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Book: Pedological Perspectives in Archaeological Research
Published by: Soil Science Society of America



  1.  p. 151-157
    SSSA Special Publication 44.
    Pedological Perspectives in Archaeological Research

    Mary E. Collins, Brian J. Carter, Bruce G. Gladfelter and Randal J. Southard (ed.)

    ISBN: 978-0-89118-939-8


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Lead Fractions in Soils from Hadrian's Villa, Italy

  1. Cynthia A. Stiles,
  2. J. E. Foss and
  3. R. J. Lewis
  1. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee


Heavy accumulations of Pb were noted in soil samples gathered within the boundaries of Hadrian's Villa, near Tivoli, Italy. Lead quantities of surface samples extracted with a dilute HC1-HNO3 solution ranged from 13 to 6750 mg kg−1. Samples representative of extractable Pb ranges were sequentially extracted to determine which soil fractions contained Pb accumulations. Extractants and corresponding fractions included MgCl2 (exchangeable), Na−OOCCH3 (carbonate), NH2OH−HCl (oxide), H2O2−HNO3 (organic), and HF−HNO3−HCL−H3BO4 (residual). All analyses were run using an inductively-coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICAP-AES). Total Pb quantities summed across fractions ranged from 150 to 12 000 mg kg−1. In samples having low total Pb quantities (150–500 mg kg−1), most Pb was found in the residual fraction. Within samples with total Pb quantities from 800 to 1000 mg kg−1, oxide and organic fractions held the largest percentage of Pb. The majority of Pb in the highest fractions was nearly equally divided between the carbonate and oxide fractions.

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