Genetic transformation has now been reported in numerous crops and bioengineered products are coming into the marketplace. Although this technology has not progressed as rapidly for forage and turfgrasses as it has for certain major cash crops, transgenic plants have now been obtained in several species. These include orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), red fescue (Festuca rubra L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.), and redtop (Agrostis alba L.). Successful gene transfer has been accomplished by direct uptake of DNA by protoplasts and by bombardment of cells or tissues with DNA coated microprojectiles. In both cases, the transfer is followed by whole plant regeneration. Much of the work has focused on developing and improving protocols for the transformation and have used the reporter gene uidA coding for -glucuronidase (GUS) and the selectable marker bar that confers tolerance to phosphinothricin-based herbicides. Proof of the transformation has been provided by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, northern hybridization analysis of transcribed RNA, western blot analysis of soluble protein (gene product), and southern blot hybridization of total genomic DNA. Because forage grasses, in general, are not highly domesticated, possess weedy characteristics, and are highly outcrossing, special difficulties may be encountered in the ultimate release of transgenic plants.