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Book: Nitrogen in Crop Production
Published by: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America

 

 

This chapter in NITROGEN IN CROP PRODUCTION

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    Nitrogen in Crop Production

    Roland D. Hauck (ed.)

    ISBN: 978-0-89118-243-6

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doi:10.2134/1990.nitrogenincropproduction.frontmatter

Front Matter

Dedication

This book,Nitrogen in Crop Production, is dedicated to Victor James Kilmer (1913–1981) in recognition of his many contributions and outstanding leadership in the fields of soil science and agronomy.

A native of Wisconsin, Kilmer obtained his B.S. and M.S. degrees in soil science at the University of WisconsinMadison. During World War II he spent four years in the armed forces, mostly in the Pacific. His entire professional career was devoted to service in U.S. Governmental agencies, starting in the Soil Conservation Service as a soil scientist at the Upper Mississippi Valley Experiment Station at LaCrosse, Wisconsin in 1941. After the war he worked as a soil surveyor, also in Wisconsin. In 1947, he transferred to the National Soil Survey Laboratory at Beltsville, Maryland, at that time a part of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering.

In 1955, Kilmer shifted his professional interests from soil classification to soil and water management by joining the Soil and Water Research Division of the Agricultural Research Service. In 1961, he joined the Office of Agricultural and Chemical Development of the Tennessee Valley Authority at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, serving first as assistant to the manager and then, until his retirement in 1979, as Chief of the national important Soils and Fertilizer Research Branch.

Kilmer's greatest accomplishment was probably in fostering meaningful and needed research in soils and fertilizers in his own organization and also in institutions cooperating with TVA. His own research of greatest impact dealt with losses of plant nutrients from soils through erosion, runoff, and leaching. Kilmer was a key individual in the 20-year joint effort of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America and TVA's National Fertilizer Development Center in conducting symposia dealing with plant nutrition, fertilizers, and crop production. This joint effort resulted in an important series of highly authoritative and widely used books, of which Nitrogen in Crop Production is the latest.

Kilmer was honored as Fellow, both of the American Society of Agronomy and the Soil Science Society of America. He served as President of the Soil Science Society of America during 1976–1977. Kilmer was highly regarded, both as a professional soil scientist and as a person.

March 1984

LOUIS B. NELSON (retired)

Director, Division of Agricultural Development

National Fertilizer Development Center

Tennessee Valley Authority

Muscle Shoals, Alabama

Foreward

The realization of this book stems from a national symposium, Nitrogen in Crop Production, held in Sheffield, Alabama, 25–27 May 1982, jointly sponsored by the Tennessee Valley Authority National Fertilizer Development Center, the American Society of Agronomy, the Crop Science Society of America, and the Soil Science Society of America. The symposium was organized to provide a comprehensive summary of current knowledge about nitrogen as it relates to crop production. Each of the presentations had a practical orientation that focused on alternative means to improve plant use of nitrogen in different cropping systems. Those presentations as well as several additional closely related topics comprise the chapters of this volume. Our understanding of the role of nitrogen and the continual improvement of management alternatives for its optimal use in crop production as documented here represents an integrated effort of nearly 100 scientists and technologists. Because of their unique effort, we expect that this book will be of interest to farm managers, agronomists, crop and soil scientists, crop ecologists, and cooperative extension specialists.

We want to express our appreciation to the editorial committee, headed by Dr. R. D. Hauck; the authors and reviewers; and the ASA Headquarters staff for the time and effort they have spent in making this publication possible.

November 1984

K. J. FREY,president

American Society of Agronomy

W. F. KEIM,president

Crop Science Society oj America

D. R. NIELSEN,president

Soil Science Society oj America

Preface

Nitrogen in Crop Production provides an authoritative review of the principles and practices of nitrogen use in agricultural cropping systems. It was planned as a companion work to Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils (Agronomy no. 22, 1982), with focus on the interrelationships of nitrogen and other crop production factors. Topics discussed include (i) how plants use nitrogen, (ii) sources and supply of plant-available nitrogen, and (iii) the management of crops, fertilizers and fertilizer amendments, manures and other waste products, plant residues, and soils for maximum, economic crop production. Other topics discussed are the relationship between nitrogen use and plant diseases, insect invasion, water stress, and weed infestation. Separate chapters are devoted to crop quality and the quality of the environment, as affected by nitrogen use. The last section of the book describes recommended nitrogen management practices for regions of the United States differing in climate, soils, and cropping systems.

Authors of chapters were asked to prepare overviews rather than comprehensive reviews of their assigned topics and to cite mainly key articles and reviews. Where data on a particular topic were lacking and definite conclusions could not justifiably be drawn, a statement of informed opinion was solicited. The restrictions placed on the authors were necessary because of the many topics that the editorial committee thought desirable to discuss. Even so, relevant topics that might have been included were omitted. We apologize for these omissions and for the omission of references to important work that might have been included, had volume size not been a practical consideration.

The editorial committee expresses appreciation to the authors and the organizations they represent. We acknowledge Richard C. Dinauer, Susan Ernst, David M. Kral, Rodney A. Briggs, Matthias Stelly, and other members of the headquarters staff for assistance in editing and preparing the manuscripts for publication. We pay special tribute to Victor J. Kilmer, whose administrative support during the planning of this book was most helpful; to George Stanford, coauthor of Chapter 17, and to A. G. Norman, author of the Perspective, whose untimely deaths occurred while the book was in progress.

March 1984

The Editorial Committee

R. D. HAUCK, editor-in-chief

Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

J. D. BEATON

Potash and Phosphate Institute, Cochrane, Alberta

C. A. I. GORING

The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan

R. G. HOEFT

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

GYLES W. RANDALL

University of Minnesota, Waseca, Minnesota

D. A. RUSSEL (retired)

Tennessee Valley Authority

Contributors

Frank P. Achorn, Senior Scientist, National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

Fred Adams, Professor of Soil Chemistry, Department of Agronomy and Soils, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

GaryW.Akin, Agronomist, National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

Samuel R. Aldrich, Professor of Soil Fertility in Extension, Emeritus, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

Seward E. Allen, Agronomist, National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

V. Allan Bandel, Professor of Soils, Agronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

Stanley A. Barber, Professor of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

Frederick E. Below, Research Assistant/Research Associate, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

B. R.Bock, Research Soil Chemist, National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

L. V. Boone, Agronomist, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

Fred C. Boswell, Professor and Soil Scientist, Agronomy Department, University of Georgia, Experiment, Georgia

D. R. Bouldin, Professor of Soil Science, Department of Agronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

F. E. Broadbent, Professor of Soil Microbiology, Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, California

Michael F. Broder, Agricultural Engineer, National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

Michael A. Cole, Associate Professor of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

E. L. Deckard, Professor of Agronomy, Agronomy Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota

Theodore M. DeJong, Assistant Professor, Pomology Department, University of California, Davis, California

R. B. DIamond, Coordinator, Fertilizer Evaluations, International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

J. W.Doran, Soil Scientist, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska

A. I. Dow, Extension Soil Scientist (retired), Washington State University, Prosser, Washington. Currently Soil Management Consultant

David W. Emerich, Professor, Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri

Harold J. Evans, Professor, Laboratory for Nitrogen Fixation Research, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon

Richard H. Fox, Associate Professor of Soil Science, Department of Agronomy, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania

Bryant R. Gardner, Soil Scientist, Yuma Valley Agricultural Center, University of Arizona, Yuma, Arizona

J. W. Gilliam, Professor, Soil Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

Paul M. Giordano, Research Soil Chemist, National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

Sham S. Goyal, Postgraduate Researcher, Plant Growth Laboratory, University of California, Davis, California

Robert C. Gray, Agronomist (retired), National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

D.D. Gull, Associate Professor, Vegetable Crops Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

R. H. Hageman, Professor, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

James E. Harper, Plant Physiologist, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

Roland D. Hauck, Research Soil Scientist, National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

Walter A. Hill, Professor, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama

R. G.Hoeft, Professor of Soil Fertility, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

Ray C. Huffaker, Professor of Agronomy, Plant Growth Laboratory, University of California, Davis, California

T. L. Jackson, Professor of Soil Science, Department of Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon

S. D. Klausner, Soil Scientist, Department of Agronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Ellery L. Knake, Professor of Weed Science in Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

Thor Kommedahl, Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota

L.T.Kurtz, Professor of Soil Fertility, Agronomy Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

R. J. Lambert, Professor of Plant Genetics, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

J.O. Legg, Soil Scientist (retired), Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Currently Adjunct Professor, Agronomy Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas

S. J. Locascio, Horticulturist, Vegetable Crops Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

John B. Martin, Agronomist, National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

Adolfo Martinez, Agricultural Economist, International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

D. N. Maynard, Professor and Chairman, Vegetable Crops Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Marshal D. McGlamery, Professor of Weed Science, Agronomy Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

J. J. Meisinger, Soil Scientist, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland

M. J. Messmer, Plant Breeder, Garst Seed Company, Ames, Iowa. Formerly Graduate Student, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

L. W. Murdock, Extension Professor, University of Kentucky, Princeton, Kentucky

Darrell W. Nelson, Professor of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

R.A. Olson, Professor, Agronomy Department, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska

T. R. Peck, Professor of Soil Chemistry, Extension, Agronomy Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

G. A. Peterson, Professor of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska

Donald A. Phillips, Professor, Department of Agronomy and Range Science, University of California, Davis, California

J. F. Power, Soil Scientist, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska

P. F. Pratt, Professor of Soil Science, Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California

Gyles W. Randall, Soil Scientist and Professor, Southern Experiment Station, University of Minnesota, Waseca, Minnesota

Roy S. Rauschkolb, Formerly Extension Soils Specialist, University of California, Davis, California. Currently Director of Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

W.S.Reid, Professor of Soil Science, Department of Agronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

F. M. Rhoads, Professor of Soil Science, Agricultural Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Quincy, Florida

Robert L. Roth, Agricultural Engineer, Yuma Valley Agricultural Center, University of Arizona, Yuma, Arizona

Darrell A. Russel, Agriculturist (retired), National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

L. E. Schrader, Professor of Plant Physiology, Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

J. Mark Scriber, Associate Professor, Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

Joseph H. Sherrard, Research Associate, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

Lee E. Sommers, Professor of Agronomy, Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

George Stanford, Soil Scientist, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland. Deceased 28 January 1981

Paul J. Stangel, Deputy Managing Director, International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals, Alabama

C, Y. Tsai, Professor of Genetics, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

Billy B. Tucker, Regents Professor-Agronomy, Agronomy Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma

T.C. Tucker, Professor, Soils, Water, and Engineering Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

Fred T. Turner, Professor of Soils and Plant Nutrition, Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Texas A&M University, Beaumont, Texas

Peter van Berkum, Biochemist, Nitrogen Fixation and Soybean Genetics Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland

RegisD. Voss, Professor of Agronomy, Agronomy Department, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

L.F. Welch, Professor of Soil Fertility, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

B. R. Wells, Professor, Agronomy Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas

K. L. Wells, Extension Professor-Soils, Department of Agronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky

D. G. Westfall, Professor, Department of Agronomy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

W. J. Wiltbank, Professor (Horticulturist), Department of Fruit Crops, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

 

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