One of the biggest barriers for an efficient use of fertilizers and pesticides is spatial variability of soil parameters and land quality at the field scale. The variability of crop yield and soil parameters within a single field can easily be as high as the variability of the same parameter within the surrounding landscape (Schnug et al., 1995). The result is an unsatisfying side by side of nutrient deficiency and surplus. The first with the result of not covering the potential yield and diminished efficiency of other inputs, the second with strong impacts on ecosystems and thus on the sustainability of chop production. The effectiveness of fertilizer, pesticide inputs and crop growing has close correlation with soil cover patterns within a field.
In modern Russia soil science and agronomy one of most important problems is the essential gap between theoretical researches and their practical application to current land-use and environment conservation. There is a great experience in soil cover pattern researches. Now precision agriculture technologies arc especially topical for agronomy practice in Central Chernozemic Region of Russia with essential land spatial variations. Large size of collective farms and beginning activation of Russia economic lift are favourable for new information technology use in agriculture.
The experimental sites were located in central part of the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia, Kursk Oblast', Two detail representative plots of chernozems have been selected on the territory of an experimental station of The Russia Research Institute on Agronomy and Soil Erosion Control (RAAS). The area of every site is 4 ha. Sites include level surfaces and slopes. The absolute altitude of area is 200–220 m. The altitude range is 17 m. The angle of slope is 0–3 percent for upper part of field and 3–8 percent for it's lower part. The grid distance is 20 m. For each point has been obtained the characteristic values of microrelief, soil profile, soil agrophysical and agrochemical parameters, a barley yield have been obtained. Suffer and Map Info have been use for map production and data analysis.
The investigated representative plots are characterized by complex soil cover patterns with leached chernozem, modal and calcareous subtypes with different erosion levels. These soil cover patterns determine high spatial variety in main soil properties. The range of humus content is between 4.5 and 6 % pH changes from acid to alkaline. Available nutrition element supplies vary from middle to very high values. Humus horizon depth may be 40 to 95 cm.
Variety of local barley yield includes values between 1.5 and 6.0 t ha-1. Minimum yield is characterized for chernozems with erosion and smaller depth of humus horizons. Soil bulk density has essential influence on yield also. Special attention needs to be taken of moisture and nitrogen within the field.
Spatial variety of main soil properties and barley yield is conserved within crop rotation. But it is essentially decreased with change in field scale on soil subtype at the equal relief condition. This permits use of soil cover and relief maps for creating land agrotechnological maps.