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This article in CS

  1. Vol. 38 No. 2, p. 513-522

    * Corresponding author(s): tommy_carter@ncsu.edu
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Heritability and Resource AIlocation of AIuminum Tolerance Derived from Soybean PI 416937

  1. C. M. Bianchi-Hall,
  2. Thomas E. Carter Jr. ,
  3. T. W. Rufty,
  4. C. Arellano,
  5. H. R. Boerma and
  6. D. A. Ashley
  1. Dep. of Crop Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, 27695-7620
    USDA-ARS and Dep. Crop Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, 27695-7631
    Dep. Statistics, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, 27695-7803
    Dep. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-7272



AIuminum toxicity restricts soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield included many growing areas. When correction of toxicity by management is impractical, an economically sound alternative is to develop AI tolerant cultivars. Heritability (h2) estimates for AI tolerance in hydroponics would aid in the efficient design of selection programs for cultivar development. Our objectives were to determine the h2 of AI tolerance in a F4-derived population using tap root extension in hydroponics culture as the indicator of tolerance. The 120 random F4-derived lines of sensitive ‘Young’ × tolerant PI 416937 were evaluated in the absence (NOAL) and presence (HIAL) of AI (2 μM AI3+ activity) by means of a split-plot design. AIuminum stress increased seedling tap root extension 3% in PI 416937 and decreased extension in Young 53%. Mean progeny performance decreased 31%. Analysis of variance revealed significant (P < 0.05) progeny and progeny × AI interaction effects, indicating heritable genetic variation for AI tolerance. The h2 under HIAL was moderate (0.57) on a single-replication basis and high (0.87) based upon five replicates, indicating the relative ease by which AI tolerance may be improved. Tolerance expressed as percent of control (PC) had a similar h2. Approximately 6% of the F4-derived progeny in this study were numerically similar to the parents for AI response under HIAL, suggesting that three to five genes may control AI tolerance and that a population size of 150 random inbred lines may be needed to assure full recovery of AI tolerance in the progeny of future breeding populations. Expected gain and risk avoidance analysis suggested that two or three replications are sufficient for initial screening of single seed descent (SSD) populations derived from the PI 416937 and that employment of this PI as a control enhances the ability of the breeder to discard inferior types during screening. Practical advice is presented to assist plant breeders in the efficient improvement of AI tolerance in soybean.

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