Cultivation and selection of oat were important activities of pioneering neolithic farmers in northern Europe. Agronomic scientists, successors to the neolithic farmers in many of their activities, still find new opportunities for advancing knowledge of the oat plant and how to grow it for food and feed production. New technologies such as tissue culture are added to traditional ones such as conventional breeding and selection. The growth in breadth and depth of technologies and concepts applied to oat culture and utilization are typical of the growth in breadth and depth of agronomic theory and practice.
This volume deals with the origins and taxonomy, physiology and development, soil and nutrient requirements, harvesting and disease and insect concerns, and finally with the germplasm collection, and preservation and utilization of oat. Its coverage exemplifies the wide range of specialties in agronomic science, and shows how agronomists combine and use the numerous specialties as functioning parts of a working system with defined goals. To read this book will give not only knowledge about the oat plant; it will give instruction in how agronomy, an art and a science, serves agriculture and society.
D. N. DUVICK, president American Society of Agronomy
G. H. HEICHEL, president Crop Science Society of America
The first monograph on oat, Oats and Oat Improvement, was published by the American Society of Agronomy (ASA) in 1961. It thoroughly reviewed the oat literature to that date, and has served students, teachers, researchers, extensionists, and industry on an international basis for three decades. In August 1984, the ASA and the Crop Science Society of America (CSSA) appointed an editorial committee to prepare this new monograph on oat.
In addition to pertinent reviews of older literature, this monograph brings together substantial new basic and practical knowledge about Avena speciation (including the discovery of new species); genetics; breeding; disease resistance and related pathology; physiology; production systems; nutritional value of oat grain; and the use of oat grain for human food, livestock feed, and seed. Awareness of the unique nutritional characteristics of oat bran and oat-based foods has increased, especially of their value as an aid to lowering blood cholesterol and controlling diabetes.
The land area devoted to oat production has declined significantly since the first monograph was published, but oat still is an important special purpose crop in North America and other areas of the world. The number of scientists doing oat research is small compared to some crops, but productivity is high because of excellent comradery and free exchange of information and germplasm between state, federal, and industrial oat workers. An American Oat Workers' Conference (AOWC), made up of members from the USA, Canada, and Mexico, has aggressively fostered oat improvement through conferences and various committee and task force activities. National oat research needs and goals for the USA are spelled out in a “Strategic Plan for U.S. Oat Research” first developed in 1987 under the auspices of the AOWC. This plan helps coordinate research efforts and informs administrators and legislators of research needs. Also, an American Oat Association (AOA), which is unique in that it represents all segments of the oat industry, promotes the common needs of members involved in oat research, production, marketing, and processing. The AOA annually provides funds to send a Legislative Liaison Committee of the National Oat Improvement Council to Washington, DC, to lobby for major oat improvement needs.
The organization of oat workers on an international basis is an important recent development. The first International Oat Conference (IOC) was organized by the AOWC and a joint meeting of the two organizations was held in the USA at The Pennsylvania State University in 1982. Meetings of the IOC subsequently were held in 1985 at the Welsh Plant Breeding Station in Wales, UK, and in 1988 at Svalof in Sweden. The fourth IOC will be held at Adelaide, Australia, in October 1992.
We are grateful to the authors, reviewers, editorial committee, and ASA Headquarters staff who generously contributed the tremendous amount of time, effort, knowledge, and patience that was required to prepare this extensive monograph on oat.
H.G. Marshall, Chair, Editorial Committee, 1422 E. College Ave., Bellefonte, PA
M.E. Sorrells, co-editor Dep. of Plant Breeding & Biometry, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
Jaime E. Araya, Professor of Entomology, Departamento Sanidad Vegetal, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 1004, Santiago, Chile
L. W. Briggle, Research Agronomist (retired), USDA-ARS, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350
Thomas G. Brock, Research Scientist, Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0648
Charles M. Brown, Emeritus Professor of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801
David Burnette, Purchasing Agent for Commodities and Ingredients, The Quaker Oats Company, Chicago, IL 60604-9001. Formerly Manager, Crop Production and Development, The Quaker Oats Company
V. D. Burrows, Senior Research Scientist, Agriculture Canada, Plant Research Centre, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, ON KIA OC6 Canada
L. M. Cregger, Staff Seed Technologist, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802
P. E. Fixen, Northcentral Directory, Potash and Phosphate Institute, Brookings, SD 57006. Formerly Associate Professor, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006
R. A. Forsberg, Professor of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706
John E. Foster, Professor and Head, Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0816
S. Haber, Research Scientist, Agriculture Canada, 195 Dafoe Rd., Winnipeg, MB R3T 2M9 Canada
D. E. Harder, Research Scientist, Agriculture Canada, 195 Dafoe Rd., Winnipeg, MB R3T 2M9 Canada
L. A. Hoffman, Agricultural Economist, USDA-ERS, Crops Branch, Washington, DC 20005-4788
J. A. Ingemansen, Director, Foundation Seed Stocks Division, Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, 57007
Peter B. Kaufman, Professor of Biology, Department of Biology, Natural Science Building, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1048
K. A. Kelling, Professor of Soil Science, Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706
J. Mike Leggett, AFRC Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Welsh Plant Breeding Station, Aberystwyth, Dyfed, SY23 3EB, U.K.
Marvin Lenz, Senior Scientist, The Quaker Oats Company, Barrington, IL 60010
H. G. Marshall, Adjunct Professor of Plant Breeding, USDA-ARS (retired) and The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802
M. E. McDaniel, Associate Professor, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A—M University, College Station, TX 77843
Michael S. McMullen, Associate Professor of Crop and Weed Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105
J. P. Murphy, Associate Professor of Crop Science, Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7629
Herbert W. Ohm, Professor of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907
Fred L. Patterson, Professor Emeritus, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907
David M. Peterson, Supervisory Plant Physiologist, USDA-ARS, Cereal Crops Research, Madison, WI 53705
Ronald L. Phillips, Professor of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Director, Plant Molecular Genetics Institute, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, 8t. Paul, MN 55108
D. L. Reeves, Professor of Plant Science, Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007
Howard W. Rines, Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
D. J. Schrickel, Director, Grain Research and Development (retired), The Quaker Oats Company, 2502 E. Shaw Butte Dr., Phoenix, AZ 85028
Gregory E. Shaner, Professor of Plant Pathology, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, 1155 Lilly Hall, Purdue University, West lafayette, IN 47907-1155
J. R. Shear!, Manager, Illinois Crop Improvement Association, Inc., 3105 Research Rd., Box 9013, Champaign, IL 61826-9013
Steve R. Simmons, Professor of Agronomy, University of Minnesota, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55117
Phillip F. Sisson, Director, Commodity Analysis and Economic Research, The Quaker Oats Company, P.O. Box 9001, Suite 13-8, Chicago, IL 60604-9001
D. H. Smith, Jr., (Deceased) Research Agronomist, USDA-ARS, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350
David A. Somers, Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
M. E. Sorrells, Professor of Plant Breeding, Department of Plant Breeding and Biometry, 252 Emerson Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
Susan Sutherland, Senior Commodity Analyst, The Quaker Oats Company, P.O. Box 9001, Suite 13-8, Chicago, IL 60604-9001.
Hugh Thomas, AFRC Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Welsh Plant Breeding Station, Plas Gogerddan, Aberstwyth, Dyfed, SY23 3EB, U.K.
Samuel H. Weaver, Principal Scientist—Grain Research, The Quaker Oats Company, 6 I 7 West Main St., Barrington, IL 600 10
D. M. Wesenberg, Research Agronomist, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility, Aberdeen Research and Extension Center, P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210