Haploid Plant Development from Anthers and In Vitro Embryo Culture of Wheat1
- G. W. Schaeffer,
- P. S. Baenziger and
- J. Worley2
Experiments were designed to identify cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., aestivum group) and culture media most suitable for successful in vitro anther culture and development of haploids. Anthers containing uninucleate pollen from 17 cultivars grown in the greenhouse and five lines grown in the field were excised and cultured on a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) medium. ‘Kitt’, ‘Downy’, ‘Centurk’, and ‘GWO-1809’ produced the highest number of embryoids from microspores.
Calli removed from anthers cultured in vitro were differentiated into plantlets. Over 50 plants have been recovered. Preliminary cytological determinations proved that the plants were haploid. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the anther culture techniques for the development of haploids in agronomically important wheats.
Embryos from presoaked and surface-sterilized seed of 26 wheat lines were excised and planted on defined agar media to measure in vitro growth rates. Embryonic cells from mature wheat seeds divided and produced partially differentiated tissues on standard tissue culture media containing supplements of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2-isopentenyladenosine, and naphthaleneacetic acid. Transfer of the calli to a medium with less 2,4-D or to a medium with 1 mg/liter of indole-3-acetic acid and kinetin enhanced differentiation and the differentiated tissues ultimately produced whole plants. There were statistically significant differences in the growth rates, measured as fresh weight, among different lines. Among the promising lines for in vitro cultures were Kitt, GWO-1809, ‘Baart’, ‘Coker 75-6’, and others. Isolated embryos from some cultivars did not form calli in vitro. Kitt and GWO-1809 grew well as partially differentiated calli.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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