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Agronomy Journal : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research in crops, soils, and agronomy. Articles are compiled into bimonthly issues at www.agronomy.org/publications/aj, which includes the complete archive. Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Zhu, Q., M.J. Schlossberg, R.B. Bryant, and J.P. Schmidt. 2012. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. doi:10.2134/agronj2012.0157

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Current issue: Agron. J. 107(2)



  • AGRONOMIC APPLICATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES

    • Guicheng Song, Chenliang Jiang, Xiaoyang Ge, Quanzhan Chen and Canming Tang
      Pollen Thermotolerance of Upland Cotton Related to Anther Structure and HSP Expression

      High temperature stress influences pollen grains development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) anthers, resulting in anthers with an abnormal structure and pollen grains with a low germination rate. To examine the thermotolerance mechanisms of pollen grains in upland cotton, we observed pollen germination rates, pollen grain ultrastructure, anther structure, and the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes in pollen grains after the plants were continuously exposed to high temperatures (36/30°C) in a phytotron for 8 h every day over a period of 10 d. After the high-temperature treatment, the pollen germination percentage of the heat-sensitive cultivar was reduced compared with the heat-tolerant cultivar, and the structure of indehiscent anthers and the ultrastructure of pollen grains in the heat-sensitive cultivar were more abnormal than that in the heat-tolerant cultivar. There were more abnormal mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuoles as well as fewer starch granules in the pollen grains of the heat-sensitive cultivar compared with the heat-tolerant cultivar. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0458
      Published: April 17, 2015



    • Martha del Carmen Flores-Rosales, J. Arahón Hernández-Guzmán, Abel Gil-Muñoz, Pedro Antonio López, Filemón Parra-Inzunza and Félix Valerio González-Cossío
      Variability in Cornhusk Traits of Landraces from the State of Puebla, Mexico

      Maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm accessions in Mexico have been studied for grain yield and other traits. The cornhusk, or totomoxtle, is more important than the grain for Mexican peasant farmers because it generates increased income. However, limited information is available on the level of phenotypic variation in cornhusk traits, and few studies have been performed on the potential of maize landraces for the production of cornhusk. This study assessed maize landraces from three regions in Mexico. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0542
      Published: April 10, 2015



  • AGRONOMY, SOILS & ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    • Brian K. Northup and Srinivas C. Rao
      Green Manure and Forage Potential of Lablab in the U.S. Southern Plains

      Forages currently available to support yearling stocker cattle in the U.S. southern Great Plains (SGP) frequently have low quality during mid-July through September. This study tested the tropical/subtropical legume lablab [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] as both green manure and forage in central Oklahoma. We compared biomass production and nutritive value of lablab (cultivar Rio Verde) to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] grown during fallow periods of conventional and no-till wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0455
      Published: April 10, 2015



    • Domingo Mata-Padrino, Eugene Felton and William B. Bryan
      Winter Management of Yearling Steers in a Grass-Fed Beef Production System

      The role of winter pasture management for beef production systems requires clarification. We designed four pasture management systems to sustain a 0.5 kg average daily gain (ADG) of spring-born steers during fall and winter. The experiment was conducted at West Virginia University, Reedsville Experimental Farm. Treatments replicated three times on 0.81 ha grazing units included: (i) naturalized grazingland with haylage (NGH), (ii) orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) cultivated pastureland, animals moved to drylot with hay (OCD), (iii) orchardgrass cultivated pastureland with haylage (OCH), and (iv) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum, Schreb., Darbysh.) cultivated pastureland with haylage (TCH). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj13.0568
      Published: April 6, 2015



    • Christopher R. Johnston, Patrick E. McCullough and Donn G. Shilling
      Native Plant Establishment on Georgia Roadsides

      Invasive weeds are a costly problem on Georgia roadsides due to limited management options and a lack of competition from roadside grasses. The introduction of species native to Georgia could reduce maintenance costs and suppress invasive weeds on roadsides, however, limited research has been conducted with these species in this environment. Field experiments were conducted in Georgia to evaluate establishment of 29 species (12 grasses and 17 forbs) established in the fall and/or spring at two seeding rates. Blackeyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta L.), swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata L.), and indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash] were the quickest to establish of all species, while blackeyed Susan, lanceleaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata L.), and wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa L.) provided the greatest ground cover over the 12 mo experiment. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0555
      Published: March 20, 2015



    • Rashmi Singh, Sudeep S. Sidhu, Mark A. Czarnota and Patrick E. McCullough
      Differential Behavior of Two Photosystem II Inhibitors in Seashore Paspalum

      Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Sw.) injury from triazines has limited the mechanisms of action used for postemergence (POST) weed control. Seashore paspalum is tolerant to a new Photosystem (PS) II inhibitor, amicarbazone (4-amino-N-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydro-3-isopropyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamide), but the physiological behavior attributed to differential tolerances from triazines has received limited investigation. The objectives of this research were to evaluate efficacy, absorption, translocation, and metabolism of 14C-amicarbazone and 14C-atrazine (1-chloro-3-ethylamino-5-isopropylamino-2,4,6-triazine) in cultivar Sea Isle 1 seashore paspalum. In greenhouse experiments, atrazine treatments (560, 1120 or 2240 g a.i. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0467
      Published: March 20, 2015



    • Stacy M. Zuber, Gevan D. Behnke, Emerson D. Nafziger and Maria B. Villamil
      Crop Rotation and Tillage Effects on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Illinois

      Recent increases in corn (Zea mays L.) production in the U.S. Corn Belt have necessitated the conversion of rotations to continuous corn, and an increase in the frequency of tillage. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of rotation and tillage on soil physical and chemical properties in soils typical of Illinois. Sequences of continuous corn (CCC), 2-yr corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (CS) rotation, 3-yr corn–soybean–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (CSW) rotation, and continuous soybean (SSS) were split into conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT) subplots at two Illinois sites. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0465
      Published: March 20, 2015



    • Liziane F. Brito, Mariana V. Azenha, Estella R. Janusckiewicz, Abmael S. Cardoso, Eliane S. Morgado, Euclides B. Malheiros, Newton La Scala, Ricardo A. Reis and Ana Cláudia Ruggieri
      Seasonal Fluctuation of Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission in Differently Managed Pastures

      Soil carbon dioxide emission (ECO2) is a process determined by biotic and abiotic factors influenced by land use and management practices. In grassland ecosystems, grazing intensity may affect C input from plants into soil, and thus may also change soil respiration rate. Indeed, limited information is available regarding the effects of grazing management on ECO2. This study was conducted to evaluate ECO2 seasonal variation, and its relationship to soil temperature (Tsoil) and precipitation, in an area with different pasture heights of Marandu palisade grass [Brachiaria brizantha (A.Rich.) Stapf.]. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0480
      Published: March 13, 2015



    • Long Hai, Xiao Gang Li, Xiao-E Liu, Xiao Jin Jiang, Rui Ying Guo, Gao Bo Jing, Zed Rengel and Feng-Min Li
      Plastic Mulch Stimulates Nitrogen Mineralization in Urea-Amended Soils in a Semiarid Environment

      Soil N mineralization is critical for designing appropriate N management strategies, though it has been seldom studied in plastic-mulched croplands. We evaluated plastic mulch effect on N mineralization in urea-amended furrow-ridge plots with and without maize (Zea mays L.) planting at a semiarid rain-fed site, China. Clear film covered all soil surfaces in the mulched treatments and maize was seeded in furrows in the cropped treatments. Mulch increased daytime soil temperature in the 0 to 15 cm throughout the season without maize but only in the seedling and elongation stages with maize, compared with no mulch. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0538
      Published: March 6, 2015



    • Aaron J. Sindelar, Jeffrey A. Coulter, John A. Lamb and Jeffrey A. Vetsch
      Nitrogen, Stover, and Tillage Management Affect Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Continuous Corn

      Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in corn (Zea mays L.) is critical for optimizing yield and reducing environmental impact. Stover removal in continuous corn (CC) for biofuel production, coupled with reduced-tillage systems, could alter NUE and residual soil nitrate-N. Experiments were conducted in Minnesota over 3 yr to determine how N uptake, NUE, and residual soil nitrate-N are affected by stover (remove and retain), tillage (chisel- [CT], strip- [ST], and no-till [NT]), and fertilizer N (0, 45, 89, 134, 179, and 224 kg N ha–1) management. There was a linear response of grain and total aboveground N uptake to fertilizer N across stover management and tillage treatments. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0535
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Xianlong Peng, Bijesh Maharjan, Cailian Yu, Anyu Su, Virginia Jin and Richard B. Ferguson
      A Laboratory Evaluation of Ammonia Volatilization and Nitrate Leaching following Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on a Coarse-Textured Soil

      In a series of field studies, differing rainfall patterns within the first month after N fertilizer application to a coarse-textured soil significantly affected yields and N-use efficiency of irrigated corn (Zea mays L.), and responses varied with N source. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate effects of N source with precipitation following N application to a coarse-textured soil. Nitrogen sources included urea-ammonium nitrate solution (UAN), UAN with additives of either nitrapyrin (2-chloro-6-[trichloromethyl] pyridine) as a nitrification inhibitor or maleic-itaconic acid copolymer as a urease and nitrification inhibitor, or polymer-coated dry urea (PCU). These products were applied to soil in chambers from which ammonia (NH3) volatilization and nitrate (NO3) leaching were measured over 31 d following fertilization. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0537
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Gustavo Mack Teló, Enio Marchesan, Renato Zanella, Maurício Limberger de Oliveira, Lucas Lopes Coelho and Manoel Leonardo Martins
      Residues of Fungicides and Insecticides in Rice Field

      The use of pesticides assists in integrated programs that aim high yield and quality grains in irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, the use of pesticides can pose risk to rice quality as well as the environment and general population. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the dissipation and persistence of fungicides (azoxystrobin and difenoconazole) and the insecticides (lambda-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam) in irrigation water, soil, rice plant, panicle, and rice grain. The study was conducted in the field during the 2011/2012 crop season, with fungicides and insecticides applied to the aerial parts of the rice plants, the samples were collected in different moments during a 40-d monitoring period after the application of the pesticides. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0475
      Published: February 27, 2015



  • ANNUAL MEETING


    • ASA Yearly Reports

      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0906
      Published: April 13, 2015
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    • Fellows of American Society of Agronomy Elected in 2014

      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0907
      Published: April 10, 2015
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    • Awards Presented in Agronomy, 2014

      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0908
      Published: April 10, 2015
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    • Reports of Divisions, Branches, and Committees, 2014

      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0901
      Published: April 10, 2015




    • ASA Fellows & Award Recipients

      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0909
      Published: April 10, 2015
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  • BIOMETRY, MODELING & STATISTICS

    • Aaron L. Daigh, Thomas Sauer, Xinhua Xiao and Robert Horton
      Comparison of Models for Determining Soil-Surface Carbon Dioxide Effluxes in Different Agricultural Systems

      Models of instantaneous soil-surface CO2 efflux (SCEins) are critical for understanding the potential drivers of soil C loss. Several simple SCEins models have been reported in the literature. Our objective was to compare and validate selected soil temperature (Ts)- and water content (θv)-based equations for modeling SCEins among a variety of cropping systems and land management practices. Soil-surface CO2 effluxes were measured and modeled for grain-harvested corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations, grain- and stover-harvested continuous corn systems with and without a cover crop, and reconstructed prairies with and without N fertilization on soils with subsurface drainage. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0423
      Published: April 6, 2015



  • CLIMATOLOGY & WATER MANAGEMENT

    • Dariusz P. Malinowski and William E. Pinchak
      Summer Dormancy Trait as a Strategy to Provide Perennial Cool-Season Grass Forage Alternatives in Southern Latitude Environments Affected by Climate Change

      Climate change and extreme weather events are affecting agriculture, water supplies, ecosystems, energy use, and the socio–economic system in the southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States and other semiarid regions of the world. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the crops with the ability to compensate for these weather extremes. Wheat is often managed as a dual-use crop in the SGP, providing winter forage for cattle and grain. In the 1970s and 1980s, introduced cool-season perennial grasses were an important source of high quality forage to complement dual-use wheat and perennial native and introduced warm-season grass pastures. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0628
      Published: April 17, 2015



    • Marco Schiavon, Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, Rossana Sallenave and James H. Baird
      Seeding Date and Irrigation System Effects on Establishment of Warm-Season Turfgrasses

      The need for water conservation in urban landscapes requires research to investigate alternative irrigation methods that are more efficient than overhead sprinkler systems. A study was conducted in 2009 at New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, and was repeated in 2013 at the University of California, Riverside, to compare the establishment of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) ‘Princess 77’ ] and seashore paspalum [Paspalum vaginatum (Sw.) ‘Sea Spray’] seeded on either 15 April or 15 May and irrigated at 100% reference evapotranspiration (ETos) with either an overhead sprinkler (OSI) or subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system. Higher germination rates were observed at both locations when OSI was used. All treatments reached full ground cover by the end of the growing season in California, whereas SDI plots seeded in May in New Mexico reached only 75% ground cover. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0322
      Published: February 27, 2015



  • CROP ECOLOGY & PHYSIOLOGY

    • Avat Shekoofa, Pablo Rosas-Anderson, Thomas R. Sinclair, Maria Balota and Thomas G. Isleib
      Measurement of Limited-Transpiration Trait under High Vapor Pressure Deficit for Peanut in Chambers and in Field

      Drought is one of the most important environmental factors that limit crop production. Based on controlled-environment studies, it has been hypothesized that a limited-transpiration (TRlim) trait under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is a mechanism for water conservation leading to yield increase under water-deficit conditions. The current research objective was to compare expression of TRlim in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) observed by whole-plant measurements in controlled environments and by leaf gas exchange measurements on plants grown in the field. Six peanut genotypes with different breeding backgrounds, that is, wild-type, commercial cultivars, and advanced breeding lines were studied. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0570
      Published: March 27, 2015



    • Xiangnan Li, Hanchun Pu, Fulai Liu, Qin Zhou, Jian Cai, Tingbo Dai, Weixing Cao and Dong Jiang
      Winter Wheat Photosynthesis and Grain Yield Responses to Spring Freeze

      Spring freeze events seriously limit the growth, development, and grain yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A 2-yr field experiment with two contrasting cultivars: XM21 (low-temperature resistant) and XZ24 (low-temperature sensitive), was conducted using an air temperature control device designed to allow investigation of the physiological and grain yield responses to spring freeze. The plants were grown in the field and subjected to a 5-d spring freeze episode (approximately 8°C lower than the ambient temperature) at jointing stage (Zadoks scale 31). Spring freeze significantly decreased gas exchange rates and maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II in wheat leaves of both cultivars. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0460
      Published: April 6, 2015



    • Ioannis S. Tokatlidis, Christos Dordas, Fokion Papathanasiou, Ioannis Papadopoulos, Chrysanthi Pankou, Fotakis Gekas, Elissavet Ninou, Ioannis Mylonas, Constantinos Tzantarmas, Jovanka-Katarzyna Petrevska, Anastasia Kargiotidou, Iosif Sistanis and Anastasios Lithourgidis
      Improved Plant Yield Efficiency is Essential for Maize Rainfed Production

      Plant yield efficiency reflects the single-plant yield at low density that precludes interplant interference for resources. The role of plant yield efficiency in adaptation to water deficit was investigated in maize (Zea mays L.). Also investigated was whether yield of space-planted environments is transferable to densely seeded situations. Further, the correlation and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction of spaced and densely seeded plots were investigated. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0599
      Published: April 6, 2015



  • CROP ECONOMICS, PRODUCTION & MANAGEMENT

    • Russ W. Gesch and Jane M.-F. Johnson
      Water Use in Camelina–Soybean Dual Cropping Systems

      Global population growth is increasing the demand for food, feed, fiber, and fuel. Recently, we reported that winter camelina (Camelina sativa L.) can be feasibly double- (DC) and relay-cropped with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the northern Corn Belt region as an option for sustainably intensified crop production. However, water availability can be a limiting factor for dual crop systems. Therefore, the present study determined seasonal water use in various winter camelina–soybean dual crop systems that included two sequential DC and two relay-crop treatments compared with a full-season monocropped soybean (Mono-Soy). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0626
      Published: April 10, 2015



    • Dan S. Long, Jeffrey D. Whitmus, Richard E. Engel and Gary W. Brester
      Net Returns from Terrain-Based Variable-Rate Nitrogen Management on Dryland Spring Wheat in Northern Montana

      Agricultural producers can use variable-rate application technology to vary N fertilizer within fields. This study was conducted to estimate changes in net returns from implementation of variable-rate N management (VNM) on hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a summer-fallow region in northern Montana. Net return from uniform N management (UNM) traditionally used by producers was compared with that from VNM in eight dryland fields between 1994 and 2004. Field experiments consisted of a replicated series of four to six N rates applied within strips oriented with the length of each field. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0331
      Published: April 6, 2015



    • David C. Nielsen, Drew J. Lyon, Gary W. Hergert, Robert K. Higgins, Francisco J. Calderón and Merle F. Vigil
      Cover Crop Mixtures Do Not Use Water Differently than Single-Species Plantings

      Recent recommendations advocating the use of cover crop mixtures instead of single-species in semi-arid environments require rigorous scientific studies. One of those stated benefits is greatly reduced water use by cover crops grown in mixtures. The objectives of this study were to characterize soil water extraction patterns and determine water use of cover crops grown in single-species plantings and in a 10-species mixture and to compare cover crop water use to evaporative water loss from no-till fallow. The study was conducted at Akron, CO, and Sidney, NE, during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons on silt loam soils. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0504
      Published: March 27, 2015



    • Nathanael M. Thompson, James A. Larson, Dayton M. Lambert, Roland K. Roberts, Alemu Mengistu, Nacer Bellaloui and Eric R. Walker
      Mid-South Soybean Yield and Net Return as Affected by Plant Population and Row Spacing

      Traditionally grown soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Maturity Groups V and VI are subject to late-season drought in the US Mid-South, resulting in yield reductions when planted in mid-May. Earlier maturing soybean, such as the more recently adapted Maturity Group III cultivars, have generated interest among farmers as a way to avoid the effects of late-season drought. We investigated economically optimal plant population density for soybean considering seeding rate, row spacing, seed and soybean prices, and weather for Maturity Groups V, IV, and III grown on the rainfed soils in the rolling uplands region of the US Mid-South. Three separate experiments were conducted for Maturity Groups V, IV, and III in 2005 through 2007. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0453
      Published: March 20, 2015



    • N. P. Anderson, D. P. Monks, T. G. Chastain, M. P. Rolston, C. J. Garbacik, Chun-hui Ma and C. W. Bell
      Trinexapac-Ethyl Effects on Red Clover Seed Crops in Diverse Production Environments

      Trinexapac-ethyl (TE) plant growth regulator (PGR) effects on diploid red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) seed production were investigated in two diverse environments, Canterbury (CA), New Zealand (NZ), and Willamette Valley, Oregon (OR). Five TE rate (250 and 500 g a.i. ha–1) and timing [Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt, and CHemische Industrie (BBCH) growth stages 32, 51, 32 + 51] treatments and an untreated control were examined at six on-farm sites in OR and one experimental site in CA in 2011 and 2012. Seed yield was increased across CA and OR production environments with 500 g ha–1 TE applied at BBCH 32 (15%, CA-2011; 9%, OR-2011; 13%, OR-2012). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0399
      Published: March 13, 2015



    • J. Li, R. Z. Xie, K. R. Wang, B. Ming, Y. Q. Guo, G. Q. Zhang and S. K. Li
      Variations in Maize Dry Matter, Harvest Index, and Grain Yield with Plant Density

      Modern maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids are generally regarded as strongly population dependent because maximum grain yields (GYs) per area are achieved primarily in high-density populations. This study was conducted to analyze changes in density independence with plant density based on the response of GY, dry matter (DM) accumulation, and the harvest index (HI) to changes in plant density. Two modern cultivars, ZhengDan958 and ZhongDan909, were planted at 12 densities ranging from 1.5 to 18 plants m–2. The experiment was conducted for 3 yr, with drip irrigation and plastic mulching, at the 71 Group and Qitai Farms located in Xinjiang, China. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0522
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Christopher N. Boyer, Roland K. Roberts, James A. Larson, M. Angela McClure and Donald D. Tyler
      Risk Effects on Optimal Nitrogen Rates for Corn Rotations in Tennessee

      The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of risk exposure on optimal N fertilizer rates for continuous corn (Zea mays L.), corn grown after cotton (Gossypium ssp.), and corn grown after soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and identify the optimal corn rotation for risk-averse corn producers. Data were collected from a 7-yr, corn-rotation, N-fertilizer experiment in Tennessee. Partial budgets were used to calculate net returns to N for corn grown after corn, corn grown after cotton, and corn grown after soybean. The flexible moment method was used for risk analysis, a unique application of this method that provides producers with information concerning traditional risk effects on decisions about crop rotations and N rates augmented by the effects of downside risk. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0546
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Abdul Khaliq and M. Kaleem Abbasi
      Soybean Response to Single or Mixed Soil Amendments in Kashmir, Pakistan

      The application of animal- and plant-derived organic substrates with minimal additions of commercial N fertilizers is an important management strategy for sustainable agriculture production systems in mountain upland soils subjected to continuous erosion. A 3-yr (2009, 2010, and 2011) field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of separate and combined use of poultry manure (PM), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) milling residues (WMR), and urea N (UN) on the productivity and N2 fixation of rainfed soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] grown in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included UN100, PM100, WMR100, PM50 + WMR50, UN50 + PM50, UN50 + WMR50, UN50 + PM25 + WMR25, and an unfertilized control. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0359
      Published: February 27, 2015



  • NOTES & UNIQUE PHENOMENA

    • Bruce A. Kimball
      Using Canopy Resistance for Infrared Heater Control When Warming Open-Field Plots

      To simulate future global warming, several research groups use arrays of infrared heaters to warm open-field plots with a control strategy that involves maintaining a constant rise in canopy temperatures of the Heated plots above those of un-heated Reference plots. However, if the warming treatment itself alters canopy architecture, plant physiology, albedo, or other plot characteristics in ways that affect the energy balances of the Heated plots so as to make them materially different from those of the Reference plots, then the Reference plots no longer are proper references against which to determine a desired canopy temperature rise. Herein, a novel alternative control strategy is proposed whereby plant and air temperature and other micro-climate measurements are used to determine the canopy resistances of the Heated plots, which in turn are used to calculate the amount of infrared radiation that is needed to achieve the desired rise in canopy temperature. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0418
      Published: April 10, 2015



    • Jonathan Messerli, Annick Bertrand, Josée Bourassa, Gilles Bélanger, Yves Castonguay, Gaëtan Tremblay, Vern Baron and Philippe Seguin
      Performance of Low-Cost Open-Top Chambers to Study Long-Term Effects of Carbon Dioxide and Climate under Field Conditions

      The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and consequent increase in air temperature is expected to have significant effects on plant growth and nutritive value. Studies examining the effects of elevated [CO2] on plants under field conditions have been limited by the inherent difficulty to modify air composition in open air. Here we describe an efficient and inexpensive open-top chamber (OTC) system designed to study the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature on perennial alfalfa–timothy (Medicago sativa L.)–(Phleum pratense L.) mixture. The design and construction of these OTCs are described in detail, along with cost estimation for each component. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0571
      Published: March 6, 2015



  • PEST INTERACTIONS IN AGRONOMIC SYSTEMS

    • Thomas Björkman, Carolyn Lowry, Joseph W. Shail, Daniel C. Brainard, Daniel S. Anderson and John B. Masiunas
      Mustard Cover Crops for Biomass Production and Weed Suppression in the Great Lakes Region

      Short-season cover cropping can be an important weed management tool. To optimize the use of mustard [Sinapis alba L. and Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] in the Great Lakes region, we assessed planting time effects, mustard biomass production, and weed suppression during mustard growth and after incorporation. The study was conducted in Illinois, Michigan, and New York for spring and fall from 2010 to 2012. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0461
      Published: April 17, 2015



    • Shin-Yi-Lee Marzano, Maria B. Villamil, Michelle M. Wander, Carmen M. Ugarte, Liwei Wen and Darin M. Eastburn
      Organic Transition Effects on Soilborne Diseases of Soybean and Populations of Pseudomonadaceae

      During transition to organic production, various strategies can be implemented to enhance soil health, including the soil property of disease suppressiveness. We previously found increased levels of diseases caused by biotrophic pathogens associated with manure application, but manure also suppressed diseases caused by necrotrophic pathogens. In an extension of that study we evaluated soils from different cropping system and organic amendment treated plots using a bioassay of suppressiveness to two soilborne diseases, Rhizoctonia root rot and sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Also, the soil population levels of Pseudomonadaceae were assessed for their suitability as an indicator of disease suppressiveness. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0318
      Published: April 6, 2015



  • REVIEW & INTERPRETATION

    • Jerry L. Hatfield and Charles L. Walthall
      Meeting Global Food Needs: Realizing the Potential via Genetics × Environment × Management Interactions

      Global food needs are projected to double by 2050 to feed the 9 billion people and the challenge presented to agriculture is whether this is feasible. These goals will be faced with an increasing variability in climate and more extremes in temperature and precipitation in all parts of the world and a decreasing land resource base in extent and quality. There are many challenges to be faced; however, focusing on the interactions of genetics × environment × management (G × E × M) offers the potential to feed the 9 billion. Understanding and quantifying yield gaps offer a framework to assess the progress, and the challenge will be to determine the most effective and efficient way of closing the yield gap by using water and nutrients more efficiently. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0076
      Published: April 17, 2015



  • SOIL FERTILITY & CROP NUTRITION

    • Péter Kovács, George E. Van Scoyoc, Thomas A. Doerge, James J. Camberato and Tony J. Vyn
      Anhydrous Ammonia Timing and Rate Effects on Maize Nitrogen Use Efficiencies

      Current guidance and equipment technologies permit anhydrous ammonia (NH3) to be confidently placed parallel to crop rows in both before- and after-planting situations at shallower depths than traditional applications. Field studies from 2010 to 2012 investigated the effects of pre-plant vs. side-dress NH3 at four N rates (0, 90, 145, and 202 kg N ha–1) on maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield (GY), N recovery efficiency (NRE), and N use efficiency (NUE). All NH3 was injected to a 12-cm depth; pre-plant NH3 was banded parallel to, but approximately 15 cm offset from, intended rows a few days before planting. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0350
      Published: April 17, 2015



    • Yubin Zhang, Mengsu Peng, Jianfeng Wang, Qiang Gao, Ning Cao and Zhenming Yang
      Corn Yield Response to Phosphorus Fertilization in Northeastern China

      Limited information on the relationship between corn (Zea mays L.) yield and P fertilization rate has hampered rational P-management strategies, which are necessary to help agronomists match P inputs with crop requirements. This study has evaluated corn yield response to P fertilization rates via 419 on-farm experiments in northeastern China. The increased yield due to phosphorus fertilization (IYp, the highest yield among all P fertilization treatments minus the yield of the zero phosphorus control [P0] treatment) averaged 1.3 Mg ha–1 and varied from –1.38 to 4.98 Mg ha–1. This variation can be explained by variable farming practices, hybrid corn varieties, and environmental factors (e.g., water availability). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0600
      Published: April 10, 2015



    • Ardeshir Adeli, John J. Read, Jack McCarty, Johnie N. Jenkins and Gary Feng
      Soybean Yield and Nutrient Utilization following Long-Term Pelletized Broiler Litter Application to Cotton

      Broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter may have long-lasting plant growth benefits after application is terminated. This study determined residual effects of pelletized litter applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) on yield and nutrient utilization of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Treatments were replicated three times. Treatments included pelletized broiler litter subsurface banded to cotton at the rate of 6.7 Mg ha–1, urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN solution) injected at the rate of 134 kg N ha–1 and unfertilized control in three previous years (2008–2010). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0497
      Published: April 10, 2015



    • G. A. Lehrsch, B. Brown, R. D. Lentz, J. L. Johnson-Maynard and A. B. Leytem
      Compost and Manure Effects on Sugarbeet Nitrogen Uptake, Nitrogen Recovery, and Nitrogen Use Efficiency

      To maximize recoverable sucrose from sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), producers must effectively manage added N, be it from urea or organic sources such as manure or composted manure. Our study’s objective was to determine the effects of a one-time application of stockpiled and composted dairy cattle (Bos taurus) manure on sugarbeet N uptake, nitrogen recovery (NR) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). First-year Site A treatments included a control (no N), urea (202 kg N ha–1), compost (218 and 435 kg estimated available N ha–1), and manure (140 and 280 kg available N ha–1). Site B treatments were a control, urea (82 kg N ha–1), compost (81 and 183 kg available N ha–1), and manure (173 and 340 kg available N ha–1). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0507
      Published: April 10, 2015



    • Gilles Bélanger, Noura Ziadi, Denis Pageau, Cynthia Grant, Merja Högnäsbacka, Perttu Virkajärvi, Zhengyi Hu, Jia Lu, Jean Lafond and Judith Nyiraneza
      A Model of Critical Phosphorus Concentration in the Shoot Biomass of Wheat

      Critical nutrient concentrations are required for assessing the level of crop nutrition. Our objectives were to validate an existing model of critical phosphorus concentration (Pc = 0.94 + 0.107N) in the shoot biomass (SB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and to assess the alternative approach of expressing Pc as a function of SB rather than shoot N concentration (N). We applied four rates of P fertilizer (0, 10, 20, and 30 kg P ha–1) on soils with a low to medium available P concentration at four locations in three countries (Normandin [Canada; 2010, 2011, 2012], Brandon [Canada; 2010, 2012], Ylistaro [Finland; 2010, 2011], and Beijing [China; 2012]) for a total of 8 site-years. Shoot biomass, and N and P concentrations were measured on five dates with 1-wk intervals from vegetative to late heading stages of development, and grain yield was measured. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0451
      Published: March 20, 2015



    • Md. Rasel Parvej, Nathan A. Slaton, Larry C. Purcell and Trenton L. Roberts
      Potassium Fertility Effects Yield Components and Seed Potassium Concentration of Determinate and Indeterminate Soybean

      Indeterminate maturity group (MG) IV soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars may be more susceptible to yield loss from K deficiency due to the shorter growing season and earlier onset of reproductive growth than MG V determinate soybean cultivars. Our objective was to identify whether indeterminate MG IV or determinate MG V soybean are affected differently by K deficiency. Seed yield and selected yield components were evaluated from a determinate (MG 5.3) and indeterminate (MG 4.7) soybean cultivar grown under three K fertility levels (low, medium, and high). The trial was conducted in long-term plots that receive 0, 75, or 150 kg K ha–1 yr–1. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0464
      Published: March 13, 2015



    • Libby R. Rens, Lincoln Zotarelli, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Peter J. Stoffella, Douglas Gergela and Dana Fourman
      Biomass Accumulation, Marketable Yield, and Quality of Atlantic Potato in Response to Nitrogen

      Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Florida is largely produced in sandy soils with low water and nutrient holding capacity, which makes N fertilizer timing and rate key factors for successful crop management. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of N fertilizer rate and application timing strategy on biomass accumulation, marketable yield, and tuber quality of chipping potato cultivar Atlantic produced in northeastern Florida. Field trials were conducted for three consecutive years on three commercial farms. All plots received 56 kg ha–1 of N before potato planting. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0408
      Published: March 13, 2015



    • Yanling Chen, Jie Zhang, Qian Li, Xiaolong He, Xiaopo Su, Fanjun Chen, Lixing Yuan and Guohua Mi
      Effects of Nitrogen Application on Post-Silking Root Senescence and Yield of Maize

      The size of roots and their physiological activity during the grain-filling stage affect water and nutrient uptake, and grain yield (GY) in maize (Zea mays L.). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different N levels on postanthesis root senescence in field-grown maize. Three N levels (0, 120, 240 kg N ha–1) was applied to field-grown maize, and the length and weight of roots in the 0- to 40-cm soil layer, nitrogenous compounds in xylem sap, N uptake, dry matter (DM), N accumulation, and GY were analyzed. Shoot N accumulation, but not grain yield, was higher in the N240 treatment than in the N120 treatment. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0509
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Bhupinder Singh Farmaha, Albert L. Sims and Jochum J. Wiersma
      Impact of Nitrogen Fertility on the Production Performance of Four Hard Red Spring Wheat Cultivars

      Under rainfed conditions, apart from genetic differences, N fertility is a major determinant of grain yield and grain N concentration of hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., HRSW). The goal of this study was to determine if prescriptive N recommendations are needed or useful for individual HRSW cultivars to maximize their grain yield and grain N concentration. To answer this question, the impact of N fertility was determined on the production performance of four HRSW cultivars. Field experiments were conducted from 2010 to 2012 with Faller, Samson, Glenn, and Vantage cultivars known to vary in their potential to produce grain yield and grain N concentration at low, medium, and high N fertility levels. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0278
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Peter Hooper, Yi Zhou, David R. Coventry and Glenn K. McDonald
      Use of Nitrogen Fertilizer in a Targeted Way to Improve Grain Yield, Quality, and Nitrogen Use Efficiency

      Nitrogen fertilizer management in rainfed Mediterranean environments can be financially risky because of the strong interaction between N and water availability on yield. This study was conducted to investigate whether the use of split-applications of N fertilizer that targeted specific growth stages could improve grain yield, grain protein concentration (GPC), and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Experiments with 7 N-application timings, two N-rates, and two wheat varieties were conducted at two sites over two seasons. Despite the seasonal rainfall in both years being below the historic averages, delayed or split N applications were able to significantly increase grain yield (2.50 vs. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0363
      Published: February 27, 2015



  • SOIL FERTILITY AND CROP NUTRITION

    • Natasha Kurwakumire, Regis Chikowo, Shamie Zingore, Florence Mtambanengwe, Paul Mapfumo, Sieglinde Snapp and Adrian Johnston
      Nutrient Management Strategies on Heterogeneously Fertile Granitic-Derived Soils in Subhumid Zimbabwe

      Maize (Zea mays L.) is the staple food in southern Africa, but low soil fertility and lack of effective fertilization strategies for variable soil conditions hamper efficient use of nutrient resources. The objective of this study was to establish the influence of soil fertility heterogeneity on maize yield response to manure, liming, and inorganic fertilizers. Three sites, selected to represent three soil fertility domains based on soil organic carbon (SOC) between 3.5 to 8.9 g SOC kg–1 soil, were used during two cropping seasons. Nitrogen, P, K, and S were applied alone (NPKS) or in combinations involving lime, cattle manure, and micronutrients. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0466
      Published: April 6, 2015



  • SOIL TILLAGE, CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT

    • William B. Stevens, Robert G. Evans, William M. Iversen, Jalal D. Jabro, Upendra M. Sainju and Brett L. Allen
      Strip Tillage and High-Efficiency Irrigation Applied to a Sugarbeet–Barley Rotation

      Strip tillage (ST) and high-efficiency overhead irrigation methods reduce fuel and water inputs compared to conventional practices, but have not been extensively evaluated in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.)–malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cropping systems. A field study comparing conventional tillage (CT) and ST systems and two sprinkler irrigation methods (mid-elevation spray application, MESA; low-energy precision application, LEPA) was conducted near Sidney, MT, from 2004 to 2008. Strip tillage was performed (for sugarbeet only) using a single operation that left alternating 30-cm wide strips of tilled and untilled soil while fertilizer was simultaneously banded 10 cm below the seed row. Conventional tillage for sugarbeet consisted of six separate tillage operations following a broadcast application of fertilizer. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0525
      Published: April 17, 2015



    • K. A. Congreves, B. B. Grant, C. A. Campbell, W. N. Smith, A. J. VandenBygaart, R. Kröbel, R. L. Lemke and R. L. Desjardins
      Measuring and Modeling the Long-Term Impact of Crop Management on Soil Carbon Sequestration in the Semiarid Canadian Prairies

      Agricultural management practices which promote soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration can contribute to the long-term productivity of soils, thus research must quantify and predict SOC dynamics in response to crop management. Using long-term (1967–2009) data from 10 cropping systems on a Brown Chernozem (Aridic Haploboroll) in the Canadian semiarid prairies at Swift Current, Saskatchewan, we assessed the effect of fertilizer, cropping frequency, and crop type on SOC dynamics in the 0- to 15-cm depth. Three models: Campbell, introductory carbon balance model (ICBM), and DayCent were evaluated, all of which produced fairly accurate predictions of SOC content and sequestration rates (R2 of 0.64–0.82); however, DayCent had the highest correlation and lowest errors of prediction and was deemed superior. Residue inputs of 0.87 to 1.13 Mg C ha–1 yr–1 maintained the SOC level, and SOC content was directly related to factors which increased C inputs. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0009
      Published: April 10, 2015



    • Zizhong Li, Weihua Zhang and Zenghui Sun
      Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Non- and Single-Irrigated Alfalfa with Ridge and Furrow Planting in Northern China

      Ridge and furrow planting (RFP) is a rainwater harvesting system that improves the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and other crops. Field experiments were performed to study the effects of RFP under non- or single-irrigated (NI and SI) alfalfa production on yield, WUE, evapotranspiration (ET), soil water, and forage growth from 2010 to 2011. Three planting treatments were used, flat bed, bare ridge, and plastic mulch ridge in the NI and SI fields that were referred to as FPNI, BRNI, and MRNI; and FPSI, BRSI, and MRSI, respectively. For the NI field, BRNI and MRNI significantly increased the total forage yield in the 2 yr combined by 14 and 53%; and WUE by 17 and 74% compared with FPNI, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0419
      Published: April 6, 2015



  • SYMPOSIUM: STATISTICAL CONCEPTS

    • Barry Glaz, Jochum Wiersma, Jose A. Hernandez, Nicolas F. Martin and Kathleen M. Yeater
      Introduction to the Statistical Concepts Symposium Section: Selected Review Topics to Improve Our Understanding and Use of Statistics

      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0888
      Published: February 27, 2015
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  • SYMPOSIUM: WATER SECURITY TASK FORCE

    • Neil C. Hansen
      Blue Water Demand for Sustainable Intensification

      The agricultural challenge of meeting global food demand requires an increase in the level of agricultural water productivity and some increases in global water use. But many arid or semiarid agricultural regions of the world are facing declining water availability for irrigation. Examples of declining groundwater availability are seen throughout arid and semiarid areas of North America, Africa, and Asia. Relevant to water demand for sustainable intensification of agriculture, this paper touches on concepts where policy can work toward improving water productivity, including: (i) assessing crop water use and productivity, (ii) promoting cultural practices for increasing crop water productivity, (iii) improving efficiency of green water use, and (iv) protecting agricultural water supplies. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0138
      Published: August 22, 2014



    • John C. Peck
      Legal Challenges in Government Imposition of Water Conservation: The Kansas Example

      This article deals with legal challenges in conserving water in the United States, using Kansas as an example. The focus is on one aspect of American water allocation law—the extent to which a state can force reductions in pumping by holders of water rights. It explains the hybrid nature of water rights, which on the one hand are “real property rights,” and yet on the other hand they are viewed as rights only to use water and not to own the water itself. Because they are a kind of property right, they are protected by the fifth amendment to the U.S. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0058
      Published: August 8, 2014



    • Claudia Ringler and Tingju Zhu
      Water Resources and Food Security

      Agricultural water use includes a continuum from purely rainfed to fully irrigated systems. Growing pressures on limited water supplies from domestic, industrial, and environmental uses will likely lead to a decline in water availability for food production. Similarly, income growth and urbanization lead to dietary shifts that require more water resources per calorie consumed, putting further pressures on water supplies. As a result, semiarid and arid countries continue to increase net imports of food. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0256
      Published: July 18, 2014



    • B. A. Stewart and G. A. Peterson
      Managing Green Water in Dryland Agriculture

      Green water is the portion of precipitation that is stored in the soil, or temporarily stays on top of the soil or vegetation during the growing season. Eventually, part of it is used by plants as transpiration and the amount of water transpired is directly related to biomass production. For grain crops, a portion of the biomass is grain, and the ratio of grain to biomass is the harvest index. The portion of precipitation that becomes green water generally increases with increasing precipitation. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0038
      Published: June 20, 2014



    • Jerry L. Hatfield
      Environmental Impact of Water Use in Agriculture

      Agriculture is an important component of the hydrologic cycle and the use of water in agricultural production is necessary to feed the world’s population and provide ecosystem services. As the population increases there is more concern about the potential role of agriculture on environmental quality and the role water management has on environmental quality. Water use by agricultural systems through evapotranspiration effects both the plant and the surrounding microclimate and the modification of the microclimate is a major environmental impact from agricultural water use. Sources of water for agriculture are from direct use of precipitation and indirect through irrigation from either surface or groundwater resources. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0064
      Published: May 23, 2014



    • Lois Wright Morton
      Achieving Water Security in Agriculture: The Human Factor

      It is widely recognized that achieving water security will take substantive investments in hydrology, engineering, soil science, agronomy, and a wide variety of physical and natural sciences and technologies. Less understood is the human aspect, the social science of beliefs, values, human perceptions and decision-making, social relationships, and social organization that intentionally and unintentionally construct, destroy, and reconstruct the water and land resources to which society is intimately linked. Addressing the complex issues of water security will require humans to acknowledge the threats to security and a willingness to give priority to assuring water quality, water availability, and water access to meet the needs of a growing world population and their economic engines. Soil–water–vegetation–climate–human relationships are central to maintaining and repairing the hydrological cycle necessary for fresh, safe, and abundant water supply. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0039
      Published: May 23, 2014



  • THANKS TO OUR REVIEWERS


    • Thanks to Our Reviewers

      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0910
      Published: April 10, 2015
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