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Book: Challenges and Strategies of Dryland Agriculture
Published by: Crop Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy

 

 

This chapter in CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES OF DRYLAND AGRICULTURE

  1.  p. i-xxi
    cssa special publication 32.
    Challenges and Strategies of Dryland Agriculture

    Srinivas C. Rao and John Ryan (ed.)

    ISBN: 978-0-89118-611-3

    OPEN ACCESS
     
    Published: 2004


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doi:10.2135/cssaspecpub32.frontmatter

Front Matter

Foreword

The world has made remarkable progress in maintaining adequate food supplies during the past quarter century by introducing yield-increasing technologies such as better genetics, crop protection products, and more efficient use of fertilizers and irrigation. Far more people depend on irrigation in the modem world than during the times of ancient Sumeria. The spread of irrigation has been the key factor in increasing global crop yields. But future water scarcity presents the single biggest threat to future food production. The shift of water from agriculture to the growing cities and industry almost certainly will impact global food production. This means that dry land agriculture will be increasingly important in meeting food requirement for the growing population. Advances in plant genetics and agronomic conservation technologies, when considered in concert, continue to provide the greatest opportunities to achieve sustainability and profitability in dry land agriculture and will continue to be the focus of the ARS research program.

The ARS is pleased to join the Crop Science Society of America and International Center for Agriculture Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) in sponsoring a symposium “Challenges and Strategies for Dryland Agriculture” at the Tri-Societies Annual Meeting in November 2002 at Indianapolis, IN.

This special publication contains an impressive series of papers by an international group of experts on dry land agricultural production, conservation, and policy. The principles, philosophies, and technologies presented in this publication have the potential to contribute to improve food security and livelihoods for the people in dry land regions of the world.

Edward B. Knipling

Acting Administrater

USDA-ARS Washington, DC

Preface

The world's population has more than doubled in the last half century, reaching 6 billion in 1999, and is projected to grow to 9.3 billion by the Year 2050. As a consequence of more people on this earth that need to be fed, in addition to rising incomes in some countries, the demand for food is expected to increase by 50% by 2015 and to more than double by 2050.1t is this grim reality that agriculture as a profession faces—the challenge has to be met by everyone involved in the food production chain, from researchers to farmers, and all in between. Today, the world's population is better nourished than any time in history. The advances in global food production in the 20th century have dispelled, at least temporarily, the dire predictions of Malthus. Yet, despite such achievements, poverty and malnutrition, and their associated societal consequences, are the lot of numerous people in developing countries, especially in Africa and Asia.

In assessing modem agricultural practices and technology, it is important to distill both the limits and potential for sustaining global food supplies without degrading the resource base. Over the past three decades, expansion of irrigation, high-yielding varieties, and fertilizer input have been the major factors in achieving self-sufficiency in food grain production. On a worldwide basis, agriculture accounts for about 70% of all annual water withdrawals, and significant areas of irrigated lands are degraded to some extent by waterlogging and salinization. Another major pressure that leads to declining irrigation is high energy costs associated with delivering water to crops. With burgeoning populations, renewable fresh water resources are subject to severe competition between agriculture, industrial, and residential uses. Demand is increasing for all these uses. The shift of water from agriculture to urbanized societies and industry may hinder future global food production.

Given the pressure on the world's ecosystems, dryland agriculture, a sector that has been neglected in the past, will be increasingly important in meeting food requirements in the future. Globally, 90% of cropland is classified as dry land, and these lands provide 67% of all crop production and about half of the economic value of all crops. However, it is estimated that more than two-thirds of the potentially productive drylands are threatened by various forms of degradation. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate production technology be developed in the future to protect the fragile dry lands in the process of meeting the needs of world's future population.

This timely symposium—the first major international meeting on the subject for many years—has brought dryland agriculture into the forefront of international agricultural research, as well as highlight the role of the world's major national and international research centers in addressing the problems of drylands. It was with this background, the Crop Science Society of America, the American Society of Agronomy, USDA-ARS, and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Area (ICARDA) sponsored a symposium addressing the wide array of issues associated with “Challenges and Strategies of Dryland Agriculture into the New Millennium” at the 2002 Annual Meetings of the Tri-Societies in Indianapolis, IN.

As Editors of this special publication, we express our gratitude to the authors who submitted their manuscripts in a timely manner to us. A particular thanks is due to those authors who, though not present or participating in the meeting itself, responded to the call for additional papers. Their contributions considerably complemented the subject-matter issues and undoubtedly widen the technical and geographical appeal of this volume. We also thank many scientists who served as reviewers for the chapters. In addition, we express our sincere appreciation to USDA-ARS Office of Technology Transfer, USDA-ARS Office of International Research Programs, USDA-ARS Grazing Lands Research Laboratory, and ICARD A for providing financial assistance for publication of this book.

Srinivas C. Rao, co-editor

USDA-ARS

Grazinglands Research Laboratory El Reno, Oklahoma

John Ryan, co-editor

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas Aleppo, Syria

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the following persons at ICARDA's Natural Resources Management Program who assisted in the typesetting, formatting, and graphics for the papers in this volume: Miss Rima El-Khatib, Administrative Assistant; Miss Zuka Moussatat, Secretary; and Mrs. Zuka lstanbouli, Secretary.

Contributors

Mohammad Abuzar, Institute of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture, Department of Primary Industries, Tatura, Victoria 3616, Australia

Kanat Akshalov, Grain Research Institute, 474070 Institute, Shortandy District, Akmola Region, Kazakhstan

Darwin W. Anderson, Dept. Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5A8

John F. Angus, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra 2601, Australia

Roger Armstrong, Victoria Institute for Dry land Agriculture, Department of Primary Industries, Horsham, Victoria 3401, Australia

Gunther Backes, Plant Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000, Roskid, Denmark

Michael Baum, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Robert Belford, Victoria Institute for Dry land Agriculture, Department of Primary Industries, Horsham, Victoria 3401, Australia

Alan T. P. Bennie, Department of Soil Science, University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

Danie J. Beukes, Agricultural Research Center, Institute for Soil, Climate, and Water, Pretoris, South Africa

Mustapha Bounejmate, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Salvatore Ceccarelli, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Mushtaq A. Chaudhry, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

William D. Dar, International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502324, AP, India

Allen R. Dedrick, National Program Staff, 5601 Sunnyside Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705

Eddy DePauw, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Adel El-Beltagy, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Mohamed El-Mourid, International Center for Agricultural research in the Dry Areas, Tunis, BP 435 El Menzah, 1004 Tunis, Tunisia

Ismahane Elouafi, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

William Erskine, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Jurgan D. Garbacht, USDA-ARS, Grazinglands Research Laboratory, 7202 W. Cheyenne St. El Reno, OK 73036

Berhanu Gebremedhin, International Livestock Research Institute, P.O.Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Anthony J. Good, Conimbla Road, Cowra 2794, Australia

Stefania Grando, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria.

Keith R. Helyar, Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, NSW Agriculture, PMB, Wagga Wagga NSW 2650, Australia

Malcom Hensley, Department of Soil Science, University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

John Howieson, Center for Rhizobium Studies, Division of Science, Murdoch University, South St, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150, Australia

Mark Imhof, State Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Primary Industries, Werribee, Victoria 3030, Australia

H. Henry Janzen, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Center, 5403 1st Ave. S., Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada TIJ 4BI.

Abmed Jaboor, Plant Research Department, Riso National laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000, Roskid, Demnark

Aitkalym Kireyev, Crop Husbandry Research Institute, KIZ, 37, Erlepesov Street, Almalybak, Kaskelen District, Almaty Region, Kazakhstan

Parviz Koohafkan, Land and Water Development Division, B-749, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00100, Rome

Rattan Lal, Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, 2021 Coffey Road, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210

Francis J. Larney, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Center, 5403 1st Ave. S., Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada TIJ 4BI

Eric M. McGaw, International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502324, AP, India

Rajinder S. Malhotra, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Lyudmila Martynova, Cropping Research Institute, 720027 KIZ 91, T. Frunze Street, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Herman S. Mayeux, USDA-ARS, Grazinglands Research Laboratory, 7207 W. Cheyenne St., El Reno, OK 73036

Rakhim Medeubayev, 487210 Krasniy vodopad, Saryagash District, South Kazakhstan Region, Kazakhstan

Ali M. Abd El Moneim, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Miloudi M. Nachit, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Adel Nassar, Terbol Research Station, ICARDA, Terbol, Bekaa, Lebanon

Tidiane Ngaido, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20006

James Nuttall, Victoria Institute for Dry land Agriculture, Department of Primary Industries, Horsham, Victoria 3401, Australia

Rajendra S. Paroda, ICARDA Tashkent Office, Central Asia and Caucasus, Uzbekistan, P.O. Box 4564 6-106, Murtazaeva Street, Tashkent 700000

John Pender, International Food Research Institute, 2033 K-Street, Washington, DC 20006

Srinivas C. Rao, USDA-ARS, Grazinglands Research Laboratory, 7207 W. Cheyenne St., El Reno, OK 73036

Abdul Rashid, Land Resources Research Program, National Agricultural Research Center, Park Road, Islamabad 4500, Pakistan

D. V. R. Reddy, Donald Danforth Plant Sciences Center, 975 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132

Gangireddy Subba Reddy, Central Research Institute for DrylandAgriculture, Santoshnagar, Saidabad, P.O., Hyderabad 500059, A. P., India.

John Ryan, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria.

Ashutosh Sarker, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria.

Mohan C. Saxena, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Jeanne M. Schneider, USDA-ARS, Grazinglands Research Laboratory, 7202 W. Cheyenne St. El Reno, OK 73036

Kapil D. Sharma, Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santoshnagar, Saidabad, P.O., Hyderabad 500059, A. P., India

Kishori L. Sharma, Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santoshnagar, Saidabad, P.O., Hyderabad 500059, A. P., India

Kadambot H. M. Siddique, Center for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA), Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia

Harish P. Singh, Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santoshnagar, Saidabad, P.O., Hyderabad 500059, A. P., India

Jo Slattery, Rutherglen Research Institute, Department of Primary Industries, RMB1145, Chiltern Valley Rd, Rutherglen, Victoria 3685, DX 218569, Australia

William J. Slattery, Australian Greenhouse Office, Department of Environment and Heritage, Australian Government, John Gorton Building, P.O. Box 621, Canberra, ACT 2061

Elwin G. Smith, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Center, 5403 1st Ave. S., Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada TIJ 4BI

Jean L. Steiner, USDA-ARS, Grazinglands Research Laboratory, 7207 W. Cheyenne St., El Reno, OK 73036

Bobby A. Stewart, Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, WTAMU Box 60278, Canyon, TX 79016-0001

Mekhlis Suleimenov, ICARDA Tashkent Office, Central Asia and Caucasus, Uzbekistan, P.O. Box 4564 6-106, Murtazaeva Street, Tashkent 700000

Sripada M. Udupa, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Sui-Kwong Yau, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Science, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon

Khasan Yusupov, Galla-Aral Grain Research Institute, 704620 Institute, Olimlar Makhallasi, 1, Omonova Street, Jizzah Viloyat, Uzbekistan

Xunchang J. Zhang, USDA-ARS, Grazinglands Research Laboratory, 7202 W. Cheyenne St. El Reno, OK 73036

 

Footnotes


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