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Volume 109 Issue 2, March-April 2017



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  • EUROPEAN TURFGRASS SOCIETY CONFERENCE up

    • Alejandra A. Acuña E., Claudio Pastenes V. and Luis Villalobos G.
      Carbon Sequestration and Photosynthesis in Newly Established Turfgrass Cover in Central Chile
      Core Ideas
      • Soil organic C varied for 3 yr and four seasons for the five cool season turfgrass species (C3) and the two warm season turfgrass species (C4) when compared to bare soil. The effect of turfgrass species was detected in all of the seasons, where turfgrass coverage increased soil organic C over time, primarily at the 0- to 10-cm soil depth.
      • Carbon dioxide fixation rate can be an adequate indicator of carbon sequestration potential in a short-term period for turfgrass species.
      • This study showed that Cynodon dactylon L. and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. were the most promising species to increase C sequestration and to better use the irrigation water in central Chile.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.05.0257
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:397-405
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  • AGRONOMIC APPLICATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES up

    • Peter S. Setimela, Cosmos Magorokosho, Rodney Lunduka, Edmore Gasura, Dan Makumbi, Amsal Tarekegne, Jill E. Cairns, Thokozile Ndhlela, Olaf Erenstein and Wilfred Mwangi
      On-Farm Yield Gains with Stress-Tolerant Maize in Eastern and Southern Africa
      Core Ideas
      • These selected varieties were compared with the best commercial check varieties on-farm across 94 locations in eastern and southern Africa in a randomized complete block design with three replications for two seasons.
      • The new drought tolerant hybrids showed a yield advantage over the commercial check varieties both in the early and medium-late maturing categories by 4 to 19%.
      • Among the CIMMYT hybrids, CZH0616 showed wide adaptation under stress and non-stress conditions, making it an ideal genotype for smallholders’ farmers.
      • Under farmers’ fields CZH0616, CZH0837, CZH0935, and CZH0928 were high yielding and stable across locations in eight countries that represent major maize production environments in eastern and southern Africa.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2015.0540
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:406-417
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    • B. Badu-Apraku, C. G. Yallou, K. Obeng-Antwi, H. Alidu, A. O. Talabi, B. Annor, M. Oyekunle, I. C. Akaogu and M. Aderounmu
      Yield Gains in Extra-Early Maize Cultivars of Three Breeding Eras under Multiple Environments
      Core Ideas
      • The study determined genetic improvement in grain yield of the cultivars during the breeding eras, investigated trait associations, and identified high-yielding and stable cultivars across multiple-stress and non-stress environments.
      • The study revealed an annual genetic gain of 2.72 and 2.28% for the cultivars under multiple-stress and non-stress environments.
      • Cultivars 2004 TZEE-Y Pop STR C4, TZEE-W Pop STR QPM C0, TZEE-W Pop STR BC2 C0 of era 2 and TZEE-W STR 107 BC1, TZEE-W Pop STR C5, and 2012 TZEE-Y DT STR C5 of era 3 were the highest yielding and stable across multiple-stress environments while 98 Syn EE-W from era 1, FERKE TZEE-W STR, TZEE-W Pop STR C3, TZEE-Y Pop STR QPM C0 from era 2, and TZEE-W Pop STR C5, 2009 TZEE-OR2 STR QPM, 2009 TZEE-W STR, TZEE-Y STR 106, TZEE-W DT C0 STR C5 from era 3 were the most outstanding across non-stress environments.
      • We conclude that substantial progress has been made in breeding for multiple-stress tolerant extra-early maize cultivars in West and central Africa.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0566
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:418-431
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  • AGRONOMY, SOILS & ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY up

    • Luis Villalobos and Joe E. Brummer
      Yield and Nutritive Value of Cool-Season Annual Forages and Mixtures Seeded into Pearl Millet Stubble
      Core Ideas
      • Annual cool-season forages with high biomass yields may be stockpiled for fall grazing.
      • Species composition was affected by the seeding rates of individual species used within the bulk seeding rate.
      • Controlling millet regrowth with herbicide prior to seeding resulted in greater establishment, yield, and nutritive value of the seeded cool-season forages.
      • Annual forages can meet the requirements of beef cattle grazing during the fall and early winter.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0324
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:432-441
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    • Resham Thapa, Abbey Wick and Amitava Chatterjee
      Response of Spring Wheat to Sulfate-Based Salinity Stress under Greenhouse and Field Conditions
      Core Ideas
      • Spring wheat response to sulfate-based salinity stress was evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions.
      • Soil salinity was highly variable, both horizontally and vertically, in fields.
      • Soil ECe affected crop growth and relative yield only under greenhouse conditions.
      • Under field conditions, low soil ECe in the root zone resulted in greater salinity tolerance.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0384
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:442-454
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    • Nicole Fiorellino, Robert Kratochvil and Frank Coale
      Long-Term Agronomic Drawdown of Soil Phosphorus in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Soils
      Core Ideas
      • Rate of soil P drawdown is a slow process having economic impacts to producers.
      • Cropping system affected drawdown of soil P concentrations at all locations.
      • Forage cropping systems exhibited faster soil P drawdown.
      • Lower initial soil P status resulted in faster soil P drawdown at one location.
      • Soils could take 18 to 44 yr to return to agronomic optimum P concentrations.
      • Phytoremediation remains the only management option to lower soil P concentrations.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0409
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:455-461
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    • Jacob M. Jungers, Lee R. DeHaan, Kevin J. Betts, Craig C. Sheaffer and Donald L. Wyse
      Intermediate Wheatgrass Grain and Forage Yield Responses to Nitrogen Fertilization
      Core Ideas
      • Intermediate wheatgrass is being bred as a perennial grain crop.
      • Optimum N fertilizer rates for intermediate wheatgrass grain yields are reported.
      • Intermediate wheatgrass biomass yield and quality is comparable to other biomass crops.
      • Intermediate wheatgrass grain yields declined after two years of production.
      • Lodging occurred at high N rates, which reduced grain yields.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0438
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:462-472
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    • John J. Read, Ardeshir Adeli, David J. Lang and J. Larry Oldham
      Nutritive Value and Nutrient Uptake of Summer-Active and Summer-Dormant Tall Fescue under Different Broiler Litter Rates
      Core Ideas
      • The nutrient value of broiler litter in tall fescue was compared with NPK fertilizer.
      • Nutrient uptake was similar between a summer-dormant and two summer-active ecotypes.
      • Flecha summer-dormant produced more forage in early season that was less digestible.
      • A rate of 9.0 Mg litter per ha appeared to optimize forage yield and nutritive value.
      • Recommendations are provided for minimizing excess manure nutrients in tall fescue.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.08.0445
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:473-482
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  • BIOMETRY, MODELING & STATISTICS up

    • Fabio Marin, James W. Jones and Kenneth J. Boote
      A Stochastic Method for Crop Models: Including Uncertainty in a Sugarcane Model
      Core Ideas
      • We propose an approach for simulating effects of parameter and input variable uncertainties in crop models.
      • The GLUE was useful for estimating the parameter correlation matrix and the best set of parameters.
      • The crop model output uncertainty varied with soil and climate conditions.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.02.0103
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:483-495
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    • Nicholas George and Stephen Kaffka
      Canola as a New Crop for California: A Simulation Study
      Core Ideas
      • The accuracy of the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator crop model for simulating canola production in California was tested.
      • The crop model accurately predicted canola yields across the state.
      • Simulations support observations from multi-environments trials that canola has both high mean yields and yield potential in California.
      • The simulation results suggest canola is a viable alternative crop for diversifying cool-season annual cropping in California.
      • Canola could maintain economically viable yields under climate change scenarios projected for the region.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.04.0247
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:496-509
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    • Qi Jing, Budong Qian, Jiali Shang, Ted Huffman, Jiangui Liu, Elizabeth Pattey, Taifeng Dong, Nicolas Tremblay, Craig F. Drury, Bao-Luo Ma, Guillaume Jégo, Xianfeng Jiao, John Kovacs, Dan Walters and Jinfei Wang
      Assessing the Options to Improve Regional Wheat Yield in Eastern Canada Using the CSM–CERES–Wheat Model
      Core Ideas
      • Wheat yield at both field and regional scales was successfully simulated using CSM–CERES–Wheat.
      • There is a considerable room to improve spring wheat yield in eastern Ontario.
      • Average yield in eastern Ontario can reach 3600 kg ha–1 with fertilization at 100 kg N ha–1.
      • Crop models may need to include lodging—often related to high N rates in eastern Canada.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0364
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:510-523
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  • CROP ECOLOGY & PHYSIOLOGY up

    • Lucas A. Haag, Johnathon D. Holman, Joel Ransom, Tom Roberts, Scott Maxwell, Mark E. Zarnstorff and Leigh Murray
      Compensation of Corn Yield Components to Late-Season Stand Reductions in the Central and Northern Great Plains
      Core Ideas
      • Plasticity of remaining yield components can reduce the impact of late season stand losses.
      • Stand reductions as late as V14 did not result in 1:1 yield losses.
      • The relative importance of yield component compensation varied by timing and location/hybrid.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2015.0523
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:524-531
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    • Alexander J. Lindsey, Peter R. Thomison, David J. Barker and James D. Metzger
      Evaluating Water Exclusion using Plastic Ground Cover in Maize at Two Population Densities
      Core Ideas
      • Evaluating drought-tolerant maize hybrids is a challenge in the eastern U.S. Corn Belt.
      • Treatments with black plastic had lower soil moisture with minor increases in soil temperature.
      • Water exclusion using plastic ground cover reduced soil moisture and grain yield compared to the rain-fed plus irrigation control.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0508
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:532-540
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  • CROP ECONOMICS, PRODUCTION & MANAGEMENT up

    • Christopher A. Seifert, Michael J. Roberts and David B. Lobell
      Continuous Corn and Soybean Yield Penalties across Hundreds of Thousands of Fields
      Core Ideas
      • Analysis of 748,374 yield records showed a 4.3% yield penalty for continuous corn.
      • Corn yield penalties were more severe in areas with low moisture and low yields.
      • Continuous soybean showed a 10.3% yield penalty, worse in low-yielding years.
      • Corn yield penalties grew with up to 3 yr of continuous cropping, but not more.
      • Soybean penalties increased monotonically with number of years continuously cropped.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.03.0134
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:541-548
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    • Jianguo Man, Dong Wang and Philip. J. White
      Photosynthesis and Drymass Production of Winter Wheat in Response to Micro-Sprinkling Irrigation
      Core Ideas
      • Supplemental irrigation with micro-sprinkling hose was suitable for wheat.
      • The Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, and photosynthetic rate increased with increased hose sprinkling angle.
      • Supplemental irrigation with 80° sprinkling angle hose increased dry matter, grain-filling rate, and duration.
      • All benefits were hypothesized to accrue through the increased soil water uniformity.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.05.0301
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:549-561
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    • Yangxuan Liu, Michael R. Langemeier, Ian M. Small, Laura Joseph and William E. Fry
      Risk Management Strategies using Precision Agriculture Technology to Manage Potato Late Blight
      Core Ideas
      • The benefits of adopting precision farming technology was investivated in scheduling fungicide applications to manage potato late blight.
      • The precision farming technology is the preferred method to schedule fungicide applications in terms of disease suppression, net return per 0.41 ha, and risk-adjusted net return.
      • The increased adoption of the precision farming technology would help manage late blight, limit potential crop losses, and improve net returns.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0418
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:562-575
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    • Mohammad Khakbazan, Francis J. Larney, Jianzhong Huang, Ramona M. Mohr, Drusilla C. Pearson and Robert E. Blackshaw
      Economics of Conventional and Conservation Practices for Irrigated Dry Bean Rotations in Southern Alberta
      Core Ideas
      • Average differences among bean yields in conventional and conservation rotations were marginal.
      • Net income in conventional management was $122 ha–1 higher than net income in conservation practices.
      • Risk efficiency analysis shows 4-yr conventional preferred to all other rotations.
      • Undercutting narrow-row bean in conservation increased yield and net income than bean in conventional.
      • Higher net income of undercutting narrow-row bean may result in a greater adoption of conservation.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.08.0480
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:576-587
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  • ORGANIC AGRICULTURE & AGROECOLOGY up

    • Kerry M. Clark, Dara L. Boardman, Jill S. Staples, Steven Easterby, T. M. Reinbott, Robert J. Kremer, Newell R. Kitchen and Kristen S. Veum
      Crop Yield and Soil Organic Carbon in Conventional and No-till Organic Systems on a Claypan Soil
      Core Ideas
      • Soybean in organic no-till yielded as well as conventional organic.
      • Corn in organic no-till had lower yield than conventional organic.
      • A crimped cover crop can cause N immobilization and reduced corn yield.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0367
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:588-599
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    • Dallas M. Williams, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, Charles A. Francis and Tomie D. Galusha
      Organic Farming and Soil Physical Properties: An Assessment after 40 Years
      Core Ideas
      • Organic farming can contribute to water capture relative to conventional systems.
      • Soil aggregates are more water stable under organic than conventional practices.
      • Organic farming systems can improve soil physical properties in the long term.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0372
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:600-609
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  • PEST INTERACTIONS IN AGRONOMIC SYSTEMS up

    • José Roberto Brito Freitas, Mara Regina Moitinho, Daniel De Bortoli Teixeira, Elton da Silva Bicalho, João Fernandes da Silva Júnior, Diego Silva Siqueira, Bruno Flávio Figueiredo Barbosa, Pedro Luiz Martins Soares and Gener Tadeu Pereira
      Soil Factors Influencing Nematode Spatial Variability in Soybean
      Core Ideas
      • Spatial distribution P. brachyurus nematode is influenced by soil chemical properties.
      • In sites with low fertility the plants become more susceptible to nematode attack.
      • In sites concentrating greater amount Mg are favorable to greater number of nematode.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.03.0160
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:610-619
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    • Guoqi Chen, Qinghu Liu, Yuhua Zhang, Jun Li and Liyao Dong
      Comparison of Weed Seedbanks in Different Rice Planting Systems
      Core Ideas
      • Weed seedbanks were compared in three rice planting systems: machine-transplanted rice, water direct-seeded rice, and dry direct-seeded rice.
      • Weed seedbanks were mainly distributed in soil within a depth of 10 cm.
      • Dry direct-seeded rice tended to maintain larger seedbanks of sedges, grasses, and some upland weeds.
      • Water direct-seeded rice contained the smallest weed seedbank overall.
      • Machine-transplanted rice had larger seedbanks of broadleaf weeds and some traditional rice weeds.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0348
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:620-628
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  • SOIL FERTILITY & CROP NUTRITION up

    • A. Moreira, L. A. C. Moraes, G. Schroth, F. J. Becker and J. M. G. Mandarino
      Soybean Yield and Nutritional Status Response to Nitrogen Sources and Rates of Foliar Fertilization
      Core Ideas
      • In high-yielding conditions, biological nitrogen fixation and soil total N may not be sufficient to sustain N uptake rates during soybean seed-filling period to meet the seed N demand required to reach the maximum attainable seed yield. Foliar N fertilization in R3 to R4 growth stages may be used to increase N supply during the final reproductive cycle of plant.
      • The importance on nutrients application, in special N, in crop production has increased in recent years in tropical and subtropical conditions in Brazil because of intensive cultivation (soybean–wheat, soybean–corn, and soybean–cotton), use of high yielding cultivars, and increasing the cost of production.
      • Nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate, and ammonium sulfate) and rates (0, 5, and 10 kg ha–1) have different responses and efficiency index in seed yield, when N foliar applied on soybean leaves at the R3 to R4 growth stages.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.04.0199
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:629-635
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    • Feng Chen, Asif Ameen, Chao-Chen Tang, Fu Du, Xiao-Lin Yang and Guang-Hui Xie
      Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Soil Nitrogen for Energy Sorghum on Marginal Land in China
      Core Ideas
      • Soil NO3––N to a depth of 0 to 90 cm increased significantly as N rate increased.
      • The N rate of 120 kg ha–1 improved dry matter yield with reduced NO3––N accumulation.
      • An N surplus seen first at an N rate of 60 kg ha–1 increased as N rate increased.
      • Most inorganic N was required for energy sorghum pre-anthesis period growth.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0340
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:636-645
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    • E. Jahanzad, A. V. Barker, M. Hashemi, A. Sadeghpour and T. Eaton
      Forage Radish and Winter Pea Cover Crops Outperformed Rye in a Potato Cropping System
      Core Ideas
      • Forage radish and winter pea cover crops improved nitrogen-use efficiency in a potato cropping system.
      • A high N-yielding winterkilled cover crop is preferred over rye for early planting of potato.
      • Rye may not provide the succeeding potato with sufficient N because of early termination.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0342
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:646-653
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    • Diogenes L. Antille, Richard J. Godwin, Ruben Sakrabani, Saman Seneweera, Sean F. Tyrrel and A. Edward Johnston
      Field-Scale Evaluation of Biosolids-Derived Organomineral Fertilizers Applied to Winter Wheat in England
      Core Ideas
      • Agronomic efficiency of organomineral fertilizers higher than biosolids granules.
      • Organomineral fertilizers reduces the risk of soil P build-up compared with biosolids.
      • Conversion of sewage sludge into organomineral fertilizers improves the fertilizer value of biosolids.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0495
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:654-674
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    • Dan S. Long, John D. McCallum, Catherine L. Reardon and Richard E. Engel
      Nitrogen Requirement to Change Protein Concentration of Spring Wheat in Semiarid Pacific Northwest
      Core Ideas
      • Nitrogen removal maps combined with the fertilizer N equivalent are useful for precision N management.
      • More N is needed to change spring wheat protein in Pacific Northwest than in northern Plains.
      • The fertilizer N equivalent is generalizable among spring wheat cultivars.
      • Growers can use yield and protein maps to implement the N replacement approach
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0518
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:675-683
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    • Matt A. Yost, Bryan K. Randall, Newell R. Kitchen, Emily A. Heaton and Robert L. Myers
      Yield Potential and Nitrogen Requirements of Miscanthus × giganteus on Eroded Soil
      Core Ideas
      • Miscanthus’s performance on eroded claypan soils was comparable to other more productive soil.
      • Only 4 of 12 site-year combinations required fertilizer N to maximize Miscanthus yield.
      • Nitrogen priming had no benefit and the constant rate of 67 kg N ha–1 yr–1 was the lowest that maximized total yield.
      • Relative leaf chlorophyll concentration in June is a reliable indicator of yield response to N.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0582
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:684-695
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  • SOIL TILLAGE, CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT up

    • Michael J. Mulvaney, Kipling S. Balkcom, C. Wes Wood and David Jordan
      Peanut Residue Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization under Simulated Conventional and Conservation Tillage
      Core Ideas
      • Recommendations of 22 to 67 kg N ha–1 credit after peanut are not substantiated.
      • Decomposition of peanut residue in North Carolina and Alabama fit double exponential decay equations.
      • Nitrogen credit to wheat was 14 to 24 kg N ha–1, but to cotton was 2 to 10 kg N ha–1.
      • Nitrogen credits differ by location and placement of residue.
      • Nitrogen credits should be specified to which crop they are applied.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.04.0190
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:696-705
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    • Rajan Ghimire, Stephen Machado and Prakriti Bista
      Soil pH, Soil Organic Matter, and Crop Yields in Winter Wheat–Summer Fallow Systems
      Core Ideas
      • Continuous addition of ammonical N fertilizer increases soil acidity.
      • Soil acidification influences nutrient dynamics and crop yields.
      • Soil organic C and soil N decreased over years under winter wheat–summer fallow system.
      • Soil acidifcation was not related with soil organic carbon and soil N loss over years.
      • Soil acidification should be carefully monitored in systems using ammonical N fertilizers.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.08.0462
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:706-717
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    • Ben W. Thomas, Francis J. Larney, Martin H. Chantigny, Claudia Goyer and Xiying Hao
      Fall Rye Reduced Residual Soil Nitrate and Dryland Spring Wheat Grain Yield
      Core Ideas
      • Fall rye reduced pre-plant nitrate by 2 to 18 times compared with tillage radish.
      • Fall rye reduced dryland spring wheat grain yield by 38 to 58% compared with tillage radish.
      • Pre-plant soil NH4–N plus NO3–N explained 93% of spring wheat grain yield variability.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0616
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:718-728
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  • NOTES & UNIQUE PHENOMENA up

    • Stephen C. Mason, Cory G. Walters, Tomie D. Galusha, Roger K. Wilson and Zaher Kmail
      Planting Saved Roundup Ready 1 Soybean Seed Implications on Yield and Profit
      Core Ideas
      • RR1 Soybean seed produces similar yield to RR2Y seed.
      • Saving RR1 soybean affords large economic advantages with lower risk.
      • Saved RR1 soybean seed had similar yield, bulk densities, and percent lodging as commercial RR2Y seed.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.05.0284
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:729-734
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    • Kenneth P. Vogel, Rose Medill, Steven D. Masterson, Robert B. Mitchell and Gautam Sarath
      Mineral Element Analyses of Switchgrass Biomass: Comparison of the Accuracy and Precision of Laboratories
      Core Ideas
      • Mineral concentration of plant biomass can affect its use in thermal conversion to energy.
      • Precision and accuracy of laboratory mineral analyses of plant biomass can vary significantly.
      • Standard samples need to be used to monitor laboratories precision and accuracy.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.08.0475
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:735-738
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