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Book: Warm-Season (C4) Grasses
Published by: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America

 

 

This chapter in WARM-SEASON (C4) GRASSES

  1.  p. i-xxi
    Agronomy Monograph 45.
    Warm-Season (C4) Grasses

    Lowell E. Moser, Byron L. Burson and Lynn E. Sollenberger (ed.)

    ISBN: 978-0-89118-237-5

    OPEN ACCESS
     
    Published: 2004


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doi:10.2134/agronmonogr45.frontmatter

Front Matter

Foreword

The warm-season or C4 grasses are extremely important in ruminant production, conservation, biomass production, and turf in the vast tropical and subtropical areas in the world and in temperate areas where there is a relatively long warm period during the summer. They may be used as monocultures in agricultural systems and dominate many natural grasslands. This ASA-CSSA-SSSA monograph focuses on C4 forage and turf grasses. Contributions from scientists throughout the world are brought together in this one-volume summary of the science of warmseason grasses. This monograph provides current information on the physiology, genetics, taxonomy, breeding procedures, distribution, use, and management of these grasses. Details are discussed in a global context. Overarching subjects are addressed in the first part of the book and groups of grasses or sometimes single grasses are discussed in chapters in the second part of the book. High quality, detailed line drawings of selected grasses add to the appeal of the book and are valuable for identification.

Thanks go to the authors, reviewers, editors, and staff who worked to make this monograph a reality. This well-referenced monograph was assembled by an international group of authors with many collective years of experience, making this book important for researchers, educators, students, and those involved in systems based on C4 grasses. Anyone interested in C4 grasses will find this monograph to be a valuable reference summarizing the state of knowledge early in the 21st century.

The companion for this monograph is ASA-CSSA-SSSA Monograph 34, Cool-Season Forage Grasses. This two-book set comprehensively addresses the grass family members that are used where the vegetative material is used for forage.

Lowell E. Moser

President

American Society of Agronomy

Kenneth J. Moore

President

Crop Science Society of America

J. Thomas Sims

President

Soil Science Society of America

Preface

The warm-season (C4) grasses are the major forage resources for ruminant livestock production in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. With the C4 photosynthetic system, they are well adapted and yield well under warm conditions. Also, many warm-season grasses are well adapted to temperate areas where there are relatively long, hot periods during the summer. Many C4 grasses have been introduced from their areas of origin to other regions of the world and, collectively, serve as important forage, grain, turf, or conservation plants. In some cases, warm-season grasses are invasive and some are major weeds.

This monograph serves as an in-depth resource for most C4 grasses that are used for forage or turf. Together with a previous monograph (Agronomy Monograph 34, Cool-Season Forage Grasses), the two monographs serve as a broad-based scientific reference to the members of the grass family that have widespread occurrence or are used rather extensively. There are 34 chapters in this book. The first 11 address cross-cutting subjects and the last 23 chapters deal with specific groups of grasses, or in a few cases, a single grass. Authorities on chapter topics were sought as authors. Most chapters have multiple authors and a special effort was made to obtain authors from throughout the world. This monograph has an international scope. Including all the information about a topic or certain grasses was difficult with chapter length restrictions, so authors often cite other extensive review publications for additional depth.

Common names were used throughout the monograph with the scientific name used parenthetically with the first use. If there is no widely used common English name, the scientific name was used. Where necessary, scientific names also were used to provide specificity and clarity such as in the genetics and taxonomy sections of chapters. In the appendix there is a list of common and scientific names. Common and scientific names were brought into line with the USDA-ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) insofar as possible. In some instances, the experts who wrote the chapters had the genetic and taxonomic insight to provide the appropriate taxonomic classification. We relied on taxonomic advice from Dr. Stephan Hatch, Tracy Herbarium, Texas A&M University.

We deeply express our gratitude to the authors whose knowledge, dedication, perseverance, and hard work made this monograph possible. We also express thanks to the many scientists who reviewed chapters and provided valuable suggestions and guidance. Special thanks are given to Kelly Rhodes Hays (Graphic-Nature Design Studio, 10801 Cedar Brook Street, Highlands Ranch, CO: www.graphicnature.net) whose artistic talents resulted in the classic line drawings of the major C4 grasses. Also, thanks go to Dr. Yoana Newman, University of Florida, for providing taxonomic and morphological insight and guidance for line drawings. Finally, we express appreciation to Lisa Al-Amoodi who served as the managing editor, Sherri Mickelson, who was the copy editor, and to all of the ASA staff at Madison, Wisconsin, who facilitated the publication of this monograph.

Editorial Committee:

L.E. Moser, Chair

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Lincoln, Nebraska

B.L. Burson

USDA-ARS

Crop Germplasm Research Unit

Texas A&M University

College Station, Texas

L. E. Sollenberger

Department of Agronomy

University of Florida

Gainesville, Florida

Contributors

Stephen W. Adkins, School of Land and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia

David D. Baltensperger, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, University of Nebraska, 4502 Avenue I, Scottsbluff, NE 69361

Sean M. Bellairs, Formerly Centre for Mined Land Reclamation, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia; current address: School of Science, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909, Australia

Arvid Boe, Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University, Box 2140C, Brookings, SD 57007

Kenneth J. Boote, Agronomy Department, 304 Newell Hall, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110500, Gainesville, FL 32611-0500

Cacilda Borges do Valle, Embrapa Gado de Corte, Caixa Postal 154, 79002-970 Campo Grande, MS, Brazil

David I. Bransby, Energy and Fiber Crops, Department of Agronomy, 202 Funchess Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5650

Geoffrey E. Brink, USDA-ARS, U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center, 1925 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1108

Joseph C. Burns, USDA-ARS, Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Box 7620, Raleigh, NC 27695-7620

Byron L. Burson, USDA-ARS, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474

James R. Carpenter, Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences, University of Hawaii-Manoa, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822

Carrol G. Chambliss, Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611

Cesar J. Chaparro, National Institute of Agricultural Technology, (EEA, INTA) Casilla de Correo 5, 3603 El Colorado, Formosa, Argentina

Samuel W. Coleman, USDA-ARS, Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, 22271 Chinsegut Hill Road, Brooksville, FL 34601-4672

Chet L. Dewald, Deceased. Formerly USDA-ARS, Southern Plains Range Research Station, 2000 18th Street, Woodward, OK 73801

Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides, Embrapa Gado de Corte, Caixa Postal 154, 79002-970 Campo Grande, MS, Brazil

Gerald W. Evers, Texas A&M University Agricultural Research and Extension Center, P.O. Box 200, Overton, TX 75684

Roger N. Gates, Formerly USDA-ARS, Crop Genetics and Breeding Research Unit, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, GA 31794; current address: West River Research and Extension Ag Center, South Dakota State University, 1905 Plaza Blvd., Rapid City, SD 57702

J. Bryan Hacker, CSIRO Tropical Agriculture, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, QLD 4068, Australia; current address: 41 Gap Creek Rd., Kenmore Hills, Queensland 4069, Australia

Marshall R. Haferkamp, USDA-ARS, Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory, 243 Fort Keogh Road, Miles City, MT 59301

Wayne W. Hanna, University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, PO. Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793-0748

C. Wayne Hanselka, Texas A&M University Research and Extension Center, 10345 Agnes Street, Corpus Christi, TX 78406-1412

Stephan L. Hatch, Tracy Herbarium, Department of Rangeland Ecology and Management, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2126

Max R. Heslehurst, School of Agriculture and Horticulture, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia

Kenneth F. Higgins, U.S. Geological Survey/BRD, South Dakota State University, Box 2140B, NPB 138, Brookings, SD 57007

Mark A. Hussey, Department of Soil & Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474

Fernando Ibarra F., Department of Range Management, INIFAP-CECAR, Apartado Postal 1754, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

Liana Jank, Embrapa Gado de Corte, Caixa Postal 154, 79002-970 Campo Grande, MS, Brazil

Paul G. Johnson, Department of Plants, Soils, and Biometeorology, 306 Agricultural Science Hall, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-4820

Kathleen H. Keeler, Biological Sciences, 412B MANT, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0118

William E. Kunkle, Deceased, formerly Department of Animal Science, University of Florida, Box 110910, Gainesville, FL 32611-0910

Donald S. Loch, Department of Primary Industries, Redlands Research Station, P.O. Box 327, Cleveland, QLD 4163, Australia

Robert A. Masters, Dow AgroSciences LLC, 3618 South 75th Street, Lincoln, NE 68506

Bruce W. Mathews, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resource Management, University of Hawaii, 200 W. Kawili Street, Hilo, HI 96720-4091

John G. McIvor, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, QLD 4068, Australia

John W. Miles, Tropical Forages Project, CIAT, Apartado Aéreo 6713, Cali, Colombia

Paul Mislevy, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 3401 Experiment Station, Ona, FL 33865-9706

Robert B. Mitchell, USDA-ARS, Wheat, Sorghum, and Forage Research Unit, Univ. of Nebraska, Box 830937, Lincoln, NE 68583-0937

Susan C. Miyasaka, University of Hawaii, Beaumont Branch Station, Hilo, HI 96720-4037

John E. Moore, (Professor Emeritus-Animal Science, University of Florida), 5920 West 53rd Street, Stillwater, OK 74074

Kenneth J. Moore, Department of Agronomy, 1567 Agronomy Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011

Lowell E. Moser, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, 352 Keim Hall, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 830915, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915

James P. Muir, Texas A&M University Research and Extension Center, 1229 North U.S. Hwy. 281, Stephenville, TX 76401

David E. Naugle, Wildlife Biology Program, College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812

Yoana C. Newman, Agronomy Department, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110300, Gainesville, FL 32611-0300

Guillermo A. Norrmann, Instituto de Botanica, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Casilla de Correo 209, 3400 Corrientes, Argentina

Luiz G. Nussio, Animal Science Department, Univ. of São Paulo-ESALQ, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

William R. Ocumpaugh, Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Station, 3507 Highway 59 East, Beeville, TX 78102

Mary F. Paterson, Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia

Jeffrey F. Pedersen, USDA-ARS, Agronomy and Horticulture, 344, Keim Hall, East Campus, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 830937, Lincoln, NE 68583-0937

Carlos G.S. Pedreira, Depto. de Zootecnia, Universidad de São Paulo (ESALQ-USP), C.P. 9, Piracicaba SP 13418-900, São Paulo, Brazil

W.D. Pitman, Rosepine Research Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Rosepine, LA 70659

M. Mónica Poverene, Dep. de Agronomía, Univ. Nacional del Sur and CERZOS, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina

Camilo L. Quarin, IBONE, Universidad Nacional del Noreste, Casilla de Correo 209, 3400 Corrientes, Argentina

Kenneth H. Quesenberry, Agronomy Department, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110300, Gainesville, FL 32611-0300

Idupulapati M. Rao, Tropical Forages Project, CIAT, Apartado Aéreo 6713, Cali, Colombia

Ricardo A. Reis, Animal Science Department, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil

Norman F.G. Rethman, Range and Forage Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa

Terrance P. Riordan, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, 279 Plant Science, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915

Fernando Rivas-Pantoja, INIFAP Research Centre Region SE, Ex Hacienda Carolina, P.O. Box 100 Suc. D 97000, Mexico

William L. Rooney, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Foundation Seed Building, Sippel Road, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474

Francis M. Rouquette, Jr., Texas A&M University Agricultural Research and Extension Center, P.O. Box 200, Overton, TX 75684

Matt A. Sanderson, USDA-ARS, Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit, Building 3702, Curtin Road, University Park, PA 16802-3702

Annadana Seetharam, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560065, India

Robert (Bob) C. Shearman, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, 377 Plant Science, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0724

Steven E. Smith, School of Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721

Lynn E. Sollenberger, Agronomy Department, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110300, Gainesville, FL 32611-0300

Tim L. Springer, USDA-ARS, Southern Plains Range Research Station, 2000 18th Street, Woodward, OK 73801

Charles M. Taliaferro, Plant and Soil Sciences Department, 368 Agricultural Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078

Charles R. Tischler, USDA-ARS, Grassland, Soil, and Water Research Laboratory, 808 East Blackland Road, Temple, TX 76502

Joseph P. Tritschler II, Agricultural Research Station, Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA 23803

Ronald J. Tyrl, Department of Botany, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078

Willem A. van Niekerk, Animal and Wildlife Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa

Raul R. Vera, Universidad Catolica de Chile, 2 Norte 443 Depto. 52, Vina del Mar, Chile, South America

Leonidas Villalobos M., Escuela de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional, Apartado 86-3000 Heredia, Costa Rica

Kenneth P. Vogel, USDA-ARS, 344 Keim Hall, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 830937, Lincoln, NE 68583-0937

Paul W. Voigt, USDA-ARS, Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center, 1224 Airport Road, Beaver, WV 25813-9423

David A. Wedin, School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 830814, Lincoln, NE 68583-0814

Richard H. White, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474

John R. Wilson, CSIRO Tropical Agriculture, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, QLD 4068, Australia

 

Footnotes


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