Rapid change is a characteristic of our times. Changes in fertilizer use—kinds, amounts, time and method of application—have kept pace with other technological developments affecting farming. However, many of these changes have been so gradual that the casual observer is scarcely aware that change has occurred.
The purpose of this book, and the symposium accompanying its publication, is to focus attention on these changes and to summarize accepted principles important to use of fertilizers on various crops. The Soil Science Society of America hopes that this educational activity satisfies a real public need for information.
In the United States, fertilizer use has increased more than half in the last decade. The current rate of increase in use is greater than ever before. Real advances were made in bulk handling and spreading and in direct use of ammonia and solutions on crops and in irrigation water.
The next decade promises some important impacts on fertilizer use that we must think about now. These impacts include cheaper energy from atomic power, larger demands for farm products, and new emphasis on avoiding eutrophy of ground and surface waters. So we should start soon on the planning of another book and another symposium on the changing world of fertilizer use and technology.
In this volume an attempt is made to present authoritative and up-to-date information on how to use fertilizer effectively on most of the major crops grown in the United States, on the factors that govern its efficient use, and how and why the pattern of fertilizer use is changing. Recent information and thinking on fertilizer marketing, economics, application methods, agronomic effectiveness of different fertilizers, soil testing, and soil-plant relationships also are presented since these are intimately related to fertilizer use and to the changes that are taking place.
The book is directed to those people who have specific interests in fertilizers and their efficient use, especially members of the industry, extension workers, farm managers, teachers, and those engaged in applied research. It is not intended as a literature review or a scientific treatise. Authors were chosen who had firsthand knowledge of specific subject matter areas. Certain broad guidelines were laid down, but the respective chapters were developed in accordance with the specific knowledge and best judgment of the authors.
The Soil Science Society of America since 1950 has conducted symposia on advances in fertilizers and published the papers given at the symposia in book form. The same procedure was followed for Changing Patterns in Fertilizer Use, but with one exception. Timing was set so that the book could be released at the symposium in Chicago, Illinois, February 14 and 15, 1968.
The Committee on Fertilizer Technology and Use of the Soil Science Society of America, which also served as the Editorial Committee, had responsibility for planning, organizing, and editing Changing Patterns in Fertilizer Use and for conducting the symposium.
The committee gratefully acknowledges the excellent cooperation and the time and effort given by the many authors in the preparation of this volume, and the help and advice given by Matthias Stelly, Executive Secretary of the Soil Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America presidents R. W. Pearson, W. P. Martin, and F. G. Viets, Jr. Special acknowledgment also is due the editorial staff of the headquarters office of the Soil Science Society of America which brought the style into conformity and expedited publication.
The Editorial Committee
L. B. NELSON, Chairman
Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Ala.
M. H. MCVICKAR
Chevron Chemical Co., San Francisco, Calif.
R. D. MUNSON
American Potash Institute, St Paul Minn.
L. F. SEATZ
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.
S. L. TISDALE
The Sulfur Institute, Washington, D. C.
W. C. WHITE
National Plant Food Inst, Washington, D. C.
Stanley A. Barber, Professor of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana
James F. Bartz, Senior Agronomist, The Green Giant Company, Le Sueur, Minnesota
William F. Bennett, Director, Agricultural Services, Elcor Chemical Corporation, Midland, Texas
Russell Coleman, President, The Sulphur Institute, Washington, D. C.
John R. Douglas, Staff Economist, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama
L. E. Ensminger, Head, Department of Agronomy and Soils, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama
William J. Hanna, Professor of Soils, Department of Soils and Crops, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
C. M. Hansen, Associate Professor of Power and Machinery, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Michigan State University, East Laning, Michigan
John J. Hanway, Professor of Soil Fertility, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
R. J. Hildreth, Associate Managing Director, Farm Foundation, Chicago, Illinois
Roger P. Humbert, Western Director, American Potash Institute, Los Gatos, California
Thomas B. Hutcheson, Jr. Head, Department of Agronomy, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia
Donald B. Ibach, Consultant Agricultural Economist, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (Retired)
Milton B. Jones, Soil Scientist and Range Crops Specialist, Department of Agronomy, University of California, Davis, California
Eugene J. Kamprath, Professor of Soil Science, Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina
Victor J. Kilmer, Chief, Soils and Fertilizer Research Branch, Division of Agricultural Development, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama
Fred E. Koehler, Soil Scientist, Department of Agronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
O. A. Lorenz, Chairman, Department of Vegetable Crops, University of California, Davis, California
R. L. Luckhardt, Supervisor of Agricultural Technical Services, Collier Carbon and Chemical Corp., Los Angeles, California
John N. Mahan, Staff Assistant, Agricultural Chemicals Policy and Program Appraisal Division, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
Duane S. Mikkelsen, Professor of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Range Sciences, University of California, Davis, California.
Werner L. Nelson, Senior Vice President, American Potash Institute Inc., West Lafayette, Indiana
A. J. Ohlrogge, Professor of Soil Chemistry, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana
Robert A. Olson, Professor of Soil Fertility, Department of Agronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska
R. V. Olson, Professor and Head of Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas
William H. Patrick, Jr., Professor of Soils, Department of Agronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Herm, J. Reitz, Horticulturist and Head of Citrus Experiment Station, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, Florida
W. C. Stiles, Associate Professor of Pomology and Superintendent of Highmoor Farm, University of Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Monmouth, Maine
Grant W. Thomas, Professor of Soil Chemistry, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas
Billy B. Tucker, Associate Professor of Soils and Extension Agronomist, Department of Agronomy, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma
Albert Ulrich, Lecturer on Plant Physiology, Department of Soils and Plant Nutrition, University of California, Berkeley, California
Robert E. Wagner, Vice President, American Potash Insitute Inc., Washington, D. C. Now Director of Extension Service, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland
John Webb, Associate Professor of Soil Fertility, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
Moyle S. Williams, Assistant Director of the Cooperative Extension Service, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois