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This article in CS

  1. Vol. 27 No. 4, p. 677-681
    Received: Apr 21, 1986

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Gene Locations for Flour Quality in Winter Wheat Using Reciprocal Chromosome Substitutions1

  1. R. S. Zemetra,
  2. R. Morris,
  3. P. J. Mattern and
  4. L. Seip2



Superior flour quality is one of the prime objectives in the development of hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cuitivars. Therefore, information on the cytogenetic control of this trait would benefit plant breeding and genetic programs in wheat. Reciprocal sets of chromosome substitution lines in duplicate between the cultivars Wichita and Cheyenne were used to identify chromosomes carrying genes for glutenin protein, and flour mixing time and mixing tolerance. The duplicate 2B lines and one 3B line of Cheyenne in Wichita were not included in this study due to insufficient backcrosses. Seeds from nonrandomized plantings of the lines at Yuma, AZ were analyzed for glutenin banding patterns using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The only lines showing significant differences from the recipient cultivar were those involving group 1 chromosome substitutions and one duplicate of Wichita 6B in Cheyenne. Cheyenne group 1 substitutions in Wichita had glutenin bands at 41 kilodaltons (kd)(1A), 62 (1B), and 32 kd (1D). The corresponding bands for Wichita group 1 substitutions in Cheyenne were 40 kd (1A), 59 kd (1B), and 33 (1D). In addition, Wichita chromosome 1B in Cheyenne carried pair of bands at 47 kd that had no apparent corresponding bands for the Cheyenne 1B in Wichita line. One of the duplicates of Wichita 6B in Cheyenne had banding patterns for both Cheyenne 1B and Wichita lB. The same reciprocal substitution lines and recipient cultivars were planted in the field at Lincoln, NE, using a randomized comlete block design. Seeds from two replications were milled and flour mixing time was determined by mixograms. Flour mixing tolerance was evaluated from a standard set of curves developed at the University of Nebraska. There were no significant differences in grain protein percent between Cheyenne and Wichita, but Cheyenne had a longer flour mixing time and a greater flour mixing tolerance. The number of Cheyenne substitutions in Wichita having significant effects on flour mixing time and mixing tolerance was over four times the number of the reciprocal set. Reciprocal differences in mixing time occurred with chromosome lB. Both duplicates of Cheyenne 1B and 7B substitutions into Wichita gave significant increases in mixing tolerance over Wichita. It appeared that chromosome 1B carried major genes for quality differences between the two cultivars. The difference in glutenin banding patterns for this chromosome may be useful as a tool to screen for improved flour quality.

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