Modeling Temperature Effects on Cotton Internode and Leaf Growth
- K. Raja Reddy,
- Harry F. Hodges and
- James M. McKinion
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is grown commercially in temperatures that vary greatly during the season. The purpose of this study was to develop potential growth and developmental rates of cotton leaves and internodes as a function of temperature in a temperature limiting environment. That information may be used with growth duration and appropriate stress factors to develop a crop canopy development model. Plants were grown in sunlit plant growth chambers in five temperatures, 20/12°C to 40/32°C (day/night), at ambient (350 μL L− CO2) and twice ambient carbon dioxide levels in well-watered and fertilized conditions. Plants were monitored daily for leaf unfolding dates, areas of leaves, and lengths of internodes at leaf unfolding, and growth of leaves and internodes. Durations of leaf and internode expansion were also determined. Leaf unfolding interval rates of both mainstem and fruiting branches increased as temperature increased; the rate of mainstem leaf unfolding interval increased more than the rate of branch leaf unfolding. Irrespective of sizes, leaves, and internodes fit a single relationship of relative expansion rates and age for each temperature condition. Enriching CO2 to twice the ambient level did not change these relationships. Increasing temperature increased maximum growth rate, decreased the decay in the rate of expansion due to age, and reduced growth duration of both leaves and internodes. Internodes typically took less time than leaves to elongate at all temperatures. Leaf area and internode length at leaf unfolding increased as temperature increased to 27 to 30°C, then decreased at higher temperatures.
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