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Volume 109 Issue 4, July-August 2017



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  • REVIEW & INTERPRETATIONS up

    • Amod K. Thakur and Norman T. Uphoff
      How the System of Rice Intensification Can Contribute to Climate-Smart Agriculture
      Core Ideas
      • System of rice intensification increases crop productivity with lesser inputs.
      • System of rice intensification yields more productive and robust rice phenotypes from given plant genotypes.
      • System of rice intensification crops are tolerant to biotic/abiotic stresses and it reduces GHGs from rice fields.
      • System of rice intensification enables farmers to adapt to and mitigate climate change.
      • This paper reviews how and why SRI can be considered as climate-smart agriculture.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.03.0162
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1163-1182
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    • Qingping Zhang, Fuhong Miao, Zhennan Wang, Yuying Shen and Guoliang Wang
      Effects of Long-Term Fertilization Management Practices on Soil Microbial Biomass in China’s Cropland: A Meta-Analysis
      Core Ideas
      • The optimal N rate was about 100 kg ha–1 yr–1.
      • Best duration for fertilization is less than 10 yr.
      • The application of NPKM demonstrates the greatest potential for increasing microbial biomass in China’s cropland.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0553
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1183-1195
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      [ Supplement 1 ]
    • Qingping Zhang, Zhennan Wang, Fuhong Miao and Guoliang Wang
      Dryland Maize Yield and Water-Use Efficiency Responses to Mulching and Tillage Practices
      Core Ideas
      • The highest yield and water-use efficiency were under plastic mulching and the lowest in conventional practice.
      • Maize yields were more sensitive to soil water at sowing under mulching and subsoiling tillage practices in the Loess Plateau.
      • The synthesis demonstrates that ridge furrow mulching was the optimum practice for maximizing maize yield.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0593
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1196-1209
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    • Sam E. Wortman, Ashley A. Holmes, Elizabeth Miernicki, Kaelyn Knoche and Cameron M. Pittelkow
      First-Season Crop Yield Response to Organic Soil Amendments: A Meta-Analysis
      Core Ideas
      • Organic amendments are promoted as sustainable alternatives to synthetic fertilizer.
      • Crop yield increased by an average of 43% in the first season after organic soil amendment.
      • Yield benefit from organic amendments was greater in leafy crops than root crops.
      • Poultry manure was commonly used and provided the greatest agronomic benefit.
      • Yield benefit of organic amendment was lower in arid regions with poor soil quality.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0627
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1210-1217
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      [ Supplement 1 ] [ Supplement 2 ]
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    • H. Arnold Bruns
      Southern Corn Leaf Blight: A Story Worth Retelling
      Core Ideas
      • A history of corn leaf blight and its host.
      • A synopsis of southern corn leaf blight.
      • Lessons for the future.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0006
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1218-1224
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  • AGRONOMIC APPLICATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES up

    • Fatemeh Etemadi, Masoud Hashemi, Roohollah Abbasi Shureshjani and Wesley R. Autio
      Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Assess Performance Efficiency of Eight Faba Bean Varieties
      Core Ideas
      • Seed size along with yield should be considered for evaluation of faba bean varieties.
      • Data envelopment analysis can be implemented for ranking the efficiency of faba bean varieties.
      • Varieties ranked high by data envelopment analysis models can promote faba bean production in the Northeast.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0617
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1225-1231
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  • AGRONOMY, SOILS & ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY up

    • L. C. P. S. Pacheco, V. Damin, A. P. Pelosi, K. R. S. Ferreira and P. C. O. Trivelin
      Herbicides Increase Emission of Ammonia by Pearl Millet and Congo Grass
      Core Ideas
      • • Post-emergent herbicides application increase the emission of ammonia by cover crops.
      • • Post-emergent herbicides application on congo grass decrease the total N in the residues.
      • • Glyphosate application on congo grass or pearl millet strongly reduces the total-N content in the straw.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.04.0242
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1232-1239
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    • Jiyul Chang, David E. Clay, Sharon A. Clay, Alexander J. Smart and Michelle K. Ohrtman
      A Rapid Method for Measuring Feces Ammonia-Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide-Carbon Emissions and Decomposition Rate Constants
      Core Ideas
      • Carbon storage and ammonia volatilization from feces can be quantified using techniques described in this article.
      • Carbon dioxide and NH3 emission follow diurnal cycles and it is difficult to accurately predict CO2 loss and ammonia volatilization based on point measurements.
      • Conducting rapid assessments that produce definitive findings helps build trust between scientists and and on-farm producer collaborators.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.08.0468
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1240-1248
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    • Daniel Plaza-Bonilla, Jorge Álvaro-Fuentes, Javier Bareche, Albert Masgoret and Carlos Cantero-Martínez
      Delayed Sowing Improved Barley Yield in a No-Till Rainfed Mediterranean Agroecosystem
      Core Ideas
      • Sowing delay and cultivar effects on cereal production and water and N use efficiencies were studied.
      • Sowing delay increased grain yield due to greater number of grains per m2.
      • Sowing delay maximized the efficiency in the use of resources.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0537
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1249-1260
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    • Ivan A. Dozier, Gevan D. Behnke, Adam S. Davis, Emerson D. Nafziger and María B. Villamil
      Tillage and Cover Cropping Effects on Soil Properties and Crop Production in Illinois
      Core Ideas
      • Compared corn–soybean rotations with cover crops vs fallows under no-till or till.
      • Corn–soybean rotations with cereal rye after corn decreased soil NO3–N by 42%.
      • Soil attributes and crop yields were generally unaffected by cover crops use.
      • Tillage increased soil organic matter and exchangeable K compared to no-till.
      • Tillage reduced soybean yields by 245 kg/ha compared to no-till.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0613
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1261-1270
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    • Ming Xie, Yan-Jun Zhang, De-Liang Peng, Qian Li, Xin-Ping Hu and Zhao-Rong Zhang
      No Significant Impact of Transgenic Cry1Ab/1Ac Cotton on Rhizosphere-Soil Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Communities
      Core Ideas
      • The selected enzymatic activities were not significantly affected by the GK 12.
      • The bacterial population size was not significantly affected by the GK 12.
      • The bacterial community structure was not significantly affected by the GK 12.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0618
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1271-1279
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      [ Supplement 1 ]
    • Lu Wu, Liping Feng, Yi Zhang, Jiachen Gao and Jing Wang
      Comparison of Five Wheat Models Simulating Phenology under Different Sowing Dates and Varieties
      Core Ideas
      • We compared the mechanism and capacity of five wheat phenology models by varied phases.
      • Models reproduced growing phases well by suitable sowing dates and local varieties.
      • Simulations were unsatisfactory under late sowing dates and colder conditions.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0619
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1280-1293
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    • Ardeshir Adeli, John Read, Gary Feng, Rebecca McGrew and Johnie Jenkins
      Organic Amendments and Nutrient Leaching in Soil Columns
      Core Ideas
      • Compost promotes C sequestration in reclaimed coal mine soil.
      • Flue gas desulfurization gypsum reduces P content in leachate.
      • Compost sustains agro-ecosystem.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0634
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1294-1302
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    • Brenton Sharratt, Frank Young and Gary Feng
      Wind Erosion and PM10 Emissions from No-Tillage Cropping Systems in the Pacific Northwest
      Core Ideas
      • Erosion of agricultural lands affect air quality in the Inland Pacific Northwest.
      • Alternatives to tillage-based cropping systems are needed to reduce wind erosion.
      • No-tillage cereal cropping systems reduce wind erosion and particulates ≤10 µm in diameter emissions.
      • Economically viable strategies are sought for no-tillage cropping systems.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0667
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1303-1311
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    • Bent T. Christensen, Johannes L. Jensen and Ingrid K. Thomsen
      Impact of Early Sowing on Winter Wheat Receiving Manure or Mineral Fertilizers
      Core Ideas
      • Grain yield benefits of early sown wheat was 0.5 and 1.0 Mg ha–1 for mineral fertilizers and animal manure.
      • Over-winter N uptake was 11 kg N ha–1 higher in early than in timely sown wheat.
      • At harvest, 19 kg N ha–1 more N was removed in early than in timely sown wheat.
      • The beneficial effect of early sowing compares to that of N catch crops.
      • Surface-applied cattle slurry provides a poor N use efficiency and grain protein.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0677
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1312-1322
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    • Aristotelis C. Tagarakis and Quirine M. Ketterings
      In-Season Estimation of Corn Yield Potential Using Proximal Sensing
      Core Ideas
      • Accurate yield prediction is needed for effective sensor-based N management.
      • Field testing is needed to develop reliable algorithms for silage and grain corn.
      • For the most accurate yield prediction, crop sensing should be done at V6 or later.
      • Predictions for corn silage were more accurate than for corn grain.
      • The use of in-season-estimated yield is preferred across variable sites.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0732
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1323-1330
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    • Carlos Antonio da Silva Junior, Marcos Rafael Nanni, Paulo Eduardo Teodoro and Guilherme Fernando Capristo Silva
      Vegetation Indices for Discrimination of Soybean Areas: A New Approach
      Core Ideas
      • Automation of mapping of soybean areas.
      • Use of remote sensors in the recognition of summer crop.
      • Development of exclusive vegetation index for soybean.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0003
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1331-1343
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    • Humberto Blanco-Canqui, Michael Sindelar, Charles S. Wortmann and Gary Kreikemeier
      Aerial Interseeded Cover Crop and Corn Residue Harvest: Soil and Crop Impacts
      Core Ideas
      • Harvesting 71% of corn residue can increase wind erosion potential of a sandy loam soil.
      • Corn residue harvest did not affect soil fertility and corn yields.
      • Aerially interseeded winter rye cover crop tended to reduce wind erosion potential.
      • Residue harvest can increase erosion potential but interseeded cover crop could partly offset this effect.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.02.0098
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1344-1351
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  • BIOFUELS up

    • Adam J. Heitman, Miguel S. Castillo, T. Jot. Smyth, Carl R. Crozier, Zan Wang, Ron W. Heiniger and Ronald J. Gehl
      Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Yield and Nutrient Removal of Biomass and Sweet Sorghum
      Core Ideas
      • During the 4-yr period of this trial, N fertilization increased dry matter yield in 2 out of 4 yr for biomass sorghum and there was no effect on dry matter yield of sweet sorghum.
      • High DM yield supports sorghum as a bioenergy crop, however, the relatively low nutrient removal rate may limit its utilization in nutrient-rich environments such as spray fields.
      • Greatest dry matter yields achieved were ∼18.5 Mg ha–1 at a N fertilization rate of 67 kg N ha–1 yr–1 for biomass sorghum.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0710
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1352-1358
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    • A. J. Ashworth, A. C. Rocateli, C. P. West, K. R. Brye and M. P. Popp
      Switchgrass Growth and Effects on Biomass Accumulation, Moisture Content, and Nutrient Removal
      Core Ideas
      • Quantifying intra-seasonal fluctuations allows for simulating productivity trade-offs.
      • Biomass yields peaked August–September when N and K and moisture contents were elevated.
      • Delaying harvests to late fall reduces fertilizer replacement needs.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0030
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1359-1367
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    • Zan Wang, Joshua L. Heitman, T. Jot Smyth, Carl R. Crozier, Alan Franzluebbers, Sage Lee, J. Ronald, Gehl Z. Wang, J.L. Heitman, T. Jot Smyth and C.R. Crozier
      Soil Responses to Bioenergy Crop Production in the North Carolina Piedmont
      Core Ideas
      • Three bioenergy and two traditional cropping systems were compared in the North Carolina Piedmont.
      • Bioenergy crops sorghum, switchgrass, and giant mischanthus produced large yields.
      • Removal of N, P, and K was least for perennial bioenergy crops.
      • Perennial bioenergy crops had slightly poorer soil physical conditions after 3 yr.
      • Organic C pools were greatest with giant miscanthus and fescue.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.02.0068
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1368-1378
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  • BIOMETRY, MODELING & STATISTICS up

    • K. Raja Reddy, David Brand, Chathurika Wijewardana and Wei Gao
      Temperature Effects on Cotton Seedling Emergence, Growth, and Development
      Core Ideas
      • Little insight of temperature effects on cotton root morphology and seed germination.
      • Cotton cultivars vary in their response to different temperatures.
      • Growth and developmental responses developed will be useful in cotton crop models.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0439
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1379-1287
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  • CROP ECOLOGY & PHYSIOLOGY up

    • Wenling Chen, Menggui Jin, Yang Xian and Ty P.A. Ferré
      Combined Effect of Sodium Chloride and Boron in Irrigation Water on Cotton Growth
      Core Ideas
      • Cotton growth parameters varied with different NaCl and B concentrations in irrigation water.
      • An antagonistic effect of NaCl and B on cotton growth and yield was observed.
      • The combination of NaCl and B affected nutrient ion absorption of cotton.
      • Brackish water moderately promoted cotton yield, possibly because of the extra quantity of NaCl-resistant nutrient elements such as K and Ca.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0416
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1388-1396
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    • Spyridon Mourtzinis and Shawn P. Conley
      Delineating Soybean Maturity Groups across the United States
      Core Ideas
      • Seven maturity group zones were identified across the United States.
      • The width of maturity group zones 4 and 5 cover the largest geographic region.
      • Maturity group zones were defined by a downward deflection of the maturity group lines.
      • Maturity group adaptation zones need to be continuously monitored and adjusted.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0581
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1397-1403
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    • Leanne C. Wilson, Alden Braul and Martin H. Entz
      Characteristics of Black Medic Seed Dormancy Loss in Western Canada
      Core Ideas
      • Self-regenerating legumes reduce the cost of cover crop seeding.
      • Regeneratfion of black medic from seedbank mediated by temperature.
      • Extreme cold soil temperature may limit black medic regeneration.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0604
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1404-1413
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    • Maryam Yousefzadeh Najafabadi and Parviz Ehsanzadeh
      Salicylic Acid Effects on Osmoregulation and Seed Yield in Drought-Stressed Sesame
      Core Ideas
      • • Osmoregulation helps sesame withstand drought.
      • • Diversity exists in sesame genotypes response to drought.
      • • Salicylic acid benefits sesame grain yield.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0655
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1414-1422
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    • M. R. Schmer, J. R. Hendrickson, M. A. Liebig and H. A. Johnson
      Perennial Plant Establishment and Productivity Can Be Influenced by Previous Annual Crops
      Core Ideas
      • Perennial treatments established into soybean residue had the highest stand frequency measured.
      • Warm-season mixtures tended to have higher biomass production following soybean.
      • Previous annual crops affected biomass yields for switchgrass, intermediate wheatgrass–alfalfa, and a cool-season mixture.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0660
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1423-1432
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    • Peng Yan, Zhiqiang Tao, Yuanquan Chen, Xuepeng Zhang and Peng Sui
      Spring Maize Kernel Number and Assimilate Supply Responses
      to High-Temperature Stress under Field Conditions

      Core Ideas
      • Spring maize mono-cropping system is shown to be a water-saving and high-yield maize farming system.
      • Spring maize was traditionally planted in late April or early May but seldom obtained desirable yield.
      • Altering sowing date reduced frequency of high-temperature stress of spring maize around silking and grain-filling stage.
      • Altering sowing date improved assimilate availability of spring maize during the grain-filling stage.
      • Late May turned out to be the better sowing date, rather than traditional sowing dates in late April or early May under current conditions.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0662
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1433-1442
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    • Ling Gou, Jun Xue, Bingqin Qi, Buyi Ma and Wangfeng Zhang
      Morphological Variation of Maize Cultivars in Response to Elevated Plant Densities
      Core Ideas
      • Maize can adjust its morphology to adapt to the low light environment in close planted stands.
      • Maize adapts to close planting by increasing leaf spacing below the ear and leaf orientation value above the ear, and by reducing leaf width and leaf angle.
      • Morphological changes allow more light transmission into the mid- and lower canopy under high plant density.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0675
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1443-1453
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    • Baizhao Ren, Lili Li, Shuting Dong, Peng Liu, Bin Zhao and Jiwang Zhang
      Photosynthetic Characteristics of Summer Maize Hybrids with Different Plant Heights
      Core Ideas
      • We investigated the photosynthetic characteristics of high-yield summer maize with different heights.
      • We realized the regulatory effect of plant density on summer maize with different plant heights.
      • We discussed yield potential of summer maize with different plant height.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0693
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1454-1462
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    • Yang Lu, Xiying Zhang, Suying Chen, Liwei Shao, Hongyong Sun and Junfang Niu
      Increasing the Planting Uniformity Improves the Yield of Summer Maize
      Core Ideas
      • With the reduction in the inter-row spacing under the same target planting density, the final plant density and kernel numbers per area were increased.
      • The more uniform planting improved the root growth of maize at the earlier growth stages of the crop.
      • The increase in planting uniformity increased the radiation interception of the canopy.
      • The yield of summer maize was improved with the increase in the planting uniformity.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0718
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1463-1475
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  • CROP ECONOMICS, PRODUCTION & MANAGEMENT up

    • Yumei Lin, Zhiming Feng, Wenxiang Wu, Yanzhao Yang, Yang Zhou and Chenchen Xu
      Potential Impacts of Climate Change and Adaptation on Maize in Northeast China
      Core Ideas
      • The CERES-Maize model was applied to estimate the impacts of climate change under RCP scenarios and the effectiveness of three typical adaptation measures for maize production in Northeast China.
      • Maize yield would decline under the future climatic conditions if no adaptation measures were adopted.
      • Changing planting dates, switching to later-maturing cultivars and breeding new cultivars could mitigate the negative impacts of climate change to varying degrees.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.05.0275
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1476-1490
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    • Aifen Tao, Reza Keshavarz Afshar, Jinwen Huang, Yesuf Assen Mohammed, Matthew Espe and Chengci Chen
      Variation in Yield, Starch, and Protein of Dry Pea Grown Across Montana
      Core Ideas
      • Dry pea yield, protein, and resistant starch varied greatly across Montana.
      • Yield and protein were mainly determined by environments.
      • Resistant starch is controlled by genetics to a great extent.
      • Effects of drought index, growth period, seed size, and seed weight on yield, protein, and starch were analyzed.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0401
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1491-1501
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    • Alessandro Menegon, Stefano Macolino, John H. McCalla, Filippo Rimi and Michael D. Richardson
      Turf Quality and Species Dynamics in Bermudagrass and Kentucky Bluegrass Mixtures
      Core Ideas
      • In transitional environments, mixtures of bermudagrass and Kentucky bluegrass can provide green cover year-round.
      • In mixtures, cultivars of bermudagrass characterized by slow green-up favor the survival of Kentucky bluegrass.
      • The choice of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars has limited practical impact on the performance of mixtures with bermudagrass.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.08.0461
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1502-1509
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    • Steven B. Mirsky, Victoria J. Ackroyd, Stephane Cordeau, William S. Curran, Masoud Hashemi, S. Chris Reberg-Horton, Matthew R. Ryan and John T. Spargo
      Hairy Vetch Biomass across the Eastern United States: Effects of Latitude, Seeding Rate and Date, and Termination Timing
      Core Ideas
      • Seeding hairy vetch at the optimal time is crucial for biomass production.
      • Optimal hairy vetch seeding rate for maximizing biomass production depends on latitude.
      • The optimal seeding rate is 15 to 20 kg ha–1 in Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania.
      • The optimal seeding rate is 5 to 10 kg ha–1 in Maryland and North Carolina.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0556
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1510-1519
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    • Steven B. Mirsky, John T. Spargo, William S. Curran, S. Chris Reberg-Horton, Matthew R. Ryan, Harry H. Schomberg and Victoria J. Ackroyd
      Characterizing Cereal Rye Biomass and Allometric Relationships across a Range of Fall Available Nitrogen Rates in the Eastern United States
      Core Ideas
      • Cereal rye has the capacity for substantial biomass and N accumulation.
      • Cereal rye shoots accumulated roughly 50% of the fertilizer N applied in our study.
      • Cereal rye required 72.4 kg added N ha–1 to reach maximum biomass production.
      • The average maximum biomass was 2853 kg ha–1 at GS25 and 9739 kg ha–1 at GS60.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0557
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1520-1531
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    • Wade Thomason, Bee Khim Chim, David Holshouser, Harry Behl, Maria Balota, Kang Xia, William Frame and Tyler Black
      Comparison of Full-Season and Double-Crop Soybean and Grain Sorghum Systems in Central and Southeastern Virginia
      Core Ideas
      • Grain sorghum is a viable alternative crop in the Mid-Atlantic region.
      • Grain sorghum can be successfully doublecropped after small grain in the Mid-Atlantic region.
      • Depending on commodity prices both grain sorghum and soybean can be profitable crop choices.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0577
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1532-1539
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    • Eric D. Billman, Ben M. Goff, Brian S. Baldwin, Kelly Prince and Tim D. Phillips
      Effects of Vegetative Cool-Season Grasses on Forage Removal by Dairy Heifers
      Core Ideas
      • • Grazing of vegetative swards results in forage removal trends contradictory to established paradigms.
      • • Neutral detergent fiber, and water soluble carbohydrates did not impact forage removal in ways established by studies done on grass with varying maturity.
      • • Conclude that species differences rather than cultivars drive forage removal in dairy cattle.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0598
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1540-1550
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    • Gil Gorchs, Jaume Lloveras, Lydia Serrano and Sebastián Cela
      Hemp Yields and Its Rotation Effects on Wheat under Rainfed Mediterranean Conditions
      Core Ideas
      • Rainfed Mediterranean environments might be suitable for double-purpose hemp production.
      • Hemp is a good predecessor for wheat under rainfed Mediterranean conditions.
      • The beneficial effects of hemp on the subsequent wheat yield appear to last for 2 yr.
      • Monocropping hemp over 2 yr, does not reduce its grain and biomass yields.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0676
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1551-1560
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    • Amanda M. Grev, Craig C. Sheaffer, Michelle L. DeBoer, Devan N. Catalano and Krishona L. Martinson
      Preference, Yield, and Forage Nutritive Value of Annual Grasses under Horse Grazing
      Core Ideas
      • Horses preferred winter wheat, annual ryegrass, and spring wheat.
      • Annual ryegrass, spring oat, and winter barley were the highest yielding species.
      • Spring oat, spring barley, and spring wheat had little to no regrowth.
      • Winter wheat and winter rye consistently had higher forage nutritive values.
      • Annual ryegrass can extend the grazing season or provide emergency forage for horses.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0684
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1561-1572
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    • Christopher N. Boyer, S. Aaron Smith, Xavier L. Harmon, Dayton M. Lambert, Heather Y. Kelly, Jamie Jordan and Melvin Newman
      Value of Damage Control with Foliar Fungicide in Soybean Production in Tennessee
      Core Ideas
      • Annual application of foliar fungicide in continuous soybean increased yields.
      • Breakeven soybean price for applying a foliar fungicide ranged from US$0.13 to $0.27 kg–1.
      • Results suggest a high likelihood that foliar fungicide application is profitable.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0714
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1573-1581
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    • David C. Nielsen and Merle F. Vigil
      Defining a Dryland Grain Sorghum Production Function for the Central Great Plains
      Core Ideas
      • • Grain sorghum water use/yield production function has a slope of 30.2 kg ha–1 mm–1.
      • • Slope is greater than most other previously reported, but typical of C4 species.
      • • Production function can be used with precip record to estimate yield probability.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.03.0131
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1582-1590
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  • CLIMATOLOGY & WATER MANAGEMENT up

    • Zenghui Sun, Zizhong Li, Baoguo Li, Tao Sun and Huanxi Wang
      Factors Influencing Corn Canopy Throughfall at the Row Scale in Northeast China
      Core Ideas
      • Throughfall was statistically different among five measurement locations.
      • Cumulative throughfall of 24 to 36 cm from row exceeded that of 0 to 12 cm and 48 to 60 cm by 46 to 88%.
      • Coefficient of variation of throughfall decreased with rainfall amount and increased with leaf area index and plant height.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.02.0116
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1591-1601
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    • S. A. Mauget, G. L. Leiker, J. Schroeder, B. Hirth, W. Burgett and K. B. Haynie
      A Web Application for Managing Regional Crop Production: The West Texas Mesonet Agro-Climate Monitor
      Core Ideas
      • A web-based JavaScript tool for continuous monitoring of West Texas agro-climate.
      • High resolution operational climatology.
      • Mesonet meteorological data as an agro-climate data resource.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0424
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1602-1611
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    • Rafael Battisti and Paulo C. Sentelhas
      Improvement of Soybean Resilience to Drought through Deep Root System in Brazil
      Core Ideas
      • A process-based crop model was used to evaluate yield gain for root system profiles.
      • Deeper root system reduced yield gap by water deficit.
      • Soybean yield gain was a function of the interaction of climate and root profile.
      • Deeper root system is a strategy to mitigate drought effect on soybean crop.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0023
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1612-1622
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  • ORGANIC AGRICULTURE & AGROECOLOGY up

    • Samantha L. Hill, David A. Verbree, Gary E. Bates and David M. Butler
      Cultivar and Phosphorus Amendment Impacts on Organically Managed Forage Cowpea Yield and Composition
      Core Ideas
      • Cowpea is well-adapted for organic systems but cultivar differences are not well explored.
      • Cultivars differed widely in biomass, stand density/seedling disease, and quality.
      • Cowpea cultivars examined did not respond to P fertilizer in low soil P status soils.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0663
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1623-1631
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  • PEST INTERACTIONS IN AGRONOMIC SYSTEMS up

    • Trisha Leaf, Kenneth Ostlie and Daniel Kaiser
      Transgenic Corn Response to Nitrogen Rates under Corn Rootworm Pressure
      Core Ideas
      • Bacillus thuringiensis rootworm traits and corn rootworm feeding affected N uptake and root mass.
      • N uptake by DK44-61 SSX at V6 lagged DK46-60 VT3 and DK 44-92 RR2 .
      • DK44-92 RR2 had a larger root system at V6 than either DK46-60 VT3 or DK44-61 SSX.
      • Rootworm injury limited N uptake, root mass of DK44-92 at V12 compared to Bt hybrids.
      • Root mass, trait efficacy, and root injury interplay with N rate have insect resistance management implications.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.03.0154
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1632-1641
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    • Thierry Besançon, Ronnie Heiniger, Randy Weisz and Wesley Everman
      Weed Response to Agronomic Practices and Herbicide Strategies in Grain Sorghum
      Core Ideas
      • • High sorghum density and narrow row spacing reduce biomass of troublesome weeds.
      • • High spatial crop uniformity extends large crabgrass and sicklepod control over time.
      • • Optimized crop density and row width may limit the need for postemergence herbicide in sorghum.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0363
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1642-1650
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    • Zane J. Grabau, Jeffrey A. Vetsch and Senyu Chen
      Effects of Fertilizer, Nematicide, and Tillage on Plant–Parasitic Nematodes and Yield in Corn and Soybean
      Core Ideas
      • Tillage decreased plant–parasitic nematode population densities during portions of the study.
      • Fertilizers did not help manage plant–parasitic nematode population densities.
      • Manure application increased both corn and soybean yields.
      • Soybean response to NPK and NPKS was more positive in a lower yielding environment.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0548
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1651-1662
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    • Lia Marchi-Werle, Renata Ramos Pereira, John C. Reese, Tiffany M. Heng-Moss and Thomas E. Hunt
      Yield Response of Tolerant and Susceptible Soybean to the Soybean Aphid
      Core Ideas
      • Soybean aphid-tolerance in KS4202 soybean is plant age dependent.
      • Soybean aphid infestation occurring at the V1 stage impacts both susceptible and tolerant soybean.
      • KS4202 during late vegetative and early reproductive stage tolerated high aphid pressure.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0631
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1663-1669
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  • SOIL FERTILITY & CROP NUTRITION up

    • Jagmandeep Dhillon, Guilherme Torres, Ethan Driver, Bruno Figueiredo and William R. Raun
      World Phosphorus Use Efficiency in Cereal Crops
      Core Ideas
      • A current estimate of global P use efficiency for cereal production is not available.
      • This study shows that world P use efficiency for cereal crops is low.
      • Using the difference method, average world P use efficiency from 1961 to 2013 was 16%.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.08.0483
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1670-1677
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    • Yaru Lin, Dexter B. Watts and Thomas R. Way
      Poultry Litter Placement Effects on Cotton Seedling Emergence and Early Growth
      Core Ideas
      • Sowing into poultry litter bands inhibits seed emergence and root establishment.
      • Aboveground plant production during early cotton growth stages may be negatively impacted by sowing into poultry litter bands.
      • Banding poultry litter beside crop rows may be an effective fertilizer management strategy.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0541
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1678-1686
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    • Rogério Gonzatto, Celso Aita, Gilles Bélanger, Martin H. Chantigny, Ezequiel C. C. Miola, Stefen B. Pujol, Alexandre Dessbesel and Sandro J. Giacomini
      Response of No-Till Grain Crops to Pig Slurry Application Methods and a Nitrification Inhibitor
      Core Ideas
      • Mineral N fertilization of no-till crops may be replaced by pig slurry.
      • Pig slurry with and without dicyandiamide was injected or broadcast in a no-till soil.
      • Pig slurry injection in a no-till soil increased grain yield and crop N use efficiency.
      • Dicyandiamide added to slurry improved crop yield and N use efficiency only in winter crops.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0547
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1687-1696
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    • Kimberley D. Schneider, Derek H. Lynch, Else K. Bünemann and R. Paul Voroney
      Vegetative Composition, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Root Colonization, and Biological Nitrogen Fixation Distinguish Organic and Conventional Perennial Forage Systems
      Core Ideas
      • Conventional and organic forage fields did not differ in total forage yield.
      • Legume content was more than two times greater under organic management.
      • Total forage biological nitrogen fixation was greater under organic management.
      • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi root colonization was greater under organic management.
      • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi root colonization was inversely related to soil test P concentrations.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0700
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1697-1706
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      [ Supplement 1 ] [ Supplement 2 ]
  • INTERNATIONAL TURFGRASS RESEARCH CONFERENCE up

    • James A. Murphy
      13th International Turfgrass Research Conference: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing Environment
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.06.0100
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1707-1707
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    • Jerry Hatfield
      Turfgrass and Climate Change
      Core Ideas
      • Climate change will affect temperature and precipitation patterns.
      • Increasing temperatures will cause a shift in turfgrass species to more northen climates.
      • Variation among varieties of turfgrass provide opportunity to increase climate resilience.
      • Climate change will increase abiotic and biotic stresses on turfgrass.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0626
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1708-1718
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    • Quincy D. Law, Jon M. Trappe, Yiwei Jiang, Ronald F. Turco and Aaron J. Patton
      Turfgrass Selection and Grass Clippings Management Influence Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics
      Core Ideas
      • Less than 3 yr post-establishment, tall fescue accumulated more soil C (i.e., labile soil C, total soil C, and soil organic matter) than Kentucky bluegrass.
      • Returning grass clippings for 2 yr increased both soil C (i.e., labile soil C and total soil C) and N (i.e., total soil N) compared to collecting clippings over the same period.
      • Labile soil C increased linearly over the 5 yr of the experiment.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.05.0307
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1719-1725
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    • Chengyan Yue, Jingjing Wang, Eric Watkins, Stacy Bonos, Kristen Nelson, James A. Murphy, William Meyer and Brian Horgan
      Consumer Preferences for Information Sources of Turfgrass Products and Lawn Care
      Core Ideas
      • Turfgrass consumers trusted information from families, university extension, and garden centers the most.
      • Homeowners ranked garden center/hardware stores, followed by families and then lawn care companies as the most useful information sources.
      • Information from university extension and regional water management authorities were considered as trustworthy but less useful.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.05.0310
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1726-1733
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    • Thinh Van Tran, Shu Fukai, Anthony F. van Herwaarden and Christopher J. Lambrides
      Physiological Basis of Sprouting Potential in Bermudagrass
      Core Ideas
      • Large genotypic variation for sprouting of stolons was identified.
      • Sprouting percentage was strongly associated with stolen diameter.
      • Sprouting was related photoassimilate supply on an amount per node basis.
      • The size and/or maturity of the axillary buds were also possible factors.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0321
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1734-1742
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    • Luqi Li, Matthew D. Sousek, Keenan L. Amundsen and Zachary J. Reicher
      Seeding Date and Bur Treatment Affect Establishment Success of Dormant-Seeded Buffalograss
      Core Ideas
      • Dormant seeding of buffalograss in November can be as effective as traditional May seeding.
      • Commercially potassium nitrate treated burs resulted in consistently higher cumulative germination regardless of seeding date.
      • Commercial treatment of burs may not be necessary when dormant seeding in November, but maximized buffalograss germination following an exceptionally dry winter.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.03.0164
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1743-1748
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    • Joshua Friell, Eric Watkins, Brian P. Horgan and Matthew Cavanaugh
      Sod Strength Characteristics of 51 Cool-Season Turfgrass Mixtures
      Core Ideas
      • Turfgrass seed mixtures containing fine fescue species can produce sod that achieves equal or greater strength than those containing large amounts of Kentucky bluegrass when harvested 22 mo after establishment.
      • Change in proportion of fine fescues from each initial seed mixture to the resulting final plant community was negatively correlated with sod strength characteristics.
      • Thatch development was only weakly correlated with either maximum tensile load or work required to tear sod.
      • Mixtures with different seed compositions, but resulting in similar or identical final species compositions, often possessed very different mechanical properties.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.05.0295
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1749-1757
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    • Joseph Young, Mike Richardson and Douglas Karcher
      Golf Ball Mark Severity and Recovery as Affected by Mowing Height, Rolling Frequency, Foot Traffic, and Moisture
      Core Ideas
      • Digital image analysis methods to evaluate putting green ball mark severity and recovery.
      • Firmer surfaces from dry conditions or lightweight rolling increased maximum ball mark injury area.
      • Rate of recovery was similar for all treatments, but increased wear increased time to 50% recovery.
      • Demonstrates positive attributes of dispersing foot and equipment traffic throughout the green.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.04.0240
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1758-1764
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    • Matthew D. Jeffries, Travis W. Gannon and Fred H. Yelverton
      Tall Fescue Roadside Right-of-Way Mowing Reduction from Imazapic
      Core Ideas
      • Imazapic provided 100% tall fescue seedhead suppression through 56 d after treatment.
      • Imazapic reduced tall fescue mowing requirements by two cycles across 23- and 30-cm intervention heights.
      • Imazapic application to tall fescue mown at 30-cm intervention height required one mowing event through 70 d after treatment.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.04.0246
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1765-1770
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    • Paul Koch
      Optimal Fungicide Timing for Suppression of Typhula Blight under Winter Covers
      Core Ideas
      • Winter covers increase snow mold severity on golf course turfgrass.
      • Despite increased pressure, effective fungicides are available to limit disease to acceptable levels.
      • Applying fungicides as a single application shortly before snow cover or splitting out into two applications are both effective at reducing snow mold.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.04.0241
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1771-1776
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    • John R. Brewer, John Willis, Sandeep S. Rana and Shawn D. Askew
      Response of Six Turfgrass Species and Four Weeds to Three HPPD-Inhibiting Herbicides
      Core Ideas
      • Tembotrione controlled weeds selectively in bluegrass, fescue, and zoysiagrass turf.
      • Topramezone controlled key weeds better than mesotrione and tembotrione.
      • Topramezone was among the safest herbicides on four of the six turfgrasses tested.
      • Results will aid herbicidal-risk assessment near potentially sensitive turfgrass species.
      • The study supports considerations for herbicide label expansion or registration in turf.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0345
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1777-1784
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