Hybrids of Crosses between Oat and Andropogoneae or Paniceae Species
Plant breeders are interested in enlarging the genetic variability within a species of interest and in improving breeding strategies. A wide hybridization program was conducted from 1990 to 1994 in Germany to determine the prospects for sexual gene transfer or haploid production in oat (Avena sativa L.). Five cultivars of oat were pollinated with pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke], eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.], and maize (Zea mays L.; 2x and 4x) in the greenhouse. Exogenous auxin application, embryo rescue, and early colchicine-mediated doubling of chromosomes were used to overcome postzygotic barriers. The recovered plants were analyzed cytologically and phenotypically under greenhouse and field conditions. Depending on the pollinator species, the embryo frequencies varied from 0.4% (Z. mays 4x) to 9.8% (pearl millet). In embryo rescue, initial growth occurred frequently, but many plantlets died. Chromosomes of the pollinator species were lost late in embryo and plant development. One to four chromosomes of the pollinator species were found at the tillering stage in root tip cells. Overall, four viable plants were produced, among them hybrids with pearl millet and eastern gamagrass for the first time. The efficiency of haploid production (<0.1%) was too low in all combinations for application in plant breeding programs; however, the transfer of genes or chromosomes appears promising in crosses of oat with maize and pearl millet.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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