Never before in the history of soil science has the knowledge of soil spatial variability been so germane. It reaches to the heart of the pedology profession and is critical to the success of agronomic practice, agricultural development, land management, and earth science on a global scale. One of the continuing challenges for pedologists and allied earth scientists is to develop integrated system models to scale spatial knowledge of soils from microsamples to pedons, landforms and the pedosphere. Quantification of the magnitude, location and causes of spatial variability is an essential but insufficient ingredient of soil surveys. The final payoff is to communicate this knowledge to user clientele in flexible formats that provide for probability risk assessments and alternative land-use decisions. In this electronics era of exploding information systems, we have an opportunity as never before to (i) impact the direction of pedology, (ii) quantify spatial knowledge, (iii) add quality to soil resource inventories, and (iv) test multiple working hypotheses. Real-time assessment of spatial variability allows differential application and treatment of chemicals, pesticides, irrigation waters, and waste products on small site-specific areas. This chapter elucidates the traditions, relevance, challenges, and opportunities for pedologists to assume leadership roles in augmenting spatial knowledge and its application for wise stewardship of soil resources, the sustainability of the global environment, and the preservation of present and future civilizations.