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Book: The Genetics and Exploitation of Heterosis in Crops
Published by: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America

 

 

This chapter in THE GENETICS AND EXPLOITATION OF HETEROSIS IN CROPS

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    The Genetics and Exploitation of Heterosis in Crops

    James G. Coors and Shivaji Pandey (ed.)

    ISBN: 978-0-89118-255-9

    OPEN ACCESS
     

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doi:10.2134/1999.geneticsandexploitation.frontmatter

Front Matter

Preface

The chapters for this book are based on 40 plenary presentations by invited speakers and related question-and-answer sessions from the international symposium, The Genetics and Exploitation of Heterosis in Crops. The Symposium was organized and hosted by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT) in Mexico City, 17–22 August 1997. The chapters basically follow the order of the symposium's nine half-day sessions.

The event focused attention on the momentous contributions of hybrid crop varieties and encouraged experts worldwide to share their knowledge on the phenomenon of hybrid vigor, which is expected to play a key role in meeting humanity's expanding food and feed demands in the future. The symposium drew more than 500 participants—nearly three-quarters of whom came from developing countries—and featured 145 posters in addition to the plenary presentations. The technical program covered actual and potential contributions of heterosis to food security and natural resource conservation through its use in a range of crops—including maize, rice, wheat, sorghum, millets, cotton, vegetables, and oil seeds. Of particular interest were the studies on the genetic, physiological, biochemical, and molecular bases of heterosis that may lead to new strategies for the effective use of hybrid vigor. Among the major conclusions were the following:

  • Heterosis is much more widely used in crops than the organizers of the symposium originally envisaged.

  • Scientists now generally agree on the genetic mechanisms that underlie heterosis. Dominance, as opposed to overdominance, and epistasis are generally accepted as the principal factors.

  • A much clearer understanding of the molecular basis of heterosis emerged; it now seems possible to identify and, eventually, tag the major genes involved in heterosis, allowing their transfer and control by geneticists and breeders.

  • Mutations are responsible for a greater proportion of genetic variation than was first thought, and may underlie continued gains in hybrid maize in temperate areas; the importance of genetic diversity in general was emphasized repeatedly.

  • Investment in hybrid technology for the cereals appears to make particularly good sense for countries such as China and India to meet domestic demands, and others, such as Brazil, Thailand, Argentina, Myanmar, and South Africa, to produce for exports markets.

Extended abstracts (including methods, results, and selected data) for all presentations and posters were published in a book distributed at the symposium and available through CIMMYT. In a symposium dinner ceremony, five pioneers in research on heterosis—James F. Crow, Yuan Longping, F.W. Schnell, George F. Sprague, and Edwin J. Wellhausen—received special awards for their contributions. Beyond the scientific community itself, extensive media coverage of the symposium brought the issues of food security, sustainable agriculture, and the role of international agricultural research before a global audience.

The Technical Steering Committee and the Editorial Board for this symposium are very grateful to all the authors, reviewers, and sponsors who made the symposium so enjoyable and worthwhile. Special thanks goes to the American Society of Agronomy, the Crop Science Society of America, and the Soil Science Society of America for publishing the book.

Editorial Board:

J.G. Coors A.R. Hallauer A.E. Melchinger
S. Pandey D.C. Hess G. Srinivasan
M.V. Ginkel K.R. Lamkey C.W. Stuber

Sponsors

CIMMYT wishes to express its sincere thanks to the following sponsors and contributors to the symposium:
Cosponsors (US $10,000 or more)
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company, Ltd., India
Monsanto Company, USA
Novartis Seeds AG, Switzerland
Peoples Republic of China
Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., USA
Sementes Agroceres S.A., Brazil
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Participating Sponsors U.S. $5,000 – U.S. $10,000)
Asgrow Seed Company, USA
DHL Worldwide Express
Grains Research Development Corporation, Australia
KWS Kleinwanzlebener Saatzucht AG, Germany
Other Sponsors (US $2,000 or less)
Cargill Hybrid Seeds, USA
Ceres Internacional de Semillas, SA de C.V., Mexico
DeKalb Genetics Corporation, USA
Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (IICA)
Maritz de Mexico, SA de C.V.
Maritz de Mexico, SA de C.V.
Plant Genetic Systems Inc. (America), USA
Special thank you to the following:
Rockefeller Foundation for their generosity in enabling the participation of eight researchers from developing countries to the symposium.
American Society of Agronomy for sponsoring the publication of the proceedings of the symposium.

Contributors

J. Axtell, Professor, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, 1150 Lilly Hall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1150

D. Andrews, Professor, Department of Agronomy, 328 Keim Hall, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915

R. Bernardo, Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, 1150 Lilly Hall of Life Sciences, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1150

N.E. Borlaug, Senior Consultant to the Director General, CIMMYT, Lisboa 27, Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 México, D.F., México

J.L. Brewbaker, Professor, Department of Horticulture, University of Hawaii, 3190 Malle Way, Rm. 102, Honolulu, HI 96822

M. Cooper, Senior Lecturer, School of Land and Food, St. Lucia Campus, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4072, Australia

J.G. Coors, Professor, Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706

H. Cordova, Leader of Tropical Maize Program, CIMMYT, Lisboa 27, Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 México, D.F., México

J.F. Crow, Professor, Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706

A. Dhopte, Professor, Department of Botany, Punjabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola 444 104, Maharashtra, India

D.N. Duvick, Affiliate Professor of Plant Breeding, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, P.O. Box 446, 6837, N. W. Beaver Drive, Johnston, IA 50131-0446

J.D. Eastin, Professor, Department of Agronomy, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 830817, Lincoln, NE 68583-0817

J.W. Edwards, Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1010

G.O. Edmeades, Interim Director of Maize Program, CIMMYT, Lisboa 27, Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico, D.F., Mexico

G. Ejeta, Professor, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1150

S.A. Engelbrecht, General Manager of Operations, Sensako, P.O. Box 3295, Brits 9700, South Africa

G.I. Gandoul, Department of Agronomy, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 830817, Lincoln, NE 68583-0817

T.J. Gerik, Blackland Research Center, 808 E. Blackland Road, Temple, TX 76502

H.H. Geiger, Professor of Population Genetics, University of Hohenheim, 350 Institute of Plant Breeding, Seed Science and Population Genetics, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany

M.V. Ginkel, Head, Bread Wheat Program, CIMMYT, Lisboa 27, Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico, D.F., Mexico.

I.L. Goldman, Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, Universit of Wisconsin, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1597

J.M. González, Head, Departamento de Coordinación y Desarrollo, Centro de Investigaciones Agrarias de Mabegondo, Apdo. 10, 15080 La Coruña, Spain

M.M. Goodman, William Neal Reynolds and Distinguished University Professor, Crop Science Department, North Caroline State University, Box 7620, Raleigh, NC 27695

C.J. Goodnight, Associate Professor, 115 Marsh Life Science Building, Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington VT 05405-0086

A. Grunst, Consultant, 120 S. 32nd Street, West Des Moines, IA 50265

A.R. Hallauer, C.F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor in Agriculture Professor, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-1010

W. Hanna, Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS-SAA, Coastal Plain Exp. Stn., P.O. Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793-0748

V.G. Hernandez, Director, Centro de Genetica, Colegio de Postgraduardos, Montecillo, México 56230

D. Hess, Retired Director, CIMMYT Maize Program, #7 Merion Street, Abilene, TX 79606

K. Hoard, Research Analyst, 13247 NW 121st Place, Madrid, IA50156

M.R.A. Hovney, Agricultural Research Center, Sorghum Research Department, Shandowell Station, Sohag, Egypt

R.B. Hunter, Manager of Product Development, Novartis Seeds, R.R. #1 Plattsville, Ontario N0J IS0, CANADA

Y. Ibrahim, Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1150

J. Janick, James Troop Distinguished Professor of Horticulture, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1165

J.P. Jordaan, General Manager of Cereal Grain Research, Sensako, P.O. Box 556, Bethlehem 9700, South Africa

I. Kapran, Sorghum Breeder and INTSORMIL Niger Country Coordinator, Institute National de Recherches Agronomiques du Niger, B. P. 429, Niamey, Niger

M. Kafka, Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 261, 540 06 Thessaloniki, Greece

H.A. Knobel, Wheat Breeder, Sensako, P.O. Box 556, Bethlehem 9700, South Africa

J.A. Labate, Research Geneticist, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1010

K.R. Lamkey, Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1010

M. Lee, Professor, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-1010

A.B. Maunder, Senior Vice President (retired), Dekalb Genetics, 4511 9th Street, Lubbock, TX 79416

J.H. Malan, Wheat Breeder, Sensako, P.O. Box 556, Bethlehem 9700, South Africa

A.E. Melchinger, Professor, Institute of Plant Breeding, Seed Science and Population Genetics, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany

W.R. Meredith, Jr., Research Geneticist, Crop Genetics and Production Research, Box 314, Stoneville, MS 38776

T. Miedaner, Senior Scientist, University of Hohenheim, Landessaatzuchtanbstalt (720), D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany

J.F. Miller, Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, P.O. Box 5677, Fargo, ND 58102

J.B. Miranda Filho, Professor, Departamento de Genética, Universide de São Paulo/ESALQ, Caixa Postal 83, 13400-970, Piracicaba, Sã Paulo, Brazil

M.L. Munoz, Centro de Genetica, Colegio de Postgraduardos, Montecillo México 56230

V.B. Ogunlea, Professor, Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1044, Samaru-Zaria, Nigeria

L.M. Onofre, Centro de Genetica, Colegio de Postgraduardos, Montecillo México 56230

P. Ozias-Akins, Associate Professor, Coastal Plain Exp. Stn., P.O. Box 748 Tifton, GA 31793-0748

S. Pandey, Maize Program Director, CIMMYT, Lisboa 27, Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 México, D.F., México

R. Pandya-Lorch, Coordinator, 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture and the Environment Initiative, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K Street N.W., Washington, DC 20006

C.L. Petersen, Department of Agronomy, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 830817, Lincoln, NE 68583-0817

P.A. Peterson, Professor, Departments of Agronomy, Zoology, and Genetics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1010

R.L. Phillips, Regents' Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108

P.L. Pingali, Director, Economics Program, CIMMYT, Lisboa 27, Apdo Postal 6-641, 06600 México, D.F., México

P. Pinstrup-Andersen, Director General, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K Street N.W., Washington, DC 20006

D.W. Podlich, Quantitative Geneticist, School of Land and Food, St. Lucia Campus, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4072, Australia

A. Polidoros, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 261, 540 06 Thessaloniki, Greece

T.G. Reeves, Director General, CIMMYT, Lisboa 27,Apdo. Postal 6641, 06600 México, D.F., México

D. Roche, Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS-SAA, Coastal Plain Exp. Stn., P.O. Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793-0748

F. Shaw, Research Associate, Ecology, Evolution and Behavior Department, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108

R. Shaw, Associate Professor, Ecology, Evolution and Behavior Department, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108

J.S.C. Smith, Germplasm Security Coordinator—Research Fellow, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, P.O. Box 1004, 7300 NW, 62nd Ave., Johnston, IA 50131-1004

O.S. Smith, Research Fellow, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, P.O. Box 1004, 7300 NW, 62nd Ave., Johnston, IA 50131-1004

C.L. Souza, Jr., Professor, Departamento de Genética, Universide de São Paulo/ESALQ, Caixa Postal 83, 13400-970, Piracicaba, Sã Paulo, Brazil

G. Srinivasan, Leader of Subtropical Maize Program and Head of International Testing, CIMMYT, Lisboa 27, Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 México, D.F., México

C.W. Stuber, Professor (Emeritus), Department of Genetics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7614

W.G. Sun, Researcher, Hawaii Agricultural Research Center, 99-193 Aiea Heights Rd., Aiea, HI 96701

E. Tani, Postgraduate Assistant, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Bo 261, 540 06 Thessaloniki, Greece

A.S. Tsaftaris, Professor, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 261, 540 06 Thessaloniki, Greece

S.K Vasal, Distinguished Scientist and Liaison Officer, CIMMYT Asian Regional Maize Program, P.O. Box 9-188, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

P.K. Verma, Proagro Seed Company Ltd., B-1-39 Toli Chowki, Hyderabad AP 500 008, India

S.S. Virmani, Plant Breeder cum Deputy Head, Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biochemistry Division, International Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines

S.J. Wall, Senior Research Associtate, Pioneer Hi-Bred International P.O. Box 1004, 7300 NW, 62nd Ave., Johnston, IA 50131 1004

T.C. Wehner, Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Box 7509, Raleigh, NC 27695-7609

M.W. Witt, Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Eminence Rt., Garden City Branch Garden City, KS 67846

W.L Woodman, Research Associate, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1010

F. Zavala-Garcia, Facultad de Agronomia U.A.N.L., Apartado Postal #358, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza N.L., Ubicacion de la Facultad, Carretera Zuazua-Marin Km. 17, 66700 Marin N.L., México

 

Footnotes


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