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Crop Science Abstract -

Growth and Photosynthetic Responses of Groundnut Genotypes to High Temperature


This article in CS

  1. Vol. 39 No. 2, p. 460-466
    Received: May 14, 1997

    * Corresponding author(s): Talwar@ICRISAT.CGIAR.ORG
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  1. H. S. Talwar ,
  2. H. Takeda,
  3. S. Yashima and
  4. T. Senboku
  1. G enetic Resources and Enhancement Program, ICRI-SAT, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India
    D ep. of Upland Farming, Kyushu Natl, Agric. Stn., 6644 Yokoichi, Miyakonojo, Miyazak 885-0091 Japan



Among abiotic factors, high temperature is one of the major constraints to adaptation of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in tropical and subtropical areas. The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate three genotypes (ICG 1236, ICGS 44, and Chico) of groundnut for their heat acclimation potential (HAP), and (ii) to examine whether the growth, yield, and photosynthetic responses of these genotypes to temperature related to the HAP. We defined HAP as the change in leaf heat tolerance based on plasmalemma thermostability at 40 to 60°C measured by electrolyte leakage after acclimation at 35/30°C day/night temperature. Initially, plants were raised in a glasshouse maintained at 25/25°C day/night temperature. One half of the plants were shifted to another glasshouse maintained at 35/30°C after the appearance of the third leaf. Heat killing time (HKT), defined as the time required to cause 50% relative injury, indicated that the three genotypes acclimated to high temperature stress, with significant variations in HAP. All genotypes maintained greater vegetative growth and higher photosynthetic rates when grown under the higher temperature regime and genetic differences in photosynthetic rate were related to HKT. The higher temperature regime affected the reproductive growth adversely by increasing flower abortion and decreasing seed size, however. Differences in chlorophyll fluorescence and membrane thermostability between growth temperature were found only after incubating the leaf tissue at temperatures of 50°C or higher. Genetic differences in HAP were small and unrelated to growth differences.

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