Differential nutrient contents of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars in previous studies have demonstrated a need to monitor newly developed cultivars for nutritional peculiarities. Nutrient uptake of large-seeded, virginia-type peanut cultivars ‘Florigiant’, ‘Early Bunch’, ‘Virginia 81 Bunch’, ‘NC 7’, and ‘NC 6’ was determined under two fertility treatments (low and high) and two Ca treatments at the high fertility treatment (with and without). The low fertility treatment was 448 kg ha−1 of 3-9-18 fertilizer applied to corn (Zea mays L.) prior to peanuts. The high without Ca fertility treatment was 1344 kg ha−1 of 3-9-18 fertilizer applied to corn prior to peanuts. In addition, peanuts received 34 kg ha−1 Mn, 3.4 kg ha−1 Zn and Cu, and 0.6 kg ha−1 B prior to planting. The high plus Ca fertility treatment was the same as the high without Ca treatment except 1344 kg ha−1 of landplaster was applied to the peanuts at early pegging. The experiment was conducted at Suffolk, VA for 3 yr (1980–1982) on a Wagram loamy fine sand (loamy, siliceous, thermic, Arenic Paleudult). Petioles and leaflets were analyzed for Ca, P, K, Cu, Mg, Mn, Zn, and Fe at early pegging and harvest, and pod yield was determined all 3 yr. Seed germination, seed nutrient content, and market grade were determined in 1981 and 1982. Significant differences occurred among cultivars and fertility treatments for nutrient content of petioles, leaflets, and seeds; yield; market grade; and germination. Leaf tissue contents of Mn, K, and Mg and seed contents of Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn varied more with fertility treatment than the other nutrients. Leaves of Virginia 81 Bunch (VA 81B) and seed of NC 6 were consistently low in most nutrients, while seed of VA 81B and leaves of NC 6 were not. These results indicate that cultivars differ in nutrient requirement, nutrient uptake, or the redistribution of nutrients. Yield, grade factors, and germination were higher and pod rot lower for the high fertility + Ca treatment than for the other fertility treatments. Simple correlations also showed that the relationship of Ca and K was important in seed germination and the incidence of pod rot.