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This article in CS

  1. Vol. 24 No. 1, p. 189-193
     
    Received: Mar 21, 1983
    Published: Jan, 1984


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doi:10.2135/cropsci1984.0011183X002400010045x

Effect of Date of Harvest Maturity on Soybean Seed Quality and Phomopsis sp. Seed Information1

  1. D. M. TeKrony,
  2. D. B. Egli,
  3. J. Balles,
  4. L. Tomes and
  5. R. E. Stuckey2

Abstract

Abstract

Wide variation in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed quality is often observed by seedsmen. This investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the date of harvest maturity (first time the seed moisture declined to less than 14%) on seed germination, seed vigor, and infection of seed by fungi. Cultivars varying in maturity from Group II to V were planted in a Maury silt loam soil (Typic Paleudalfs, fine, mixed, mesic) during three periods (mid-May, mid-June, and early July) for 4 years (1976 to 1979). Seed were hand harvested at harvest maturity and evaluated for germination, vigor, and seedborne fungi. A wide range in seed quality was observed across the 4 years, with approximately 25% of the 54 cultivar-planting date combinations having unacceptable seed germination and vigor at harvest maturity. Seed infection by Phomopsis sp. was the major factor influencing seed quality and was negatively correlated (r = −0.88) with seed germination. Phomopsis sp. seed infection decreased and standard germination increased with later dates of harvest maturity. Seed vigor also increased as harvest maturity was delayed, but was not closely correlated with the incidence of Phomopsis sp. seed infection. Later maturing cultivars (‘Kent’ and ‘York’) produced seed of the highest quality regardless of planting date. Delaying the planting date of early and mid-season cultivars (‘Beeson’, ‘Williams’, and ‘Cutler 71’) delayed harvest maturity which improved seed germination and vigor and reduced the levels of seed infection by Phomopsis sp. Differences in seed quality and seed infection by Phomopsis sp. between two genotypes of nearly identical maturity (OX-303 and Beeson) grown in similar environmental conditions provided evidence of genetic variability for improving seed quality.

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