Movement of Certain Herbicides Following Application to Simulated Golf Course Greens and Fairways
- A. E. Smith and
- D. C. Bridges
The objectives of this research were to: (i) determine the movement of pesticides through simulated golf course greens and (ii) determine the potential movement of pesticides from simulated fairways. Lysimeters were developed in the greenhouse and outside containing ‘Penncross’ bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) or ‘Tifdwarf’ bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pets. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] for collection of leachate from the bases. Simulated ‘Tifway’ bermudagrass fairways were developed with a 5% slope. Only small quantities of 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid], dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid), and mecoprop [(±)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)- propanoic acid] were found in the leachate from the greenhouse and outside lysimeters. The concentrations of these herbicides did not exceed 6 μg L−1 and the total quantity to exit the lysimeters was less than 0.9% of the applied herbicide. Over an 8-d period following treatment, 48% of the simulated rainfall and 9, 14, and 13% of the applied 2,4-D, dicamba, and mecoprop, respectively, left the simulated fairways. Approximately 75% of the herbicides were transported from the plots during the first rainfall event. The highest concentration of the analytes in the collected runoff water occurred during the first event. These concentrations were 811, 279, and 820 μg L−l 2,4-D, dicamba, and mecoprop, respectively.
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