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Volume 109 Issue 5, September-October 2017



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  • REVIEW & INTERPRETATION up

    • Sabrina J. Ruis and Humberto Blanco-Canqui
      Cover Crops Could Offset Crop Residue Removal Effects on Soil Carbon and Other Properties: A Review
      Core Ideas
      • Corn residue removal reduces soil organic C stocks and other soil properties.
      • Cover crop increases soil organic C stocks and other properties.
      • Cover crop may not offset soil organic C losses from residue removal in the short term.
      • More data are needed on cover crop effects on soil properties after residue removal.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0735
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1785-1805
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  • AGRONOMIC APPLICATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES up

    • Rupinder Kaur Saini, Jenna Malone, Christopher Preston and Gurjeet Gill
      Persistence of Resistance Alleles 1781, 2041, and 2078 in the Absence of Herbicide Selection
      Core Ideas
      • This research investigated whether a fitness penalty exists for three known mutations (Leu-1781, Asn-2041, and Gly-2078) in clethodim-resistant rigid ryegrass populations under wheat competition.
      • The results revealed that in the absence of herbicide selection, no fitness cost was associated with Leu-1781 and Asn-2041 alleles, but Gly-2078 alleles increased in frequency.
      • The absence of fitness penalties associated with these resistant alleles suggests their frequency will not decrease over time in the absence of clethodim use.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0334
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1806-1810
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  • AGRONOMY, SOILS & ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY up

    • Shelby Rajkovich, Deanna Osmond, Randy Weisz, Carl Crozier, Daniel Israel and Robert Austin
      Evaluation of Nitrogen-Loss Prevention Amendments in Maize and Wheat in North Carolina
      Core Ideas
      • Fertilizer additives to decrease N losses did not provide consistent yield advantages.
      • Plots treated with N-loss products did not increase N use efficiency or N uptake.
      • Agronomic optimum N rates observed in the field aligned with North Carolina recommendations.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.03.0153
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1811-1824
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    • Resham Thapa and Amitava Chatterjee
      Wheat Production, Nitrogen Transformation, and Nitrogen Losses as Affected by Nitrification and Double Inhibitors
      Core Ideas
      • The environmental and agronomic benefits of amending urea with inhibitors was evaluated.
      • Double inhibitor significantly reduced all three major N losses compared with urea.
      • Nitrification inhibitor did not reduce NH3 volatilization.
      • Higher N2O fluxes were observed at 35 to 60% WFPS, soil temperature >10°C, and NO3– contents >5 mg kg–1 dry soil.
      • Nitrification inhibitor/double inhibitors maintained spring wheat grain and protein yields.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0415
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1825-1835
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    • Robert S. Gallagher, Richard C. Stehouwer, Víctor Hugo Barrera Mosquera, Soraya Patricia Alvarado Ochoa, Luis Orlando Escudero López, Franklin Valverde, Arnufo Portilla, Katie Webber and Juan Manuel Domínguez Andrade
      Yield and Nutrient Removal in Potato-Based Conservation Agriculture Cropping Systems in the High Altitude Andean Region of Ecuador
      Core Ideas
      • Conservation agriculture practices evaluated in this study were agronomically effective, but expensive.
      • Reduced tillage resulted in similar yields in all crops of the potato–oat/vetch–barley–faba rotation to conventional tillage.
      • Retaining crop and cover crops residues in the field rather than for animal fodder will make the greatest contribution to soil nutrient cycling, but likely to be the least accepted conservation agriculture practice evaluated in this study by regional farmers.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0635
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1836-1848
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    • J. Brett Rushing and Matthew T. Thornton
      Evaluation of Imazapic Applications for Establishment of Southeastern Wildrye
      Core Ideas
      • Southeastern wildrye can be successfully established using imazapic as a pre- and post-emergence herbicide.
      • Lower rates of imazapic are successful at controlling winter annual weeds, such as henbit and little barley, during establishment of southeastern wildrye.
      • Southeastern wildrye end of season dry matter yields decrease with increasing rates of imazapic.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0711
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1849-1855
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    • Daniele De Rosa, Bruno Basso, David W. Rowlings, Clemens Scheer, Johannes Biala and Peter R. Grace
      Can Organic Amendments Support Sustainable Vegetable Production?
      Core Ideas
      • Accounting for the N release from organic amendments improves N use efficiency and promotes soil C storage in horticultural soils.
      • Regional N fertilizer recommendations are affected by a high degree of uncertainty.
      • Crop simulation model can help to develop efficient site-specific N management.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0739
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1856-1869
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    • Casey T. Sullivan, Rebecca M. Harman, Neal S. Eash, James A. Zahn, John J. Goddard, Forbes R. Walker, Arnold M. Saxton, Dayton M. Lambert, David W. McIntosh, William E. Hart, Robert S. Freeland and John E. Morrison Jr.
      Utilization of Spent Microbial Biomass as an Alternative Crop Nitrogen Source
      Core Ideas
      • Nutrient-rich spent microbial biomass has potential for reuse in agriculture.
      • Tall fescue data from three harvests showed release of spent microbial biomass nutrients over time.
      • Highest spent microbial biomass rate yielded greater tall fescue biomass than fertilizer in July.
      • All five spent microbial biomass rates produced corn yields consistent with the fertilizer control.
      • The renewable disposal of spent microbial biomass in agriculture may be expanded to other industries.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0742
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1870-1879
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    • E. Martínez, A. Maresma, A. Biau, S. Cela, P. Berenguer, F. Santiveri, A. Michelena and J. Lloveras
      Long-Term Effects of Mineral Nitrogen Fertilizer on Irrigated Maize and Soil Properties
      Core Ideas
      • Grain yield, biomass, N uptake, SPAD units, soil N levels and N efficiciencies were affected by the N application rate.
      • Maximum grain yields required 203 kg N ha–1 of available N in the 0- to 30-cm layer soil.
      • Sampling to a depth of 0 to 30 cm provided similar correlations than sampling to 0 to 60 and 0 to 90 cm.
      • Mineral N fertilization increased soil organic C stock.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0020
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1880-1890
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    • Arunbabu Talla, Dillip Kumar Swain, Virendra Kumar Tewari and Mahendra Prasad Biswal
      Significance of Weather Variables during Critical Growth Stages for Hybrid Rice Production in Subtropical India
      Core Ideas
      • Relationships between weather variables and yield of hybrid rice were derived.
      • Quantified the optimum weather variable range for hybrid rice production.
      • Weather variables range for hybrid rice were higher than high-yielding cultivars.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0052
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1891-1899
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    • Adele Muscolo, Carmelo Mallamaci, Giovanna Settineri and Giovanni Calamarà
      Increasing Soil and Crop Productivity by Using Agricultural Wastes Pelletized with Elemental Sulfur and Bentonite
      Core Ideas
      • The natural fertilizer potential of agricultural and industrial wastes was investigated.
      • Soil properties, seed germination, and plant metabolism proved their fertilizing properties.
      • A specificity between fertilizers produced and plant species was really evident.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.03.0143
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1900-1910
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  • BIOFUELS up

    • Gregg R. Sanford, Lawrence G. Oates, Sarah S. Roley, David S. Duncan, Randall D. Jackson, G. Philip Robertson and Kurt D. Thelen
      Biomass Production a Stronger Driver of Cellulosic Ethanol Yield than Biomass Quality
      Core Ideas
      • Fermentable sugars were greatest in corn stover > perennial grasses > polycultures.
      • Corn stover had the highest ethanol content.
      • Miscanthus had the highest ethanol yield potential on a per hectare basis.
      • Ethanol yield potential per hectare of switchgrass ≥ corn stover.
      • Biomass yield was the strongest driver of per hectare ethanol yield.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.08.0454
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1911-1922
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    • Courtney Payne, Edward J. Wolfrum, Nick Nagle, Joe E. Brummer and Neil Hansen
      Evaluation of Fifteen Cultivars of Cool-Season Perennial Grasses as Biofuel Feedstocks Using Near-Infrared
      Core Ideas
      • Harvest yield varies more across species than sugar content and accessibility.
      • Harvest yield and sugar accessibility are both critical parameters for conversion.
      • Near-infrared/partial least square models are valuable for quickly evaluating biomass for bioconversion.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0510
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1923-1934
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      [ Supplement 1 ]
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    • Priya Saini, Jason P. de Koff, Abimbola Allison and Choo Hamilton
      Changes in Lignocellulosic Polymers, Carbon, and Energy in Switchgrass for Bioenergy Production
      Core Ideas
      • Depending on the energy conversion method, switchgrass may be harvested over 2 months prior to killing frost.
      • Drought may have caused a delay in the fall increase in C concentrations in switchgrass.
      • Switchgrass cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and energy contents were unaffected by drought.
      • Few studies have intensively monitored switchgrass chemical components during natural drought conditions.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.02.0063
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1935-1943
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  • BIOMETRY, MODELING & STATISTICS up

    • J. Melkonian, H. J. Poffenbarger, S. B. Mirsky, M. R. Ryan and B. N. Moebius-Clune
      Estimating Nitrogen Mineralization from Cover Crop Mixtures Using the Precision Nitrogen Management Model
      Core Ideas
      • The precision N management model performed reasonably well for estimating cover crop N mineralization.
      • Model performance was sufficient to justify incorporation into an N decision support tool.
      • Cover crops as a best management practice can be assessed with the calibrated model.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0330
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1944-1959
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      [ Supplement 1 ]
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    • Laura Mack, Filippo Capezzone, Sebastian Munz, Hans-Peter Piepho, Wilhelm Claupein, Tim Phillips and Simone Graeff-Hönninger
      Nondestructive Leaf Area Estimation for Chia
      Core Ideas
      • Leaf area in chia cannot be accurately predicted by the product of leaf width and length.
      • Regressing leaf area log linearly on width and length accounts for change of shape with size.
      • We provide accurate prediction models valid across experiments, populations, and N levels.
      • Mixed-model meta-regression allows integrating leaf area data across experiments.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.03.0149
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1960-1969
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      [ Supplement 1 ] [ Supplement 2 ]
  • CROP ECOLOGY & PHYSIOLOGY up

    • Leilei Liu, Jifeng Ma, Liying Tian, Shenghao Wang, Liang Tang, Weixing Cao and Yan Zhu
      Effect of Postanthesis High Temperature on Grain Quality Formation for Wheat
      Core Ideas
      • High stress enhanced protein concentration, but reduced total starch concentration.
      • High stress had more advantage effects on protein fractions at anthesis than 10 d after anthesis.
      • High stress had significant negative effects on starch during grain filling.
      • The combination stress did not have significant effects on protein fractions.
      • The combination stress had significant effects on starch concentration.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0427
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1970-1980
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    • Julio Isidro-Sánchez, Ben Perry, Asheesh K. Singh, Hong Wang, Ronald M. DePauw, Curtis J. Pozniak, Brian L. Beres, Eric N. Johnson and Richard D. Cuthbert
      Effects of Seeding Rate on Durum Crop Production and Physiological Responses
      Core Ideas
      • Optimum seeding rate on elite durum wheat depends on environment.
      • Seeding rate had a significant positive relationship with grain yield, leaf area index, and carbon isotope discrimination.
      • Seeding rate should be adjusted for environment and genotype for maximum yield.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0527
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1981-1990
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    • Jordan Orwat, Dipayan Sarkar, Juan Osorno and Kalidas Shetty
      Improved Salinity Resilience in Black Bean by Seed Elicitation Using Organic Compounds
      Core Ideas
      • Black bean cultivars were extremely susceptible to high salinity stress.
      • Seed elicitation improved salinity stress resilience.
      • Chitosan oligosaccharide and marine peptide were used for seed elicitation.
      • Adaptive response to salinity stress varied among black bean cultivars.
      • Seed elicitation induced phenolic-linked antioxidant enzyme responses.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0699
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:1991-2003
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    • William F. Schillinger, Steven E. Schofstoll, Timothy A. Smith and John A. Jacobsen
      Laboratory Method to Evaluate Wheat Seedling Emergence from Deep Planting Depths
      Core Ideas
      • Stand establishment is the biggest factor afffecting winter wheat yield in the low-precipitation region.
      • Winter wheat seed is planted as deep as 20 cm below the soil surface to reach adequate soil moisture.
      • Determination of a cultivar’s emergence ability in the field is limited to a short time window once a year.
      • We developed a laboratory method to to accurately measure emergence in pots from deep planting depths.
      • Laboratory and field results were strongly correlated under a wide range of soil water potentials.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0715
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2004-2010
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    • Sideris Fotiadis, Spyridon D. Koutroubas and Christos A. Damalas
      Sowing Date and Cultivar Effects on Assimilate Translocation in Spring Mediterranean Chickpea
      Core Ideas
      • March sowing resulted in higher dry matter, total N accumulation, and seed N content than April sowing.
      • Seed yield up to 3320 kg ha–1 were obtained with March sowing.
      • Seed yield was correlated negatively with dry matter translocation to the seeds.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0048
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2011-2024
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    • Z. P. Sanders, J. S. Andrews, U. K. Saha, W. Vencill, R. D. Lee and N. S. Hill
      Optimizing Agronomic Practices for Clover Persistence and Corn Yield in a White Clover–Corn Living Mulch System
      Core Ideas
      • Living mulch cover crops help stabilize erosive soils during corn production.
      • Wide rows enable the living mulch cover crop to re-establish for subsequent cropping.
      • Herbicide bands must be kept to a minimum width to permit living mulch.
      • Removal of crop residue is essential for white clover to perenniate in the living mulch system.
      • White clover can supply over 100 kg ha–1 N to corn in the living mulch system.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.02.0106
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2025-2032
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    • Fang Liu, Wanxiang Jiang, Weijuan Han, Junsheng Li and Yongbo Liu
      Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Water on Fitness Parameters of Rice Plants
      Core Ideas
      • Hydrogen-rich water can affect the elongation of rice roots and shoots.
      • Hydrogen-rich water can effect the reproductive fitness of Bt-transgenic and conventional rice.
      • The effects of hydrogen-rich water effects vary with original habitats and genetic backgrounds.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.02.0109
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2033-2039
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      [ Supplement 1 ]
    • Spyridon Mourtzinis, Adam P. Gaspar, Seth L. Naeve and Shawn P. Conley
      Planting Date, Maturity, and Temperature Effects on Soybean Seed Yield and Composition
      Core Ideas
      • Planting date and maturity group decisions can greatly affect yield and composition.
      • Temperature had a significant effect on seed yield and composition.
      • Planting date × maturity group should be chosen based on the product’s end use.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.05.0247
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2040-2049
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  • CROP ECONOMICS, PRODUCTION & MANAGEMENT up

    • John H. Grabber, Matt A. Yost, Jeffrey A. Coulter and Michael L. Sullivan
      Sorghum–Sudangrass Responses to Nitrogen and Tillage following Polyphenol-Containing Legumes, Alfalfa, Reed Canarygrass, and Kale
      Core Ideas
      • Low concentrations of polyphenols in forage legumes had no impact on sorghum–sudangrass production.
      • Sorghum–sudangrass dry matter yield and N uptake were related to herbage N yield from prior forages.
      • Tillage enhanced sorghum–sudangrass production especially after reed canarygrass.
      • Adjusting fertilizer N based on crop sequence and tillage practices avoids soil nitrate buildup.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0550
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2050-2062
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    • Junxiao Pan, Qingfeng Meng, Riyuan Chen, Zhenling Cui and Xinping Chen
      In-Season Nitrogen Management to Increase Grain Yields in Maize Production
      Core Ideas
      • Optimal N rate treatment increased the maize yield and improved dry matter production and N accumulation post-silking.
      • In-season N management-based post-silking N management can synchronize soil N supply and plant N uptake.
      • Assessing the performance of leaf and root characteristics in response to post-silking N management.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0669
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2063-2071
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    • Giovana Cruppe, Jeffrey T. Edwards and Romulo P. Lollato
      In-Season Canopy Reflectance Can Aid Fungicide and Late-Season Nitrogen Decisions on Winter Wheat
      Core Ideas
      • Wheat grain yield response to foliar fungicide is highly dependent on environment.
      • Late-season N can offset protein dilution from fungicide-driven yield increase.
      • Foliar N rates necessary to impact grain protein have potential for leaf burn.
      • Controlled-release N and urea ammonium nitrate both impacted wheat responses similarly.
      • In-season canopy reflectance can aid in fungicide decision.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0720
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2072-2086
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    • Xia Vivian Zhou, James A. Larson, Christopher N. Boyer, Roland K. Roberts and Donald D. Tyler
      Tillage and Cover Crop Impacts on Economics of Cotton Production in Tennessee
      Core Ideas
      • Net returns were higher for conventional tillage than no-tillage without cover crops.
      • Net returns were higher for no-tillage than conventional tillage with cover crops.
      • A cotton producer would maximize profits by not planting cover crops.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0733
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2087-2096
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    • Lisa L. Baxter, Charles P. West, C. Philip Brown and Paul E. Green
      Comparing Nondestructive Sampling Techniques for Predicting Forage Mass in Alfalfa–Tall Wheatgrass Pasture
      Core Ideas
      • To compare five nondestructive sampling techniques for predicting forage mass.
      • Procedures: pasture ruler, rising plate meter, ImageJ, PowerPoint photo point count, and normalized difference vegetation index.
      • PowerPoint model was the best option if restricted to one sampling procedure.
      • Combined (Height + ImageJ) model was the best option for predicting forage mass.
      • These measurements require simple equipment, are adaptable, and can be automated.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0738
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2097-2106
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    • Xiaojie Li, Shaozhong Kang, Fusheng Li, Xiaotao Zhang, Zailin Huo, Risheng Ding, Ling Tong, Taisheng Du and Sien Li
      Light Supplement and Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Affect Yield and Quality of Off-Season Pepper
      Core Ideas
      • Carbon dioxide enrichment and light supplement significantly increased the photosynthetic rate, yield, and water use efficiency.
      • Carbon dioxide enrichment reduced fruit nutrition quality, whereas light supplement improved it.
      • Applying light supplement and a CO2 concentration of 550 μmol mol–1 can optimize yield and quality.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0044
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2107-2118
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    • David D. Tarkalson and Bradley A. King
      Effect of Deficit Irrigation Timing on Sugarbeet
      Core Ideas
      • Water allocation timing under drip irrigation effected sugarbeet yield.
      • Excessive water stress early in the season reduced yields.
      • Areas with water shortages have options to grow sugarbeet.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0061
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2119-2127
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    • Gregg A. Johnson, M. Scott Wells, Kevin Anderson, Russ W. Gesch, Frank Forcella and Donald L. Wyse
      Yield Tradeoffs and Nitrogen between Pennycress, Camelina, and Soybean in Relay- and Double-Crop Systems
      Core Ideas
      • Winter annual oilseed crops are being used in annual cropping systems to add value.
      • We explored trade-offs in oilseed yield and provision of ecosystem services.
      • Oilseed cover crop yield was greatest when harvested late rather than early.
      • Pennycress and camelina reduced N in the soil profile compared to soybean alone.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.02.0065
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2128-2135
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    • Michelle L. DeBoer, Craig C. Sheaffer, Amanda M. Grev, Devan N. Catalano, M. Scott Wells, Marcia R. Hathaway and Krishona L. Martinson
      Yield, Nutritive Value, and Preference of Annual Warm-Season Grasses Grazed by Horses
      Core Ideas
      • Teff, sudangrass, and sorghum sudangrass have potential as pasture forage for horses.
      • Japanese and Siberian millet have little regrowth and are not ideal for pastures.
      • Inverted Ca/P and high NO3–N were observed and should be determined prior to grazing.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.02.0099
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2136-2148
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    • Francis Tsiboe, Jennie S. Popp and Kristofor R. Brye
      Profitability of Alternative Management Practices in a Wheat–Soybean, Double-Crop Production System in Arkansas
      Core Ideas
      • Wheat and soybean yields were estimated using combinations of management practices.
      • The estimated yields were used to simulate profitability differences by combination.
      • Six combinations were 7 to 118% more profitable than the traditional combination.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.03.0140
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2149-2162
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    • Abby E. Neu, Craig C. Sheaffer, Daniel J. Undersander, Marvin H. Hall, Daniel M. Kniffen, M. Scott Wells, Devan N. Catalano and Krishona L. Martinson
      Hay Rake-Type Effect on Ash and Forage Nutritive Values of Alfalfa Hay
      Core Ideas
      • High levels of ash content provide no nutritional benefit to livestock.
      • A hay merger or sidebar rake resulted in less ash content compared to a wheel rake.
      • Rake type rarely resulted in differences in forage nutritive values.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.03.0185
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2163-2171
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  • CLIMATOLOGY & WATER MANAGEMENT up

    • Christian Dold, Jerry L. Hatfield, John Prueger, Tom Sauer, Hakan Büyükcangaz and Wesley Rondinelli
      Long-Term Application of the Crop Water Stress Index in Midwest Agro-Ecosystems
      Core Ideas
      • The crop water stress index was calculated for corn, soybean, and prairie using eddy covariance and canopy temperature.
      • Crop water stress index increased with decreasing volumetric soil water content in tallgrass prairie with net ecosystem production sensitive to water deficits.
      • Crop water stress index in corn and soybean increased at low and high volumetric soil water content demonstrating that carbon assimilation is affected by deficit and excess soil water contents.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0494
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2172-2181
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    • Fabio Orlandi, Tommaso Bonofiglio, Luigia Ruga and Marco Fornaciari
      Meteorological Influences on Pheno–Morpho–Yield Data of Grain Sorghum Varieties in Central Italy
      Core Ideas
      • Solar radiation was the first greatest forcing variable for the sorghum flowering.
      • Water table during summer and past fruit setting represented a limiting factor.
      • Sorghum morphological development was deeply influenced by precipitation.
      • Medium and long season sorghum varieties showed a yield homogeneity.
      • Brenus and Marcus varieties manifested low relationships with water soil and good yield performance.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0570
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2182-2189
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    • K. W. Peterson, D. J. Bremer, K. B. Shonkwiler and J. M. Ham
      Measurement of Evapotranspiration in Turfgrass: A Comparison of Techniques
      Core Ideas
      • Evapotranspiration from ASCEDM, ASCEDC was equivalent to lysimeters.
      • Net radiation from global irradiance is sufficient in daily-step model in absence of measured net radiation.
      • ASCEDC improves irrigation scheduling in turfgrass when measured net radiation is not available.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.02.0088
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2190-2198
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  • ORGANIC AGRICULTURE & AGROECOLOGY up

    • Eric B. Brennan and Richard F. Smith
      Cover Crop Frequency and Compost Effects on a Legume–Rye Cover Crop During Eight Years of Organic Vegetables
      Core Ideas
      • Cover crops and compost are common inputs in high-value, organic vegetables.
      • Cover crop frequency and compost effects on a legume–rye mixture were evaluated over 8 yr.
      • Yard-waste compost additions increased soil organic C in vegetable systems.
      • Frequent cover cropping increased soil nitrate levels.
      • Cover crop frequency and compost had subtle effect on legume–rye growth.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.06.0354
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2199-2213
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      [ Supplement 1 ]
    • R. A. Vann, S. C. Reberg-Horton, H. J. Poffenbarger, G. M. Zinati, J. B. Moyer and S. B. Mirsky
      Starter Fertilizer for Managing Cover Crop-Based Organic Corn
      Core Ideas
      • Grass and legume cover crops are combined for weed and fertility management.
      • A cereal rye and hairy vetch mixture provided more than 7500 kg ha–1 biomass.
      • Additional fertility is necessary to maximize cover-crop based organic corn yield.
      • Subsurface banding feather meal is an option to increase organic corn yield.
      • If cover crop biomass is low, providing adequate N fertility is critical for yield.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0506
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2214-2222
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    • James A. Heilig, Evan M. Wright and James D. Kelly
      Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation of Black and Navy Bean under Organic Production Systems
      Core Ideas
      • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of dry bean was evaluated under organic production systems.
      • Lower performance in organic production systems resulted from inadequate levels of N fertility.
      • Improving symbiotic nitrogen fixation of dry bean should contribute to improved performance in these systems.
      • Greenhouse screening for biomass provided an indirect, cost effective method to select for improved symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0051
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2223-2230
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  • SOIL FERTILITY & CROP NUTRITION up

    • Lucie A. Kablan, Valérie Chabot, Alexandre Mailloux, Marie-Ève Bouchard, Daniel Fontaine and Tom Bruulsema
      Variability in Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Fertilizer in Eastern Canada
      Core Ideas
      • A 8-yr study of corn N fertilization on high-yielding fields in Québec, eastern Canada.
      • Grain yield response to N rates varied among site-years.
      • The economically optimal N rate was affected by soil textural classes, planting date, and rainfall.
      • Averaged across textures, planting date, and weather, economically optimal N rate was 195 kg N ha–1.
      • Nitrogen applications at rates above the current N recommendation increased grain yield.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0511
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2231-2242
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    • J. Mabry McCray, Shangning Ji and Gerald Powell
      Sugarcane Yield Response to Potassium Fertilization as Related to Extractable Soil Potassium on Florida Histosols
      Core Ideas
      • Sugarcane yield responses to K fertilizer were attributable to increases in sugarcane biomass.
      • There was reduced sucrose concentration at higher K rates in 4 of 14 crop years.
      • Maximum K fertilizer requirement determined was 27% less than current recommendation.
      • Soil test K limit for K fertilizer application was within 12% of the current limit.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0630
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2243-2252
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    • K. Yu, Q. G. Dong, H. X. Chen, H. Feng, Y. Zhao, B. C. Si, Y. Li and D. W. Hopkins
      Incorporation of Pre-Treated Straw Improves Soil Aggregate Stability and Increases Crop Productivity
      Core Ideas
      • The ammoniated straw application improved soil structural stability.
      • The ammoniated straw application increased the yield and water use efficiency, regardless of maize or wheat.
      • The ammoniated straw incorporation is better for the short straw than for the long one, and net income with the ammoniated and short straw incorporation was the highest.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0645
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2253-2265
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    • Amritbir Riar, Gurjeet Gill and Glenn McDonald
      Effect of Post-Sowing Nitrogen Management on Canola and Mustard: I. Yield Responses
      Core Ideas
      • Yield of canola and mustard was associated with total dry matter production and seeds m–2.
      • The yield penalty for triazine-tolerant cultivars was lower in the season with dry spring.
      • Seed yield of canola and mustard was highly responsive to the application of N at the rosette stage.
      • Yield with 100 kg ha–1 N at rosette was equivalent to 85 and 94% of the maximum in canola and mustard.
      • Increasing the sink capacity by improving the pre-flowering crop biomass has an important influence on seed yield of canola and mustard.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0728
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2266-2277
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    • Roberto Alvarez and Haydee S. steinbach
      Modeling Soil Test Phosphorus Changes under Fertilized and Unfertilized Managements Using Artificial Neural Networks
      Core Ideas
      • An artificial neural network was developed to describe soil P dynamics.
      • The model accurately predicts soil test P increases and decreases.
      • A meta-model was derived to apply the build-up and maintenance philosophy.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0014
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2278-2290
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    • Lance S. Conway, Matt A. Yost, Newell R. Kitchen and Kenneth A. Sudduth
      Using Topsoil Thickness to Improve Site-Specific Phosphorus and Potassium Management on Claypan Soil
      Core Ideas
      • Topsoil depth influences P and K dynamics on claypan soils.
      • Most P and K dynamics were inversely affected by depth to claypan.
      • Accounting for depth to claypan could improve P and K fertilizer management.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.01.0038
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2291-2301
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    • Ganghua Zou, Yong Li, Tieping Huang, De Li Liu, David Herridge and Jinshui Wu
      A Mixed-Effects Regression Modeling Approach for Evaluating Paddy Soil Productivity
      Core Ideas
      • Cation exchange capacity, Ca2+, K+, available soil potassium, pH, and clay significantly affect paddy soil productivity.
      • A mixed-effects linear regression model evaluates soil productivity well.
      • The two-layer soil stratification scheme is the best for assessing soil productivity.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.02.0089
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2302-2311
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    • Quirine M. Ketterings, Sanjay Gami, Greg Godwin, Eun Hong, Kate Orloski, Rachel Breslauer, Chutao Liu and Renuka Rao Mathur
      Improving Sample Collection, Sample Processing, and Laboratory Analyses for Corn Stalk Nitrate Test
      Core Ideas
      • Corn stalk nitrate test results can help corn growers fine-tune N management.
      • Adoption of corn stalk nitrate test use can be enhanced with more practical field sampling protocols.
      • Laboratory processing of corn stalk nitrate test samples can be simplified for reduced analytical cost.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.03.0127
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2312-2322
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    • B. D. Tarfa, N. Maman, K. Ouattara, I. Serme, T. A. Adeogun, U. L. Arunah and C. S. Wortmann
      Groundnut and Soybean Response to Nutrient Application in West Africa
      Core Ideas
      • Leguminous oil seed production is important in West Africa.
      • Well-determined response functions are important for optimization of profit from nutrient application.
      • Crop response varied across Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria.
      • Nutrient response functions were determined for different production areas.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.03.0132
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2323-2332
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    • Nouri Maman, Mohamed Dicko, Gonda Abdou, Zoumana Kouyate and Charles Wortmann
      Pearl Millet and Cowpea Intercrop Response to Applied Nutrients in West Africa
      Core Ideas
      • Pearl millet and cowpea intercrop production is important in the Sahel.
      • Inadequate nutrient supply constrains crop growth.
      • Pearl millet sole crop nutrient response information is applicable for intercropping.
      • Application of N and P to intercrop compared to sole crop has more profit potential.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.03.0139
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2333-2342
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    • Amanda H. DeBruyn, Ivan P. O’Halloran, John D. Lauzon and Laura L. Van Eerd
      Effect of Sugarbeet Density and Harvest Date on Most Profitable Nitrogen Rate
      Core Ideas
      • First evaluation of profitable N rates in sugarbeet using variable revenue and costs.
      • Most profitable N rate was 136 kg N ha–1, regardless of plant density or harvest date.
      • More fertilizer N needed to maximize root yield than profits or sucrose yield (recoverable white sucrose per tonne).
      • Opportunity to modify payment structure to reward sucrose over root yield.
      • Risk of potential N losses was lower with higher plant density and later harvest.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.03.0141
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2343-2357
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    • Jeffrey A. Vetsch, Eric F. Scherder and David C. Ruen
      Does Liquid Swine Manure Application Timing and Nitrapyrin Affect Corn Yield and Inorganic Soil Nitrogen?
      Core Ideas
      • Nitrapyrin (Instinct) effectively slowed nitrification of swine manure.
      • Delaying fall application of swine manure increased corn yields and N availability.
      • Instinct enhanced corn production in years with greater than normal precipitation.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.03.0163
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2358-2370
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    • Newell R. Kitchen, John F. Shanahan, Curtis J. Ransom, Christopher J. Bandura, Gregory M. Bean, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Jason D. Clark, Richard B. Ferguson, Fabián G. Fernández, David W. Franzen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Zhisheng Qing, John E. Sawyer and Matt Shafer
      A Public–Industry Partnership for Enhancing Corn Nitrogen Research and Datasets: Project Description, Methodology, and Outcomes
      Core Ideas
      • The geographic scope, scale, and unique collaborative arrangement warrant documenting details of this work.
      • The purpose of this article is to describe how the research was undertaken, reasons for the research methods, and the project’s potential value.
      • The project generated a valuable dataset across a wide array of weather and soils that allows evaluation of N decision tools.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.04.0207
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2371-2389
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      unlockOPEN ACCESS
    • William Raun, Bruno Figueiredo, Jagmandeep Dhillon, Alimamy Fornah, Jacob Bushong, Hailin Zhang and Randy Taylor
      Can Yield Goals Be Predicted?
      Core Ideas
      • Yield goals are used to determine pre-plant fertilizer N rates.
      • Yield goals are used for many agricultural crops.
      • Mid-season sensor-based prediction of yield potential is possible.
      • Grain yields levels change dramatically every year.
      • Optimum fertilizer N rates change every year.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2017.05.0279
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2389-2395
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  • SOIL TILLAGE, CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT up

    • David D. Tarkalson and Bradley A. King
      Effects of Tillage and Irrigation Management on Sugarbeet Production
      Core Ideas
      • Strip tillage and conventional tillage had the same sugar yields under all irrigation levels.
      • Relationships between water input/use and sugarbeet yields were established.
      • Sucrose yields were the same under strip tillage and conventional tillage.
      • Strip tillage reduced runoff and increase water inflitration compared to conventional tillage.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.09.0530
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2396-2406
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    • Chengren Ouyang, Kaixian Wu, Tongxin An, Jia He, Shuhui Zi, Youqiong Yang and Bozhi Wu
      Productivity, Economic, and Environmental Benefits in Intercropping of Maize with Chili and Grass
      Core Ideas
      • In upland, how to integrate soil conservation, productivity, and economic benefits is still a challenge.
      • Using a 4-yr experiment, we found the maize/chili intercropping could be a valuable choice, which decreased erosion and increased economic benefits.
      • The multiple cropping system combined with staple and cash crops should be given greater attention in hilly areas.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.10.0579
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2407-2414
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    • Mahdi M. Al-Kaisi, David Kwaw-Mensah and En Ci
      Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Corn Residue Decomposition in Iowa
      Core Ideas
      • Application of 32% urea ammonium nitrate after harvest has no effect on residue decomposition.
      • Three months after N addition, 54 to 69% of residue remained with no N rate differences.
      • The remaining amount of residue after 12 mo was 35 to 49% across all N treatments.
      • Incubation study shows soil temperature as a major factor in residue decomposition.
      • Nitrogen addition suppressed CO2–C evolution during residue incubation.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.11.0633
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2415-2427
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    • Xiang Zhao, Huisen Zhu, Kuanhu Dong and Deying Li
      Plant Community and Succession in Lowland Grasslands under Saline–Alkali Conditions with Grazing Exclusion
      Core Ideas
      • Soil properties are important factors for pasture degradation in addition to grazing management.
      • Community patch formation could be predicted from soil variables.
      • Community patch types may be used as an indicator of the degree of grassland degradation.
      • Grazing exclusion affects biomass production and species diversity differently.
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.12.0734
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2428-2437
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  • ERRATUM up

    • Yan Li, Haijun Liu and Guanhua Huang
      The Effect of Nitrogen Rates on Yields and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies during Four Years of Wheat–Maize Rotation Cropping Seasons
      doi:10.2134/agronj2015.0610er
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2438-2438
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    • Mostafa Ibrahim, Chang Oh. Hong, Shikha Singh, Sandeep Kumar, Shannon Osborne and Vance Owens
      Switchgrass Biomass Quality as Affected by Nitrogen Rate, Harvest Time, and Storage
      doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0380er
      Agronomy Journal 2017 109:2439-2439
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