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Book: Concepts and Breeding of Heterosis in Crop Plants
Published by: Crop Science Society of America



  1.  p. 45-56
    CSSA Special Publication 25.
    Concepts and Breeding of Heterosis in Crop Plants

    Kendall R. Larnkey and Jack E. Staub (ed.)

    ISBN: 978-0-89118-604-5


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Hybrids in Horticultural Crops

  1. Jules Janick
  1. Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


Production of hybrids of seed-propagated horticultural crops is one of the most successful plant breeding techniques because it exploits heterosis, promotes homogeneity, and is a way for commercial breeders to control their products without the necessity for legal patents or plant breeder's rights. Various techniques to produce hybrids have been developed depending on the crop including hand emasculation, roguing of staminate plants in dioecious lines, use of gynoecious or highly female lines, cytoplasmic male sterility and genetic male sterility, protogyny, or self incompatibility. Vegetable crops in which 50% or more of the commercial seed crop in the USA are F1 hybrids includes asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea L.), cabbage (B. oleracea L.), carrot [Daucus carota L.], collards (B. oleracea L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), eggplant (Solanum melangena L.), muskmelon (C. melo L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), summer squash (Cucurbita sp.), sweet com (Zea mays L.) and popcorn (Z. mays L.), tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.], and watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai]. Hybrids also dominate the market in a number of ornamental bedding plants and cut flowers especially ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum Mill.), carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), seed geranium (Pelargonium hortorum L.R.Bailey), impatiens (Impatiens wallerana HookJ.), African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.), nicotiana (Nicotiana L. hybrids), pansy (Viola wittrockiana Gams.), petunia (Petunia hybrida Hort.Vilm.-Andr.), primula (Primula vulgaris Huds.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum magus L.), and zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jacq.).

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