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This article in CS

  1. Vol. 21 No. 6, p. 901-903
    Received: Jan 9, 1981

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Description of Sunflower Growth Stages1

  1. A. A. Schneiter and
  2. J. F. Miller2



A standardized, accurate, and easy system is needed to describe sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plant development. The objective of this study was to develop and describe stages of sunflower plant development in a manner which is simple but accurate.

Plants were divided into either Vegetative (V) or Reproductive (R) stages of plant development. Vegetative development is divided into two phases, emergence and true leaf development. The latter stages are determined by the number of true leaves in excess of 4 cm in length. The number of vegetative stages is dependent upon the number of true leaves formed by the plant, making the method flexible but accurate. The reproductive development was divided into nine stages based on the development of the inflorescence from its initial appearance through anthesis to physiological maturity of the seed. This method of describing the stages of development in sunflower is rapid, accurate, greatly simplifies current methods, and can be used to determine plant development for either single or branched inflorescence sunflower.

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