Sunflower is an excellent example of the success story of the 20th Century agricultural research system. By concerted and coordinated efforts of breeders, farmers, commercial enterprises, plant physiologists, entomologists, and agronomists, this crop has increased in acreage, usefulness, and economic importance during this century more than at any other time in history.
These successes have resulted from efforts in many nations and by many different disciplines. There have been significant improvements in cultivars available for use, in the development of adapted cultivars for new areas, and in selection for specific properties needed for different end uses. The drought tolerance and deep-rooted habit of this species have enabled farmers in arid areas to have an economically viable alternate crop to incorporate into rotations that improve management options. Sunflower’s popularity as a source of food and cooking oil have maintained and diversified the market for its products, especially in recent years.
It is appropriate that our new knowledge of this species be integrated with previous knowledge and brought together in one place to provide a landmark in the forward progress of this important crop. This volume provides just such a landmark for sunflower researchers and the sunflower industry both in this country and abroad.
William McFee, president, ASA
Betty Klepper, president, CSSA
Keith Cassel, president, SSSA
This book represents an extensive revision of Agronomy Monograph 19, Sunflower Science and Technology, first edited by Dr. Jack F. Carter of North Dakota State University and published by the ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Societies in 1978. Significant progress has been made in established areas of applied and basic sunflower research since 1978. Since the first publication of this monograph, other areas of knowledge-such as biotechnology-have developed as a part of the sciences. Because of the expansiveness of the new information that has been collected, the revised monograph contains four more chapters than the 1978 edition. Some of the same authors have contributed to both the original and revised monograph. Many of the authors, however, are new. All of the authors of the revised monograph are currently involved in some aspect of sunflower research or are involved in the sunflower industry. For many of us that are privileged to work with sunflower, this revision has been a labor of love.
The sunflower crop itself has become more global since the first monograph was published. The crop continues to find new areas of adaptation in diverse parts of the world. This is evident by the breadth and diversity of the authors and their areas of expertise. The beautiful sunflower, which had its humble beginnings as both a wild and cultivated species used by the natives of North America, has become a giant in the world oilseed economy. Likewise, the nonoilseed sunflower continues to increase in popularity and importance as a source of human food. New uses for sunflower, that promise to increase its usefulness and importance to mankind, are continually being developed by scientists.
For those of us who live and work in North America, the return and development of sunflower as a major crop is much like the return of a long lost family member. Sunflower was taken to Europe and Asia as an ornamental and as a source of food. Scientists in eastern Russia and adjacent countries selected types with a large head and a much higher oil content. Oilseed sunflower first returned to Canada and the USA in the form of open-pollinated cultivars from the former USSR. The success of these types spurred increased research, the development of hybrids, and a whole new series of industries associated with varying aspects of sunflower production.
The nonoilseed sunflower was returned to North America by European immigrants. Early settlers referred to its edible seed as “Russian Peanuts” and burned the stalks as a source of fuel during cold winters on the treeless prairies. Much of the early work with nonoilseed sunflower was conducted by Canadian researchers who obtained genetic material from these immigrants. Although the current economic importance of nonoilseed sunflower is less than that of the oilseed type, its popularity continues to increase as more people discover its culinary attributes.
In the semiarid areas of North Dakota, sunflower has had a major impact on the state’s agriculture. The crop has had a positive influence on the economies of many small communities. This native son with its extensive root system changed cropping systems and expanded crop rotation opportunities. In North Dakota, sunflower has provided producers an alternative to the small grain-fallow systems, which had been in place since the prairie was first plowed.
The authors and the associate editors have spent numerous months on the revision of this monograph. The countless hours spent by the reviewers are acknowledged. Also acknowledged are the secretarial and other assistance of Jessica Tesch, Deborah Wendel, and Eileen Buringrud of the Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo. The editorial committees and the societies also recognize the willingness of the various public and private institutions, agencies, and companies who permitted the editors, authors, and reviewers to use countless hours searching the literature, writing, editing, and compiling this revision. The council of the society’s monograph committee and David Kral, as well as the expertise of the ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Society staffs are gratefully acknowledged. Without all these combined efforts and assistance, the revision of Sunflower Technology and Production would not have been possible.
Albert A. Schneiter, Editor
Dep. of Plant Sciences
North Dakota State University
Fargo, North Dakota
Mark N. Anfinrud, Quality Control Manager, Interstate Payco Seed Company, 1215 Prairie Parkway, West Fargo, ND 58078-0338
D.L. Bidney, Senior Research Scientist, Trait and Technology Development, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Johnston, IA 50131-1004
F.P.C. Blamey, Reader in Crop Agronomy, Department of Agriculture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
Gary J. Brewer, Professor, Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University, ND 58105-5346
Kow Ching (Sam) Chang, Associate Professor, Food and Nutrition Department and Cereal Science Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105-5057
Laurence D. Charlet, Research Entomologist, USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, Sunflower Research Unit, Fargo, ND 58105-5677
David J. Connor, Professor of Agronomy, Department of Agriculture and Resource Management, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052,Australia
D. Gordon Dorrell, Director General Western Region Branch, Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, Sir John Carling Bldg., Ottawa, ON, KIA OC5 Canada
Gerhardt N. Fick, President, Seed America, Inc, lI5 North 3rd St., Box 226, Breckenridge, MN 56520-0226
B.A. Franzmann, Senior Entomologist, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Toowoomba 4350, Queensland, Australia
Thomas J. Gulya, Research Plant Pathologist, USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, Sunflower Research Unit, Fargo, ND 58105-5677
Anthony J. Hall, Professor of Crop Ecophysiology, Departmento de Ecologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Avenida San Martin 4453, 1417 Buenos Aires, Argentina
J.J. Hanzel, Adjunct Professor, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105-5051
Kenneth J. Hellevang, Extension Agricultural Engineer and Associate Professor, Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105-5626
Vernon L. Hofman, Associate Professor, Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105-5626
C.C. Jan, Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, Sunflower Research Unit, Fargo, ND 58105-5677
Larry W. Kleingartner, Executive Director, National Sunflower Association, 4023 State Street, Bismarck, ND 58501-0690
George M. Linz, Wildlife Biologist (Research), Project Leader, USDNAPHIS, National Wildlife Research Center, Great Plains Field Station, Building 23B, 2301 University Dr., Bismarck, ND 58504-7595
James R. Lofgren, Former Sunflower Breeder, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Route 4, Box 190, Moorhead, MN 56560-5143
George D. Marx, Professor of Animal Science, Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, Crookston, MN 56716-2019
Stevan N. Masirevic, Professor of Plant Pathology, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia
Jerry F. Miller, Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, Sunflower Research Unit, Fargo, ND 58105-5677
V.S. Moon, Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Animal and Range Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105
Chung S. Park, Professor, Department of Animal and Range Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105-5727
Eric D. Putt, Former Director, Agriculture Canada, Research Station, Box 3301, Morden, MB ROG IGO, Canada; present address is 428 6th Ave. N., P.O. Box 544, Creston, BC, VOB IGO, Canada,
Khalid Y. Rashid, Research Scientist, Oilseed Crops Pathology, Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, Morden Research Centre, Morden, MB, R6M 1 Y5, Canada
Loren H. Rieseberg, Professor, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-6801
C.J. Scelonge, Senior Research Associate, Trait and Technology Development, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Johnston, IA 50131-1004
Albert A. Schneiter, Professor of Agronomy and Chair, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105-5051
Gerald J. Seiler, Research Botanist, USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, Sunflower Research Unit, Fargo, ND 58105-5677
Brady A. Vick, Research Leader, USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, Sunflower Research Unit, Fargo, ND 58105-5677
Dennis Wiesenborn, Associate Professor, Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department and Cereal Science Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105-5626
Richard K. Zollinger, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58103-5051