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Book: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2—Microbiological and Biochemical Properties
Published by: Soil Science Society of America

 

 

This chapter in METHODS OF SOIL ANALYSIS: PART 2—MICROBIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

  1.  p. i-xxvii
    SSSA Book Series 5.2.
    Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2—Microbiological and Biochemical Properties

    P.S. Bottomley, J.S. Angle and R.W. Weaver (ed.)

    ISBN: 978-0-89118-865-0

    unlockOPEN ACCESS
     

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doi:10.2136/sssabookser5.2.frontmatter

Front Matter

Foreword

The methods pertinent to soil microbiology were formerly included in Part 2 of the Agronomy Monograph No. 9, Methods of Soil Analysis. Since the 2nd edition of this document, the number of biochemical and microbiological methods have expanded greatly. In addition because the clientele of scientists engaged in these efforts are primarily soils based, the ASA Board of Directors in 1993 elected to place this document in the SSSA Book Series. It is most refreshing and encouraging to see this stand-alone contribution specifically dedicated to soil microbiological and biochemical methods. This text will be well received by an ever-expanding spectra of biogeoscientists. It is very timely given the rise in public and private interests in soil and water quality, biodiversity, biodegradation, terrestrial ecology, environmental quality protection, sustainability of the biosphere and issues of global climatic change. For too long soil quality has been defined in terms of soil physical and chemical attributes with little or no regard to biological components. Part of this oversight has been a function of techniques available to accurately identify, define and quantify biological health and diversity. Another aspect is the rather recent explosion of interest and awareness among geoscientists in the functionality and import of soil microbiological and biochemical attributes in nearsurface earth processes. The methods reported herein are at the cutting edge of science. Analytical techniques range in resolution from whole organisms to molecular fragments. In unravelling the identity and behavior of the complex soil biological system, temporal and dynamic diversity are considered in sampling methods. The authors represent a select spectra in biogeoscience expertise and career development. Such a synergistic assemblage of scientists assures that the methodology presented is current and relevant. The document is comprehensive in scope, interdisciplinary in character, and offers a high probability of acceptance among biologists. These methods will serve as the standard bearer for both professional and practicing biological scientists. It is the goal that common methodology will enhance collaboration and interchange among scientists and generate data sets using similar analytical approaches. We commend the authors and editors for their diligence and genius in bringing this new book to fruition in such a timely manner. This addition to the SSSA Book Series, will be well received and widely used by a growing number of biogeoscientist professionals wishing to document soil microbiological-biochemical attributes in near surface earth systems.

Larry P. Wilding, president

Soil Science Society of America

Preface

The books, Methods of Soil Analysis—Parts 1 and 2, published as Agronomy Monograph No. 9 have been the primary references on analytical methods used by soil scientists and persons in other disciplines involved with making measurements on soils. Part 2 of the second edition covered both methods on soil chemistry and soil microbiology. The need for more extensive coverage in both of these areas resulted in necessity of dividing Part 2 into two new books. One covering the topic of soil chemistry and the second covering soil microbiology and soil biochemistry. Revision was so extensive and involved so many new authors that it seemed best to consider this book a new publication rather than a third edition. It is published as one of the Soil Science of America Book Series.

Division of some subject matter between the book on chemical methods for soil analysis and this book was not always straightforward because some chemical methods are needed in measuring microbiological and biochemical processes. In such cases, a chemical method is provided within chapters of this book but the depth of coverage on theory is not complete nor are alternative methods presented as is the case for the book on soil chemical methods. Our desire was to make it possible to use the methods in this book independently without having to purchase both books.

Early in the book the topics of statistical methods, soil sampling, and measurement of soil moisture tension are covered. These chapters were not covered in the previous editions of Part 2 but are particularly important for investigations in soil microbiology and biochemistry. Several methods are provided on use of molecular techniques that were not in previous editions but are needed in many modern soil microbiology laboratories. The treatment of the material on molecular topics is such that a person would not need extensive training in molecular techniques to take advantage of the methods.

It is hoped that many laboratories outside of soil science will take advantage of the methods contained in this book. They will be particularly relevant and useful to laboratories with interest in environmental microbiology or bioremediation. Analytical methods are essential to progress in science and the methods presented in this book are recognized by soil scientists as being among the best currently available. All chapters were reviewed by persons having expertise on particular methods, by an associate editor, and by the editor. The help of the many reviewers, efforts and patience of authors, and advice from the editorial board are all gratefully acknowledged. A book such as this one is very much a team effort and is beyond the capability of any individual or small group of individuals.

R. W. Weaver, editor

Texas A&M University

College Station, Texas

J. Scott Angle, associate editor

University of Maryland

College Park, Maryland

Peter J. Bottomley, associate editor

Oregon State University

Corvallis, Oregon

Contributors

J. Scott Angle, Professor of Agronomy, Agronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742

Wilfredo Laserna Barraquio, Associate Professor of Microbiology, Institute of Biology, University of the Philippines, Diliman, QL 1101, Philippines

L. W. Belser, School of Science and Computer Studies, Nelson Polytechnic, Nelson, New Zealand

D. F. Bezdicek, Professor of Soils, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6420

Peter J. Bottomley, Professor of Microbiology and Soil Science, Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3802

Thomas W. Boutton, Associate Professor of Ecology, Department of Rangeland Ecology and Management, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2126

L. G. Bundy, Professor of Soil Science, Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706

Seth K. A. Danso, Technical Officer, Soil Fertility and Crop Production Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria

Eric A. Davidson, Associate Research Scientist, The Woods Hole Research Center, P.O. Box 296, Woods Hole, MA 02543

D. J. Drahos, Director of Research and Development and Senior Scientist, SBP Technologies, Inc.; Sybron Chemicals, Inc., Salem, VA 24153

B. D. Eardly, Assistant Professor of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus, Reading, PA 19610

Mary K. Firestone, Professor of Soil Microbial Ecology, Department of Soil Science, University of California, 108 Hilgard Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720

Dennis D. Focht, Professor of Soil Microbiology, Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521

Jeffry J. Fuhrmann, Associate Professor of Soil Microbiology, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19717-1303

William C. Ghiorse, Professor and Chairman, Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

Peter H. Graham, Professor, Department of Soil Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108

Charles Hagedorn, Professor of Soil Microbiology, Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0404

Stephen C. Hart, Assistant Professor, School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 15018, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-15018

R. D. Hauck, Senior Scientist, Tennessee Valley Authority, NFE-IA, Muscle Shoals, AL 35660

William E. Holben, Research Assistant Professor, Center for Microbial Ecology and Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. Currently Research Scientist, Environmental Microbiology, The Agouron Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037-4696; Email bholben@vaxkiller.agr.org.

W. R. Horwath, Faculty Research Associate, 3450 S.W. Campus Way, Crop and Soil Science Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331

Elaine R. Ingham, Associate Professor of Soil Ecology, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-2902

Russell E. Ingham, Associate Professor, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-2902

Heinrich F. Kaspar, Cawthron Institute, P.O. Box 175, Nelson, New Zealand

A. C. Kennedy, Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6421

Leif Klemedtsson, Ph.D., Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), Gothenburg, Sweden

Roger Knowles, Professor of Microbiology, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ H9X, Canada

J. O. Legg, Adjunct Professor, Agronomy Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701

K. J. McInnes, Assistant Professor of Environmental Physics, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474

J. J. Meisinger, Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS, BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705

F. Blaine Metting, Jr., Senior Program Manager, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA 99352

Andrew R. Moldenke, Research Professor of Entomology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331

A. R. Mosier, Research Chemist, USDA-ARS, Fort Collins, CO 80522

R. L. Mulvaney, Professor, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801

David D. Myrold, Associate Professor, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-7306

A. V. Ogram, Assistant Professor of Soils, Department of Crop and Soil Science, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6420

Timothy B. Parkin, Research Microbiologist, USDA-ARS, National Soil Tilth Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011

Dennis Parkinson, Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4

E. A. Paul, Professor, Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824

Ian L. Pepper, Professor of Environmental Microbiology, Department of Soil and Water Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721

Suresh D. Pillai, Assistant Professor of Environmental Microbiology, Texas A&M University Research Center, El Paso, TX 79927

Joseph A. Robinson, Associate Director of Biostatistics and Environmental Research, The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, MI 49001

M. J. Sadowsky, Associate Professor of Soil Science and Microbiology, Soil Science Department, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108

M. J. Savage, Professor of Agrometeorology, Department of Agronomy, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg 3201, Republic of South Africa

Edwin L. Schmidt, Professor Emeritus of Soil Science, Department of Soil Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108

Dipankar Sen, Research Scientist, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843

Horace D. Skipper, Professor, Department of Agronomy and Soils, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0359z

T. E. Staley, Research Microbiologist, USDA-ARS, NAA, ASWCRL, Beckley, WV 25813

John M. Stark, Assistant Professor of Microbial Ecology, Department of Biology and the Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-5500

David M. Sylvia, Professor of Soil Microbiology, Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290

M. A. Tabatabai, Professor of Soil Biochemistry, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011

James M. Tiedje, University Distinguished Professor, Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1325

I. K. Toth, Research Fellow, Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL U.K.

Ronald F. Turco, Professor, Department of Agronomy, 1150 Lilly Hall of Life Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1150

R. W. Weaver, Professor of Soil Microbiology, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474

E. M. H. Wellington, Senior Lecturer, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL U.K.

Duane C. Wolf, Professor, Department of Agronomy, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701

A. G. Wollum, II, Professor of Soil Microbiology, Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7619

Paul L. Woomer, Programme Officer, Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Programme, P.O. Box 30592, Nairobi, Kenya

S. F. Wright, Research Scientist, USDA-ARS, Soil Microbial Systems Laboratory, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705

L. M. Zibilske, Associate Professor of Soil Microbiology, Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5722

David A. Zuberer, Professor of Soil Microbiology, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474

 

Footnotes


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