • Spyridon D. Koutroubas, Vasileios Antoniadis, Christos A. Damalas and Sideris Fotiadis
      Effect of Organic Manure on Wheat Grain Yield, Nutrient Accumulation, and Translocation

      A field study was conducted for two consecutive growing seasons to assess the effect of organic manure on the growth, productivity and nutrient dynamics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), as well as on the concentration of trace elements in soil and wheat plants. Treatments consisted of two rates of farmyard manure (16 and 32 Mg dry weight ha−1 yr−1), one rate of inorganic fertilizer (IF, 120 kg N ha−1 yr−1 plus 80 kg P2O5 ha−1 yr−1), and an unamended control. Manure improved wheat growth and productivity compared to the unamended control; the response was dependent on the application rate. The high manure rate increased the number of spikes m−2 and resulted in grain yield similar to that of the IF. (continued)

      Published: January 29, 2016

    • Jinfeng Ding, Yan Zi, Chunyan Li, Yongxin Peng, Xinkai Zhu and Wenshan Guo
      Dry Matter Accumulation, Partitioning, and Remobilization in High-Yielding Wheat under Rice–Wheat Rotation in China

      A rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system is the primary cereal planting system in China, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (YR). Understanding dry matter (DM) accumulation, partitioning, and remobilization in high-yielding wheat is essential to realize high and stable yield in this area. A field study was conducted by managing N with one high-yielding variety (T. aestivum L.). (continued)

      Published: January 6, 2016


    • Lanier Nalley, Bruce Dixon, Jesse Tack, Andrew Barkley and Krishna Jagadish
      Optimal Harvest Moisture Content for Maximizing Mid-South Rice Milling Yields and Returns

      Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is unique from other major row crops in the United States in that it requires postharvest milling before pricing. As a result, profitability is based on mass yield (paddy yield) and kernel integrity, or head rice yield (HRY). A common dilemma rice producers confront is the selection of a harvest moisture content (HMC) to begin harvesting. Although harvesting with a high HMC can improve HRY, it also increases drying costs at the mill. (continued)

      Published: February 12, 2016

    • Matt A. Yost, Newell R. Kitchen, Kenneth A. Sudduth, Edward J. Sadler, Claire Baffaut, Matthew R. Volkmann and Scott T. Drummond
      Long-Term Impacts of Cropping Systems and Landscape Positions on Claypan-Soil Grain Crop Production

      Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS). Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production were evaluated from 1991 to 2010 on a claypan soil in Missouri. Replicated treatments were three CS (2-yr mulch till corn–soybean [MTCS], 2-yr no-till corn–soybean [NTCS], and 3-yr no-till corn–soybean–wheat–cover crop [NTCSW]) and three LP (summit, backslope, and footslope). Corn yield was equivalent among CS on the summit, 13% higher for NTCS and NTCSW on the backslope, and 14% lower for NTCSW on the footslope. (continued)

      Published: February 5, 2016

    • Weston Weeks, Michael Popp, John Rupe, Craig Rothrock, Jeremy Ross and Adele Steger
      Replanting Thresholds for Soybean Using Two- and Four-Week Plant Survival Metrics

      The rising cost of seed is causing soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] producers to reconsider seeding rates and replanting decisions. Data were collected at two sites, over 5 yr, three planting dates, three seeding rates, and with or without seed treatment. Information on stand counts, the number of established plants at 2 and 4 wk after planting, and yield was used to assess whether profit-maximizing replanting stand count thresholds differ depending on how long a producer waits to decide to replant. Because planting date negatively affects yield potential and higher seeding rates are recommended for late-season plantings, delayed planting is tantamount to higher cost and lost yield potential. (continued)

      Published: February 5, 2016

    • Alan J. Schlegel, Yared Assefa, Dan O’Brien, Freddie R. Lamm, Lucas A. Haag and Loyd R. Stone
      Comparison of Corn, Grain Sorghum, Soybean, and Sunflower under Limited Irrigation

      Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] constitute a large share of the annual total irrigated planted area in the central Great Plains. This study aimed to determine the effect of limited irrigation on grain yield, water use, and profitability of corn and soybean in comparison with two crops commonly grown in water-limited environments (grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower [Helianthus annuus L.]). The study was conducted at Tribune, KS, from 2001 to 2008, with a mean April to October rainfall of 390 mm. Treatments were a complete factorial of four crops and three irrigation levels: 127, 254, and 381 mm. (continued)

      Published: January 29, 2016

    • Steve B. Orloff, E. Charles Brummer, Anil Shrestha and Daniel H. Putnam
      Cool-Season Perennial Grasses Differ in Tolerance to Partial-Season Irrigation Deficits

      The productivity and persistence of perennial grass species and individual cultivars of tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., nom. cons] and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) were evaluated in response to early-season irrigation termination. Twenty-five perennial grass species/cultivars were evaluated under three irrigation regimes (full-season irrigation, early cutoff, and mid-season cutoff) over 3 yr at the Intermountain Research and Extension Center in the Klamath Basin, CA, on Tule Basin mucky silty clay loam (Andaqueptic Haplaquolls) in a cool temperate climate. Forage grasses included: 10 tall fescue cultivars, seven orchardgrass cultivars, four bromegrass species (Bromus spp), three wheatgrass species (Thinopyrum spp. (continued)

      Published: February 5, 2016

    • Eric K. Anderson, Germán A. Bollero, Matthew W. Maughan, Allen S. Parrish, Thomas B. Voigt and D. K. Lee
      Establishing Switchgrass with a Corn Companion Crop to Improve Economic Profitability

      Establishing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) usually takes 2 yr, and revenue is not typically generated from the land until the end of the second year. Much is already known about establishing switchgrass as a bioenergy or forage crop, but identifying additional methods of establishment that provide revenue during the planting year without negatively impacting long-term stand density or biomass yield would better incentivize farmers to convert portions of land to growing switchgrass. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of companion corn (Zea mays L.) seeding rate (49, 59, and 69 ×103 seeds ha–1) and establishment year N fertilizer rate (0, 112, and 224 kg N ha–1) on corn yield, switchgrass stand density, second- and third-year biomass production, and the net economic return over the 3-yr establishment period. Switchgrass stand densities averaged 5 plants m–2 fewer when companion cropped with corn compared with switchgrass planted alone (25.9 plants m–2), but all treatments resulted in successful stands with at least 17 plants m–2. (continued)

      Published: January 4, 2016

    • Henry Y. Sintim, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Augustine K. Obour and Axel Garcia y Garcia
      Managing Harvest Time to Control Pod Shattering in Oilseed Camelina

      Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is an oilseed crop with the potential for dryland crop production in the Great Plains. However, pod shattering may cause significant yield losses. We determined the impact of different harvest times on camelina seed yield (SY), water use efficiency, protein and oil content, and estimated biodiesel yield. (continued)

      Published: January 4, 2016


    • Jaimie R. West, Matthew D. Ruark, Alvin J. Bussan, Jed B. Colquhoun and Erin M. Silva
      Nitrogen and Weed Management for Organic Sweet Corn Production on Loamy Sand

      Irrigated vegetable production dominates the landscape of the Central Sands region of Wisconsin, where sandy soil limits nutrient and water retention. Sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa) was managed organically in 2011 and 2012 growing seasons to evaluate effects of organic N input and weed management with respect to sweet corn yield and soil N content. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Feather meal is a viable organic nitrogen fertilizer for sweet corn on loamy sand.
      • Pre-plant application of manures did not reduce optimum in-season N application rate.
      • Irrigated organic sweet corn can produce yields comparable to those of conventional methods.

      Published: February 12, 2016

    • Giacomo Tosti, Michela Farneselli, Paolo Benincasa and Marcello Guiducci
      Nitrogen Fertilization Strategies for Organic Wheat Production: Crop Yield and Nitrate Leaching

      Nitrogen fertility management represents a crucial aspect for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, particularly when we deal with organic agriculture. This study was conducted to determine the effect of five N fertilization strategies on yield, grain protein content, and N leaching risk. In a 3-yr field experiment, a faba bean/wheat temporary intercropping (TIC) and four fertilization treatments with extra-farm N sources were compared. Extra-farm N sources were represented by blood meal (BM) and roasted leather (RL) (broadcast all-at-once at seeding or split into one-half at seeding and one-half at tillering in a side-dressing application). (continued)

      Published: February 12, 2016


    • Yichao Shi, Noura Ziadi, Chantal Hamel, Julie Lajeunesse and Jean Lafond
      Phosphorus Fertilization Effect on Timothy Root Growth, and Associated Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Development

      Root architecture and mycorrhizal associations are plant traits that determine soil P uptake by plants. However, the response of these important plant traits to mineral P fertilization under grasslands production is poorly understood. We assessed the effect of P fertilization at 0, 20, or 40 kg P ha–1 applied in the spring of each year since 2010 on root attributes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root colonization, plant growth, and plant P concentration in timothy (Phleum pratense L.) swards seeded in 2009 on a Labarre clay loam in Normandin, QC, Canada. Soil cores for root samples (height of 7.5 cm and inner diameter of 8 cm) were collected in June 2013 after the first harvest and in August 2014 after the second harvest. (continued)

      Published: February 12, 2016

    • William L. Pan, Tai McClellan Maaz, W. Ashley Hammac, Vicki A. McCracken and Richard T. Koenig
      Mitscherlich-Modeled, Semi-Arid Canola Nitrogen Requirements Influenced by Soil Nitrogen and Water

      Prospects for canola (Brassica napus L.), as a rotational crop for agronomic and market diversification, have stimulated agronomic research to fit this crop into the unique environments and soils where wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production dominates. The objectives of the present study were to define N and water requirements of canola following wheat or fallow in a semi-arid climate and to develop a predictive model for making N fertilizer recommendations. Field experiments were conducted at 12 site-years with five N rates (0, 45, 90, 134, and 179 kg N ha–1). Pre-plant soil and post-harvest plant sampling provided an assessment of Mitscherlich-modeled relationships among yield, soil N and water availability, economic optimal N supply, and fertilizer rates over the course of the study. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Available water influences canola yields and N responses.
      • Fertilizer N responses obeyed the Law of Diminishing Returns.
      • Unit N requirements decreased with increasing water-driven yield potentials.

      Published: February 12, 2016

    • Canon E. N. Savala, Carl R. Crozier and T. Jot Smyth
      Poultry Manure Nitrogen Availability Influences Winter Wheat Yield and Yield Components

      Standard poultry manure use recommendations in North Carolina consider waste analysis but not differences among manure types, cropping seasons, or application timing. This study evaluated poultry manure source, N rate strategy, and application time effects on soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tiller density, yield components, grain yield, and N availability coefficients. Coefficients included fertilizer N equivalence based on grain yield and plant-available N based on aboveground plant N content. Four field experiments used broiler litter (BL) and composted layer manure (CLM), two rates (67 and 134 kg total-N ha−1), and three different application times (incorporated in October preplant, Feekes’ 3 in December/January, or Feekes’ 4 in February). (continued)

      Published: February 5, 2016

    • Yumiko Kanke, Brenda Tubaña, Marilyn Dalen, Joshua Lofton and Howard Viator
      Relation between Early Season–Measured Agronomic Variables and Sugar Yield Responses to Nitrogen

      Several studies have demonstrated the use of early-season plant response to N as a basis for determining N fertilizer requirements in cereal crops. In sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) production, the relationship of early-season growth and responses to N fertilization to sugar yield at harvest has not been pursued. The objective of this study was to evaluate and relate the early-season response to N fertilization (RI) of select agronomic variables to RI of measured sugar yield at harvest of three sugarcane varieties (HoCP 96-540, L 01-283, and L 99-226). (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Determining seasonal N requirement in sugarcane is essential.
      • High spatial and temporal variability in sugar and stalk yield to applied N were observed.
      • Agronomic variable at early season can be used to predict N response of sugar yield.

      Published: February 5, 2016

    • Jose L. Pantoja, Krishna P. Woli, John E. Sawyer and Daniel W. Barker
      Winter Rye Cover Crop Biomass Production, Degradation, and Nitrogen Recycling

      Winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop (RCC) use in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] production can alter N dynamics compared to no RCC. The objectives of this study were to evaluate RCC biomass production (BP) and subsequent RCC degradation (BD) and N recycling in a no-till corn–soybean (CS) rotation. Aboveground RCC was sampled at spring termination for biomass dry matter (DM), C, and N. To evaluate BD and remaining C and N, RCC biomass was put into nylon mesh bags, placed on the soil surface, and collected multiple times over 105 d. (continued)

      Published: January 29, 2016

    • Kanako Suzuki, Ryoichi Matsunaga, Keiichi Hayashi, Naruo Matsumoto, Satoshi Tobita, André Bationo and Kensuke Okada
      Long-Term Effects of Fertilizer and Organic Matter Application on Millet in Niger

      The production of pearl millet [Pennisetumn glaucum (L.) R. Br.] in the low fertility sandy soils of the Sahel region of northern sub-Saharan Africa requires careful management. An experiment was established in 1993 at the Niamey Center of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Niger. The objectives were to (i) determine the effect of long-term applications of fertilizer, crop residue, cattle manure, and combinations of these on changes in grain yield (GY) and total dry matter (TDM) of pearl millet; (ii) determine the effect of management on nitrogen application efficiency (NAE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), using data from 1998 and also from 2005 and 2006. (continued)

      Published: January 29, 2016

    • Christopher W. Rogers, Richard J. Norman, Terry J. Siebenmorgen, Brandon C. Grigg, Jarrod T. Hardke, Kristofor R. Brye and Edward E. Gbur
      Rough Rice and Milling Yields as Affected by Nitrogen, Harvest Moisture, and Cultivar

      Improvements in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in the mid-south United States have been made through advances in N management, harvest strategies, and cultivar selection. Efficient fertilizer-N management is important for producing large yields. Harvest moisture content (HMC) affects grain quality [i.e., milled rice yield (MRY) and head rice yield (HRY)], as harvesting above or below optimum HMC results in decreased milling yields. Research was conducted from 2011 to 2013 investigating rough rice and milling yields as affected by fertilizer-N application (0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg N ha−1), HMC (high, medium, and low), and cultivar (‘Cheniere’, ‘CLXL745’, and ‘Wells’). (continued)

      Published: January 29, 2016

    • Jiameng Guo, Yonghong Wang, Tinglu Fan, Xinping Chen and Zhenling Cui
      Designing Corn Management Strategies for High Yield and High Nitrogen Use Efficiency

      The challenge of increasing crop productivity and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) has led to a search for novel pathways leading to more sustainable agriculture. Here, we designed a whole-corn (Zea mays L.) production system based on the local environment, drawing on appropriate crop varieties, sowing dates, densities, and advanced N management on the Loess Plateau in the Northwest of China. A 4 site-years field experiment was performed to examine this corn system based on grain yield, biomass, N application rate, and NUE. Grain yield with designed crop management varied from 16.1 to 19.1 Mg ha–1 for these 4 site-years, which attained 98 to 108% of the yield potential (ranging from 15.5–19.3 Mg ha–1). (continued)

      Published: January 29, 2016

    • Md. Abdul Mazid Miah, Yam Kanta Gaihre, Grahame Hunter, Upendra Singh and Syed Afzal Hossain
      Fertilizer Deep Placement Increases Rice Production: Evidence from Farmers’ Fields in Southern Bangladesh

      Efficient use of fertilizer is needed to meet the increasing food demand, minimize negative environmental impacts, and maximize farmers’ profits. Fertilizer deep placement (FDP)could be one of the best management techniques to achieve these multiple benefits. Experiments were conducted in 115 farmers’ fields spread over 35 upazilas across eight districts over nine contiguous rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing seasons during 2009 to 2012 in southern Bangladesh to compare the effects of deep placement of urea briquettes (UB) and nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium briquettes (NPK), with farmers’ broadcast prilled urea (PU) on rice yield and net economic return. Deep placement of either UB or NPK significantly increased grain yields and net economic return across all the rice-growing seasons and years compared to PU. (continued)

      Published: January 29, 2016

    • G. Byju, M. Nedunchezhiyan, A. C. Hridya and Sabitha Soman
      Site-Specific Nutrient Management for Cassava in Southern India

      Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) yield in the major growing environments of India has been stagnating despite the development of high yielding varieties and increasing use of chemical fertilizers. On farm experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of site-specific nutrient management (SSNM). Field and crop specific NPK rates were calculated using quantitative evaluation of fertility of tropical soils (QUEFTS) model. The average 2-yr yield advantage of SSNM over farmer fertilizer practice (FFP) was 7 Mg ha–1. (continued)

      Published: January 22, 2016

    • Peng Yan, Shanchao Yue, Qingfeng Meng, Junxiao Pan, Youliang Ye, Xinping Chen and Zhenling Cui
      An Understanding of the Accumulation of Biomass and Nitrogen is Benefit for Chinese Maize Production

      Increasing maize (Zea mays L.) yields depends on understanding the dynamics of biomass and N accumulation such that N demand and N supply can be synchronized and N management improved. Biomass and N accumulation data were collected at the six-leaf (V6) stage, the flowering (VT) stage, and harvest from nine field experiments at eight sites in four key summer maize domains on the North China Plain. The data were used to investigate how grain yield and the N uptake requirement per Mg grain yield (Nreq) were related to differences in N management. Grain yield averaged 9.0 Mg ha–1 and ranged from 1.9 to 16.3 Mg ha–1; the highest grain yield (9.6 Mg ha–1) was achieved with optimal N rates (N = OPT). (continued)

      Published: February 5, 2016

    • Maria Lucia Silveira, F. M. Rouquette, V. A. Haby and G. R. Smith
      Effects of Thirty-Seven Years of Stocking and Fertility Regimens on Soil Chemical Properties in Bermudagrass Pastures

      Management of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers.] pastures on Coastal Plain soils in the southeastern United States incorporates multiple strategies for N fertilization, liming, and stocking rate (SR). This study documented long-term changes in soil pH and extractable NO3–N K, Ca, and Mg in Coastal and common bermudagrass pastures continuously stocked at different intensities for 37 yr (1969–2004). Soil fertility regimens were established in 1985 and consisted of (i) inorganic nitrogen fertilizer with overseeded annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (NRYG) and (ii) no nitrogen with overseeded clover (Trifolium spp.) (NoNCLV). Soil samples (0–120-cm depth) were collected in 1985, 1989, 1994, 1996, and 2004 and analyzed for pH and extractable NO3–N, K, Ca, and Mg levels. (continued)

      Published: February 5, 2016

    • Yesuf Assen Mohammed, Chengci Chen and Tom Jensen
      Urease and Nitrification Inhibitors Impact on Winter Wheat Fertilizer Timing, Yield, and Protein Content

      Nitrogen fertilizer is an important input for winter wheat (Triticum aestivium L.) production. However, the losses of applied N fertilizer are economically substantial and environmentally unsafe. Therefore, improved N fertilizer management practices are needed to increase yield, enhance wheat quality, and minimize negative consequences to the environment. The objective of this experiment was to determine the impact on two N fertilizer sources, two application times, and three placement methods on grain yield, protein concentration, and N uptake of winter wheat. (continued)

      Published: January 4, 2016

    • Jennifer M. Friedman, E. Raymond Hunt and Randall G. Mutters
      Assessment of Leaf Color Chart Observations for Estimating Maize Chlorophyll Content by Analysis of Digital Photographs

      Developed as a nondestructive aid for estimating the N content in rice (Oryza sativa L.) crops, leaf color charts (LCCs) are a numbered series of plastic panels that range from yellow-green to dark green. By visual comparison, the panel value closest in color to a leaf indicates whether N is deficient, sufficient, or in excess. Because the selected values depend on subjective decisions by an observer, our goal was to determine whether spectral reflectances or digital color photographs could provide an objective, reproducible, and potentially automated method for determining LCC values. Maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were collected on two dates from an ongoing N fertilization experiment. (continued)

      Published: January 4, 2016

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