Evaluation of cool-season turf species and planting techniques for overseeding bermudagrass golf greens1
- C. Y. Ward,
- E. L. Mc Whirter and
- W. R. Thompson
Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) greens are customarily overseeded during the fall season with cool-season grasses in order to enhance the appearance and putting quality during the period of dormancy exhibited by the hybrid bermudagrass. In addition, the cool-season grasses serve to reduce the attrition of the permanent sod during its dormancy period.
This paper presents the results of experimentation on seeding rates, dates of planting, and two cultural treatments (vertical mowing and soil topdressing) on the establishment, putting quality, and performance of numerous cultivars of cool-season grasses over-seeded on bermudagrass golf greens. The most important cultivars include those of Poa pratensis, Festuca rubra, Agrostis palustris, Agrostis tenuis, Lolium multiflorum, and Lolium per enne.
Results of overseedings made at 2-week intervals over a 10-week portion of the fall season show the optimum seeding date for overseeding bermudagrass greens to be 15 to 20 days prior to the average date for the first killing frost. Overseedings made prior to the above-mentioned period received too much competition from the bermudagrass and were more susceptible to diseases, particularly Pythium spp. However, overseedings made later than the aforementioned period were slow to establish and were more subject to damage by freezing weather.
Cultural preparation of the bermudagrass turf just prior to overseeding was found to be a major factor in determining the uniformity and stand density of overseeded grass(es). Vertical mowing of the turf, three times just prior to overseeding, produced superior turf quality when compared to the other levels of vertical mowing (no mowing, one time, or two times) just prior to overseeding. “Soil” topdressing at the time of over-seeding improved the speed of emergence, stand density, uniformity, and putting quality of the cool-season turf. Applying topdressing (1.9 hi/100 m2) immediately before and after sowing of the seed allowed for faster germination with some improvement in turf quality over the method of applying topdressing only after seeding. Topdressing immediately before seeding was inferior to the above methods.
Perennial ryegrass consistently produced a better quality turf than any other over-seeded grass when seeded in monostands. Red fescue and/or rough stalk bluegrass ranked second to perennial ryegrass, when overseeded on the bermudagrass, as monostands. Bent grasses did not produce sufficient turf quality when seeded as monostands until 5 months after seeding. Kentucky bluegrass was inferior to all other species evaluated. It produced an unacceptable turf except when used in polystands. Additional index words: Cynodon spp., Agrostis spp., Poa spp., Lolium spp.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
Copyright © 1974. . Copyright 1974 by the American Society of Agronomy, Inc. and the Crop Science Society of America, Inc., 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA