Avenin Banding Pattern Variation in Tissue Culture-Derived Oat Lines
- L. S. Dahleen ,
- H. W. Rines and
- D. D. Stuthman
Plant tissue culture generates genetic variation in crop plants. Biochemical variation from culture has not been examined in oat (Avena sativa L.) regenerants. The objectives of this study were to examine avenin (prolamine) variation in R5 generation oat lines derived from R1 progeny of tissue-culture regenerated plants (R0) that had no detectable karyotypic aberrations, and to test for associations between avenin and agronomic trait variation. Avenins extracted from seed of 56 R4 ‘Lodi’ lines and 147 R4 ‘Tippecanoe’ lines were separated on horizontal isoelectric focusingels (pH 5-8). The Lodi lines had no variant patterns. Three variant Tippecanoe patterns were observed. One (V1) was identified as the probable product an outcross and two as culture-generated variant patterns. Variant V2 was found in one line and had a new band at pI 7.85. The third variant (V3) was found in 23 of the 147 Tippecanoe lines and occurred in regenerants from three independent embryo-derived cultures. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicated that one of the band differences in these variants came from production of a new 27-kDa protein. The 23 lines with the V3 avenin variant pattern were further characterized by agronomic trait comparisons. These V3 lines were shorter and later than controls, had increased seed weight, seed number, grain yield, and bundle weight, and they had decreased seed protein and flag leaf area. These results indicate that biochemical variation is generated in oat tissue cultures and that some variant types occur at high frequencies. Avenin banding pattern evaluation should be useful in identifying the products of outcrosses and may provide molecular markers for agronomic traits.
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