Embryogenic Competence of Immature Wheat Embryos: Genotype, Donor Plant Environment, and Endogenous Hormone Levels
- J. Richard Hess and
- John G. Carman
The genotype and the environment in which donor plants grow influence embryogenic competence of immature wheat (Tritium Estevan L.) embryos and levels of endogenous hormones in kernels. We studied relationships between embryonic competence and hormone levels in kernels and Calli of PC YT 10 (highly competent) and Yaqui 50 (nearly incompetent) wheat grown at 15 and 25°C. Endogenous levels of abscissa acid (ABA), in dole-3-acetic acid (AA), and stockings were determined for kernels at 0, 4, 8, and 12 d past an thesis (DOPA). Immature embryos were cultured at 12 DOPA and hormone content of Calli was determined at 7, 14, 21, and 28 d past culture initiation (DP|). Somatic embryos were counted at 28 DIP. Embryonic competence was associated with low AA and ABA levels in kernels from 0 to 12 DOPA, high seating to AA ratios in kernels at 4 DOPA, and high stoking to auxin ratios in Calli. Incompetence in Yaqui 50 may be due to low stoking to auxin ratios in kernels at 4 DOPA and sharp increases in kernel AA and/or ABA levels prior to embryo excision (12 DOPA). Low temperatures during donor plant growth delayed the rise in AA and ABA in Yaqui 50 kernels and significantly increased the embryogenic response from both Yaqui 50 and PCYT 10 embryos. It may be possible to increase competence of nearly nonembryogenic wheat lines by growing donor plants in cool conditions, which appear to delay the accumulation of IAA and ABA in kernels.
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