Sucrose Concentration and Its Relationship to Anther Culture in Wheat
- S. T. Ball ,
- H. Zhou and
- C. F. Konzak
Components of culture media influence the physical environments related to anther culture ability, as well as the nutrient balance and availability. These factors may independently affect haploid yield from anther culture. Many of these components, such as sucrose concentration, are quantitative factors and their effects should be analyzed accordingly. The objective of this study was to fit an appropriate model to data and analyze the experimental design completely, as well as determining the effects and functional relationship of sucrose concentration to haploid yield production. A two-factor experiment in a randomized complete-block design was used with four sucrose concentrations and six spring wheat genotypes. Natural logarithmic transformation was selected as the most effective corrective measure to stabilize variances of anther culture yield components (callus induction, plant regeneration, and green plant proportion). Highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) sucrose concentration × genotype interactions were observed for all three anther culture yield components. Large genotype differences occurred, and patterns of response to sucrose concentration varied for different genotypes. Use of the response functions to estimate sucrose concentrations at which maxima occurred implied that for some genotypes higher sucrose levels should be investigated. Because sucrose concentration greatly affects osmolality, which changes rapidly during culture due to enzyme activity, other means should be investigated for modifying osmolality along with or differentially from nutrition need. Results from this study confirm that the main aspects of the anther culture process are still under strong genetic control, but improved analyses of the functions of medium components may lead to reductions in differential responses and improved efficiency of culture methods.
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