The sustenance and well being of humankind are inexorably linked to the stocks of essential nutrients in the bio-geosphere and their capacity for cycling and manipulation. Nutrient management is fundamental to agriculture and its ability to minimize environmental impacts.
The capacity to produce usable plant biomass depends upon the adequacy and balance of mineral nutrients. Well-managed agricultural ecosystems require knowledge about native nutrient stocks, the chemical form(s) in which nutrients occur, protocols for determining nutrient levels in soils and plants, the functions and interactions of nutrients in plants and animals, the mechanisms of nutrient uptake, sorption-desorption and equilibria reactions in soils, diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies in plants and animals, plant responses to nutrient deficiencies and management, and manipulation of nutrients through formulations and application technologies.
This publication is an updated and revised version of the first edition of Micronutrients in Agriculture published in 1972. It includes current thinking and knowledge on the concepts of mineral essentiality in plants with reference to the beneficial role or significance of such elements as sodium, nickel, aluminum, lanthanum, and cerium. Future research agendas are also identified.
Fred P. Miller, president
Soil Science Society of America
In 1971, the Soil Science Society of America and the Tennessee Valley Authority cosponsored a symposium to review micronutrient problems in soils and in plant and animal nutrition. The papers were published as the first edition of Micronutrients in Agriculture by SSSA in 1972. The book has been used throughout the world as a reference and textbook since that time. It is primarily intended for graduate students and researchers in agricultural, biological, environmental, and nutritional sciences interested in the subject matter comprising each chapter who already have a thorough understanding of biochemistry, physiology, and soil science. However, it will serve as an excellent up-to-date reference book for everyone interested in the micronutrients—boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc.
This book, the second edition, contains information primarily obtained since the first edition was published, although some material from the first edition was repeated where no new information was available. While the general subject matter is similar to that in the first edition, emphasis was changed to address newly emerging areas in micronutrient research. The 18 chapters in this book were written by outstanding scientists who are authorities on micronutrient problems in soils and in plant, animal, and human nutrition. Eleven chapters of the first edition were deleted or combined and three new subject areas were included in this revision. The previously published subject areas covered in this edition are: (1) Chemistry of micronutrients in soils, (2) Micronutrient uptake, translocation, functions and interactions in plants, (3) Diagnosis and correction of micronutrient deficiencies, (4) Micronutrient fertilizer technology, and (5) Trace elements in animal nutrition. The new subject areas are: (1) Micronutrients and disease resistance or tolerance in plants, (2) Trace elements in human nutrition, and (3) Beneficial elements, functional elements, and possible new essential elements.
The editorial committee gratefully acknowledges the authors of this volume and their organizations for their cooperation and support. The editors also wish to extend their special thanks to Sherri Mickelson and Theresa Shinners-Gray and to other members of the Headquarters offices of the SSSA for their work in editing and preparing the manuscripts for publication. Assistance by anonymous reviewers of each chapter also is appreciated.
John J. Mortvedt, chair
Tennessee Valley Authority
Muscle Shoals, Alabama
Fred R. Cox
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina
Larry M. Shuman
University of Georgia
Ross M. Welch
U.S. Plant, Soil, & Nutrition Laboratory
Ithaca, New York
William H. Allaway, Soil Scientist (retired), U.S. Plant Soil and Nutrition Laboratory, 14 Ogden Road, Ithaca, NY 14850
Colin J. Asher, Professor of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture, The University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia
Ward Chesworth, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada NIG 2W1
Robin D. Graham, Associate Professor of Agronomy, Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Department of Agronomy, University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond 5064, Australia
Robert D. Harter, Professor of Soil Chemistry, Department of Forest Resources, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824
William A. House, Research Physiologist, USDA-ARS, U.S. Plant, Soil, and Nutrition Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
G. V. Johnson, Professor of Soil Science, Department of Agronomy, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078
J. Benton Jones, Jr., Professor Emeritus of Horticulture, Vice President, Micro-Macro International, Inc., 183 Paradise Blvd., Suite 108, Athens, GA 30607
Leon V. Kochian, Plant Physiologist, USDA-ARS, U.S. Plant, Soil and Nutrition Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
Joe Kubota, Soil Scientist (retired), Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Ithaca, NY 14850
Xingen Lei, Graduate Research Assistant, Animal Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824
W. L. Lindsay, Professor of Soils, Department of Agronomy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523
Horst Marschner, Professor, Institut für Pflanzenernährung, Universität Hohenheim, Postfach 70 05 62, 7000 Stuttgart 70, Germany
D. C. Martens, Professor of Soil Science, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0404
H. J. Mascagni, Jr., Assistant Professor of Agronomy, Northeast Research and Extension Center, University of Arkansas, Keiser, AR 72351
Elwyn R. Miller, Professor of Animal Science, Animal Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824
John T. Moraghan, Professor of Soil Science, Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105
John J. Mortvedt, Senior Scientist, Agricultural Research Department, National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL 35660
W. A. Norvell, Research Soil Scientist, U.S. Plant, Soil, and Nutrition Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
Volker Römheld, Professor, Institut für Pflanzenernährung, Universität Hohenheim, Postfach 70 05 62, 7000 Stuttgart 70, Germany
Larry M. Shuman, Associate Professor of Soil Chemistry, Department of Agronomy, Georgia Experiment Station, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223-1797
J. T. Sims, Associate Professor of Soil Science, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19717-1303
F. J. Stevenson, Professor of Soil Chemistry, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801
Duane E. Ullrey, Professor of Animal Science, Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824
Darreil R. Van Campen, Laboratory Director, USDA-ARS, Plant, Soil and Nutrition Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
Michael J. Webb, Research Fellow, Waite Agricultural Institute, Department of Agronomy, University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond 5064, Australia
Ross M. Welch, Plant Physiologist and Professor of Plant Nutrition, USDA-ARS, U.S. Plant, Soil, and Nutrition Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
D. T. Westermann, Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS, Rt. 1, 3793N, 3600E, Kimberly, ID 83341